Zail Singh

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His Excellency

Zail Singh
Giani Zail Singh (cropped).jpg
7th President of India
In office
25 July 1982 – 25 July 1987
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi
Vice President Mohammad Hidayatullah
R. Venkataraman
Preceded by Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
Succeeded by R. Venkataraman
Minister of Home Affairs
In office
14 January 1980 – 22 June 1982
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi
Preceded by Yashwantrao Chavan
Succeeded by R. Venkataraman
9th Chief Minister of Punjab
In office
17 March 1972 – 30 April 1977
Preceded by President's rule
Succeeded by President's rule
Personal details
Born Jarnail Singh
(1916-05-05)5 May 1916
Sandhwan, Punjab Province, British India
(now in Punjab, India)
Died 25 December 1994(1994-12-25) (aged 78)
Chandigarh, India
Nationality Indian
Political party Indian National Congress
Spouse(s) Pardhan Kaur (1919-2002)[1]
Children 1 son, 3 daughters[1]
Alma mater Shaheed Sikh Missionary College

Gyani Zail Singh (About this soundpronunciation ; born Jarnail Singh, 5 May 1916 – 25 December 1994[2]) was the seventh President of India serving from 1982 to 1987. Prior to his presidency, he was a politician with the Indian National Congress party, and had held several ministerial posts in the Union Cabinet, including that of Home Minister.He also served as the Secretary-General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1983 to 1986.

His presidency was marked by Operation Blue Star, the assassination of Indira Gandhi, and the 1984 anti-Sikh riots.[3] He died of injuries in 1994 after a car accident.

Early life

He was born in Sandhwan, Faridkot district on 5 May 1916 to Kishan Singh. He was named Jarnail, meaning “General”, but as a young man, he changed his first name to Zail after being imprisoned several times for opposing the rule of the maharajah of Faridkot.[4] He was a Sikh by religion, was given the title of Gyani, as he was educated and learned about Guru Granth Sahib at Shaheed Sikh Missionary College in Amritsar.[5]

State Politics (1947-1972)

In 1947, with the reorganization of India along secular lines, he opposed Harindar Singh Brar, ruler of Faridkot State and was incarcerated and tortured for five years.[6] He was called on to be the Revenue Minister of the recently formed Patiala and East Punjab States Union, under Chief Minister Gian Singh Rarewala in 1949 and later became Minister of Agriculture in 1951. From 1956 to 1962, he was a member of the Rajya Sabha.[citation needed]

Chief Minister of Punjab (1972-77)

Zail Singh was elected as a Congress Chief Minister of Punjab in 1972.[7] He arranged massive religious gatherings, started public functions with a traditional Sikh prayer, inaugurated a highway named after Guru Gobind Singh, and named a township after the Guru's son.[8] He created a lifelong pension scheme for the freedom fighters of the state. He repatriated the remains of Udham Singh from London, armaments and articles belonging to Guru Gobind Singh.

Central Government

In 1980, Zail Singh was elected to the 7th Lok Sabha, and appointed to join Indira Gandhi's cabinet as Minister of Home Affairs.[3]

President of India

In 1982 he was unanimously nominated to serve as the President. Nonetheless, some in the media felt that the President had been chosen for being an Indira loyalist rather than an eminent person. "If my leader had said I should pick up a broom and be a sweeper, I would have done that. She chose me to be President," Singh was quoted to have said after his election.[9] He took the oath of office on 25 July 1982. He was the first Sikh to hold the office.

He served beside Gandhi, and protocol dictated that he should be briefed every week by her on the affairs of the state. On 31 May 1984, The day before Operation Blue Star, he met with Gandhi for more than an hour, but she omitted even sharing a word about her plan.[10] Following the operation he was pressured to resign from his post by Sikhs. He decided against resignation fearing to aggravate the situation on advice from Yogi Bhajan. He was subsequently called before the Akal Takhat to apologize and explain his inaction at the desecration of the Harimandir Sahib and killing of innocent Sikhs. Indira Gandhi was assassinated on 31 October in the same year, and he appointed her elder son Rajiv Gandhi as Prime Minister.[11]


Zail Singh was awarded the Order of St. Thomas[12] (the highest honorary award conferred by the Indian Orthodox Church) by Catholicos of the East Baselios MarThoma Mathews I during the Catholicate Platinum jubilee celebratory meeting held at Kottayam Nehru Stadium on 12 September 1982.

