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Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 92 Ma
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Euornithes
Suborder: Zhyraornithi
Nesov, 1992
Family: Zhyraornithidae
Nesov, 1984
Genus: Zhyraornis
Nesov, 1984
Type species
Zhyraornis kashkarovi
Nesov, 1984
  • Z. kashkarovi Nesov, 1984
  • Z. logunovi Nesov, 1992

Zhyraornis is a genus of prehistoric bird from the late Cretaceous period (middle Turonian, 92 mya).[1] Its fossils have been found in Bissekty Formation deposits near Dzharakuduk in the Kyzyl Kum, Uzbekistan. Two species have been assigned to this genus: Zhyraornis kashkarovi and Zhyraornis logunovi. Both are known only from partial pelvic bones (synsacra).


The relationships of this bird are unresolved. Paleontologist Lev Nesov originally classified in a distinct family (Zhyraornithidae)[2] and later suborder (Zhyraornithi)[3] within the order Ichthyornithiformes.[2] Kurochkin (1996) considered it to belong to the Enantiornithes, specifically the family Alexornithidae.[4] In 2006, Kurochkin re-classified it as a primitive member of the lineage leading to modern birds, the Ornithuromorpha.[5]


  1. ^ Averianov, A.O. (2010). "The osteology of Azhdarcho lancicollis Nessov, 1984 (Pterosauria, Azhdarchidae) from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan." Proceedings of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 314(3): 246-317.
  2. ^ a b Nessov, L. (1984). ["Upper Cretaceous pterosaurs and birds from Central Asia."] Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal, 1: 47-57.
  3. ^ Nessov, L. (1992). "Review of localities and remains of Mesozoic and Paleogene birds of the USSR and the description of new findings." Russkii Ornitologicheskii Zhurnal, 1(1): 7-50.
  4. ^ Kurochkin (1996). "A new enantiornithid of the Mongolian Late Cretaceous, and a general appraisal of the Infraclass Enantiornithes (Aves)." Russian Academy of Sciences, special issue. 50 pp.
  5. ^ Kurochkin (2006). "Parallel evolution of theropod dinosaurs and birds." Entomological Review, 86(suppl. 1): S45-S58.

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