Eucalyptus loxophleba

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York gum
Eucalyptus loxophleba mallee roadside orig.jpg
mallee habit
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Myrtales
Family: Myrtaceae
Genus: Eucalyptus
E. loxophleba
Binomial name
Eucalyptus loxophleba
Eucalyptus loxophleba trunk near Murchison River
Eucalyptus loxophleba at Jardín Botánico de Barcelona

Eucalyptus loxophleba, known as yandee or York gum, is a species of tree which is endemic to Western Australia.


The Noongar peoples know the tree as Daarwet, Goatta, Twotta or Yandee',[1] the latter is noted as in popular use.[2]

The description of the taxon was first published by English botanist George Bentham in Volume 3 of Flora Australiensis in 1867.[3] The species name is from the Ancient Greek words loxos and phlebos "vein". A 1903 description by William Fitzgerald assigned the population to a variety, Eucalyptus foecunda var. loxophleba, although Bentham's description as a species was included in a 1985 census and the Flora of Australia in 1988.[4][5] Records of hybridisation between this species and other eucalypts, Eucalyptus absita and E. wandoo were confirmed in a later revision.[6]

Four subspecies are recognised;


The mallee or tree typically grows to a height of 5 to 15 metres (16 to 49 ft)[8] and has a diameter of about of 0.6 metres (2 ft).[9] It has rough fibrous-flaky or smooth bark that is persistent throughout. The bark is grey-brown over copper with a darker grey rough basal stocking. It blooms between July and February producing white flowers.[8] Seed capsules form later and will persist until the following August or longer. Seed viability ranges from about 680 viable seeds per gram in subsp. loxophleba down to about 110 seeds per gram in subsp. gratiae.[10]


Woodlands containing E. loxophleba is found across a broad swathe of Western Australia from the Mid West south through the Wheatbelt and east into the Goldfields-Esperance region of the state. It is found among rocky outcrops and on flats, rises, slopes, hilltops, near salt lakes and along drainage lines. It will grow in a range of soil types such as red-brown or rocky loam, in sands or sandy clays over laterite, dolerite or granite.[8] The tree was recorded as common around the early settlement of York, whence the vernacular 'York gum' is derived, and areas near Bolgart, Toodyay, Northam and from Narrogin to Broomehill.[11]

Associated species include Eucalyptus wandoo, salmon gum Eucalyptus salmonophloia, gimlet Eucalyptus salubris, powderbark wandoo Eucalyptus accedens, and jam Acacia acuminata. It also occurs with other mallee eucalypts in populations further to the east.[10]


mature tree with man at roadside, circa 1920

Natural populations of E. loxophleba grows in areas affected by dryland salinity. All of the four subspecies could possibly be used in the remediation of dryland salinity, but subsp. lissophloia has been more widely cultivated because of its potential as an oil mallee. This subspecies has also been introduced to the eastern States in planting for carbon sequestration. Historically, the wood of subsp. loxophleba was used by wheelwrights and similar workers.[10]

The heartwood of the tree is yellow-brown, hard and tough with an interlocked grain. The wood has a green density of about 1185 kg/m3 and an air-dried density about 1060 kg/m3.

See also


  1. ^ "Noongar names for plants". Retrieved 3 December 2016.
  2. ^ APNI, citing Robson, Peter J. (1993), Checklist of Australian Trees: alphabetical listings of common and scientific names:
  3. ^ Bentham, George (1867). Flora Australiensis. 3. London: L. Reeve & Co. p. 252.
  4. ^ Green, J.W. (1985), Census of the Vascular Plants of Western Australia Edn. 2: 126
  5. ^ Chippendale, G.M. in George, A.S. (ed.) (1988), Eucalyptus. Flora of Australia 19: 238, 240
  6. ^ "Eucalyptus loxophleba Benth". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government.
  7. ^ "Eucalyptus loxophleba subsp. supralaevis". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife.
  8. ^ a b c "Eucalyptus loxophleba". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife.
  9. ^ "York gum". Forest Products Commission. Retrieved 3 December 2016.
  10. ^ a b c "Eucalyptus loxophleba". Florabank. Retrieved 3 December 2016.
  11. ^ Lane-Poole, C. E. (1922). A primer of forestry, with illustrations of the principal forest trees of Western Australia. Perth: F.W. Simpson, government printer. p. 86.
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