Letter Issue

Singh used a pocket veto to refuse assent to the "Indian Post Office (Amendment) Bill" in 1986 to show his opposition to the bill. The bill was later withdrawn by the V. P. Singh Government in 1990.[13]

Death and commemoration

On 29 November 1994, Zail Singh suffered multiple injuries following a motor accident near Kiratpur Sahib in Ropar district when a truck driving down the wrong side of the road hit the car he was travelling in.[14][15] Singh died in Chandigarh where he had been undergoing treatment on Christmas Day in 1994, aged 78.[16][17] The Government of India announced seven days of official mourning following his death.[17] He was cremated at the Raj Ghat Memorial in Delhi.[18] He is survived by his two daughters. He was also survived by his wife, who outlived him for seven years and died on 12 May 2002.

A commemorative postage stamp was issued by India's Department of Posts on the occasion of Singh's first death anniversary in 1995.[19][20]

See also


  1. ^ a b Hazarika, Sanjoy (1994-12-26). "Zail Singh, 78, First Sikh To Hold India's Presidency". New York Times. Retrieved 2015-08-23.
  2. ^ Obituary: Zail Singh]". The Independent. 1994-12-29. Retrieved 2018-22-06.
  3. ^ a b "Zail Singh, 78, First Sikh To Hold India's Presidency". The New York Times. 1994-12-26. Retrieved 2011-26-10.
  4. ^ Obituary: Zail Singh]". The Independent. 1994-12-29. Retrieved 2018-22-06.
  5. ^ "Zail Singh." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 26 Oct. 2011.<>.
  6. ^ A.C. Aurora, "Punjab Riyasti Praja Mandal", The Encyclopedia of Sikhism, ed. Harbans Singh, Vol. III, Patiala, India, Punjabi University, 1997, p. 278.
  7. ^ Sangat Singh, The Sikhs in History, New Delhi, Uncommon Books, 1999, pp. 350-54; Khushwant Singh, A History of the Sikhs, Volume II: 1839-2004, New Delhi, Oxford University Press, pp. 315-17.
  8. ^ Khushwant Singh, A History of the Sikhs, Volume II: 1839-2004, New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 355.
  9. ^ "10 stories that changed in our lifetime". India Today. December 2008.
  10. ^ Khushwant Singh, A History of the Sikhs, Volume II: 1839-2004, New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 359-60.
  11. ^ Harjot Singh, "Zail Singh, Gyani", The Encyclopedia of Sikhism, ed. Harbans Singh, Vol. IV, Patiala, India, Punjabi University, 1997, pp. 456-57.
  12. ^ "Order Of St. Thomas".
  13. ^ "Show Of Dissent". India Today. Archived from the original on 26 March 2013. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
  14. ^ "Zail Singh's death: RI for truck driver". The Hindu. December 7, 2000. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  15. ^ "Giani Zail Singh's widow dead". The Tribune. May 12, 2002. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  16. ^ "Zail Singh dies after crash". The Washington Post. December 26, 1994. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  17. ^ a b "Zail Singh dies after car crash". Independent. 26 December 1994. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  18. ^ "Giani Zail Singh: 13 facts you should know about the only Sikh President of India". India Today. May 5, 2015. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  19. ^ "Presidents of India on Indian Stamps". Retrieved September 19, 2016.
  20. ^ "1st Death Anniversary of Giani Zail Singh". Indian Philately. Retrieved September 19, 2016.

External links

  • Biography of Giani Zail Singh
  • Zail Singh at Encyclopaedia Britannica
Political offices
Preceded by
Yashwantrao Chavan
Minister of Home Affairs
Succeeded by
Ramaswamy Venkataraman
Preceded by
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
President of India
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy
Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement
Succeeded by
R. Venkataraman
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