Zakhchin

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Zakhchin
Mongolia XVI.png
Location of the Zakhchin
Total population
32,845
Regions with significant populations
 Mongolia 32,845[1]
Languages
Zakhchin dialect of Oirat language
Religion
Tibetan Buddhism, Shamanism
Related ethnic groups
Mongols, especially Oirats

The Zakhchin (Mongolian: Захчин) is a subgroup of the Oirats residing in Khovd Province, Mongolia. Zakhchin means 'Border people'. They are so called because they originated from the border garrison (mainly from Torghud, Dörbet, Ööld) of Dzungar Empire. They originally speak the Zakhchin dialect of the Oirat language, but actually pure Oirat language is used by elder generations, younger generations use a dialect being under a strong Khalkh influence.

History

The Zakhchins conquered by the Manchus of the Qing dynasty in 1754 and controlled by Zasagt Khan aimag's Tsevdenjav gün, then moved to Zereg and Shar Khulsan. One khoshuu with 4(+1) sums were designated for them and noble Maamad (Mamuud) zaisan became the chieftain but Mamuud killed by Zungharian king Amarsanaa later and the Zakhchins revolted together Amarsanaa against the Qing dynasty.

The sums were:

  • Bichgiin meeren's sum (in modern Mankhan, Khovd province)
  • Güüj zan's sum (in modern Altai and part of Must, Khovd province)
  • Baljinnyam zahiragch sum (in modern Zereg and parts of Mankhan in Khovd province)
  • Jantsandorj's sum or Hoit (North) sum (in modern Mankhan, Khovd province)
  • Guniikhen (in modern Uyench, Khovd province)

Administrative center was in Hoit sum's Tögrög Hüree.

During Bogd Khaanate Mongolia, Zakhchin was subject to Dörbet Ünen Zorigt Khan aimag. The south khoshuu is called goviinkhon (people of Gobi), while the north is called shiliinkhen (people of mountain range).

Clans

Zakhchin has 16 tamga (seal) and 30 clans[citation needed]. Some of them are:

  • Donjooniikhon
  • Damjaaniikhan
  • Shurdaankhan
  • Baykhiinkhan
  • Emchiinkhen
  • Khereid
  • Tsagaan Yas
  • Aatiinkhan
  • Dumiyenkhen
  • Burd Tariachin
  • Adsagiinkhan
  • Tavagzaaniikhan
  • Nokhoikhon
  • Khotonguud
  • Khurmshtiinkhan
  • Mukhlainkhan

Number

The Zakhchin numbered 29,800 in 2000.[2]

Famous Zakhchins in modern Mongolia

References

  1. ^ National Census 2010
  2. ^ Хойт С.К. Последние данные по локализации и численности ойрат // Проблемы этногенеза и этнической культуры тюрко-монгольских народов. Вып. 2. Элиста: Изд-во КГУ, 2008. с. 136-157. - in Russian.

Literature

  • [hamagmongol.narod.ru/library/khoyt_2008_r.htm Хойт С.К. Антропологические характеристики калмыков по данным исследователей XVIII-XIX вв. // Вестник Прикаспия: археология, история, этнография. № 1. Элиста: Изд-во КГУ, 2008. с. 220-243.]
  • [hamagmongol.narod.ru/library/khoyt_2012_r.htm Хойт С.К. Калмыки в работах антропологов первой половины XX вв. // Вестник Прикаспия: археология, история, этнография. № 3, 2012. с. 215-245.]

Zakhchiny tüükh soël, öv ulamzhlal. Iadamzhav, ed. Ulaanbaatar : Soëmbo Printing KhKhK, 2014. ISBN 9789996228612

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