Yogyakarta

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Yogyakarta
ꦔꦪꦺꦴꦒꦾꦏꦂꦠ
City
From top left, clockwise: Tugu Monument, Jalan Malioboro, Kraton Yogyakarta, Bank Indonesia Yogyakarta, Gadjah Mada University
From top left, clockwise: Tugu Monument, Jalan Malioboro, Kraton Yogyakarta, Bank Indonesia Yogyakarta, Gadjah Mada University
Flag of Yogyakarta
Flag
Official seal of Yogyakarta
Seal
Nickname(s): Kota Pelajar ("City of Students"), Kota Budaya ("Cultural City"), Kota Gudeg ("Gudeg City")
Motto(s): ꦲꦩꦼꦩꦪꦸꦲꦪꦸꦤꦶꦁꦧꦮꦤ (Javanese)
Hamemayu Hayuning Bawana
(meaning: "The Vision to Perfect Society")

Slogan: Berhati Nyaman[1] ("Warmhearted")
Bersih, Sehat, Asri dan Nyaman ("Clean, Safe, Beautiful, and Comfortable")
Jogja Istimewa ("Special Jogja": tourism slogan)
Location within Special Region of Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta is located in Java
Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
Location in Java and Indonesia
Yogyakarta is located in Indonesia
Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 7°48′5″S 110°21′52″E / 7.80139°S 110.36444°E / -7.80139; 110.36444Coordinates: 7°48′5″S 110°21′52″E / 7.80139°S 110.36444°E / -7.80139; 110.36444
Country  Indonesia
Region Java
Province  Special Region of Yogyakarta
Government
 • Mayor Haryadi Suyuti
 • Vice Mayor Heroe Purwadi
Area
 • City 46 km2 (18 sq mi)
 • Metro 2,159.1 km2 (833.6 sq mi)
Elevation 113 m (371 ft)
Population (2017 census)
 • City 422,732
 • Density 9,200/km2 (24,000/sq mi)
 • Metro 4,010,436
 • Metro density 1,900/km2 (4,800/sq mi)
Demographics
 • Religion[2] Islam 83.22%
Christianity 15.65%
Buddhism 0.29%
Hinduism 0.20%
Confucianism 0.02%
Others 0.01%
Time zone UTC+7 (Indonesia Western Time)
Area code (+62) 274
Vehicle registration AB
HDI Increase 0.837 (Very High)
Website www.jogjakota.go.id

Yogyakarta (/ˌɒɡjəˈkɑːrtə, ˌjɒɡ-/;[3] also Jogjakarta or Jogja; Javanese: ꦔꦪꦺꦴꦒꦾꦏꦂꦠ; formerly Dutch: Djokjakarta/Djocjakarta or Djokja) is a city on the island of Java in Indonesia. As the only Indonesian royal city still ruled by a monarchy, Yogyakarta is regarded as an important centre for classical Javanese fine arts and culture such as ballet, batik textiles, drama, literature, music, poetry, silversmithing, visual arts, and wayang puppetry. Renowned as a centre of Indonesian education, Yogyakarta is home to a large student population and dozens of schools and universities, including Gadjah Mada University, the country's largest institute of higher education and one of its most prestigious.[4][5][6]

Yogyakarta is the capital of the Yogyakarta Special Region and served as the Indonesian capital from 1946 to 1948 during the Indonesian National Revolution, with Gedung Agung as the president's office. One of the districts in southeastern Yogyakarta, Kotagede, was the capital of the Mataram Sultanate between 1587 and 1613.

The city's population was 422,732 inhabitants at the 2017 census. Its built-up area was home to 4,010,436 inhabitants, which includes Magelang and 65 districts across Sleman, Klaten, Bantul, Kulon Progo, and Magelang regencies. Yogyakarta-Magelang and Surakarta are being agglomerated within several years.

At 0.837, Yogyakarta has one of the highest HDI within Indonesia, with which it is considered a "developed" city.[7]

Etymology and orthography

Yogyakarta is named after the Indian city of Ayodhya, the birthplace of the eponymous hero Rama from the Ramayana epic. Yogya means "suitable, fit, proper", and karta means "prosperous, flourishing"—thus, "a city that is fit to prosper".[8]

In colonial era correspondence, the city is often written in the Javanese script as ꦔꦪꦺꦴꦒꦾꦏꦂꦠ,[9] read as /ˌŋɑːjɒɡjəˈkɑːrtə/ with the added prefix nga-. In the orthography of the time, the proper name was spelt with the Latin alphabet as "Jogjakarta". As the orthography of the Indonesian language changed, the consonant /j/ came to be written with <y>, and the consonant // with <j>. Personal and geographical names however, were allowed to maintain their original spelling according to contemporary Indonesian orthography. Thus, the city can be written as "Yogyakarta", which is true to its original pronunciation and the Javanese script spelling, or "Jogjakarta", which is true to the old Dutch spelling and reflects popular pronunciation today, but differs from the original Ayodhya etymology. One may encounter either "Yogyakarta" or "Jogjakarta" in contemporary documents.

History

Mataram Kingdom (8th–10th century CE)

According to the Canggal inscription dated 732 CE, the area traditionally known as "Mataram" became the capital of the Medang Kingdom, identified as Mdang i Bhumi Mataram established by King Sanjaya of Mataram. The inscription was found in a Hindu temple in Central Java, 40 km away from Yogyakarta and 20 km away from the giant Borobudur temple complex. This Hindu temple itself was on the border between the area of the Hindu Sañjaya dynasty and the area of the Buddhist Shailendra dynasty. Mataram became the center of a refined and sophisticated Javanese Hindu-Buddhist culture for about three centuries in the heartland of the Progo River valley, on the southern slopes of Mount Merapi volcano. This time period witnessed the construction of numerous candi, including Borobudur and Prambanan.

Around the year 929 CE, the last ruler of the Sañjaya dynasty, King Mpu Sindok of Mataram, moved the seat of power of the Mataram Kingdom from Central Java to East Java and thus established the Isyana dynasty. The exact cause of the move is still uncertain; however, a severe eruption from Mount Merapi or a power struggle with the Sumatra-based Srivijaya kingdom probably caused the move.[10] Historians suggest that some time during the reign of King Wawa of Mataram (924–929 CE), Merapi erupted and devastated the kingdom's capital in Mataram.

Majapahit Empire (1293–1527)

During the Majapahit era, the area surrounding modern Yogyakarta was identified again as "Mataram" and recognized as one of the twelve Majapahit provinces in Java ruled by a Duke known as Bhre Mataram. During the reign of the fourth king of the Majapahit Empire, the Hindu King Hayam Wuruk (1350–1389) of the Rajasa dynasty, the title of Bhre Mataram was held by the king's nephew and son-in-law Wikramawardhana, later the fifth king of Majapahit.[11]

Mataram Sultanate (1587–1755)

Kotagede, former capital of the Mataram Sultanate.

Kotagede, now a district in southeastern Yogyakarta, was established as the capital of the Mataram Sultanate from 1587–1613. During the reign of Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo (1613–1645), the Mataram Sultanate reached its zenith as the greatest kingdom in Java, and expanded its influence to Central Java, East Java, and half of West Java. After two changes of capital—to Karta and then to Plered, both located in present-day Bantul Regency—the capital of the Mataram Sultanate finally moved to Kartasura.

Yogyakarta secedes and European invasions (1745–1830)

The Yogyakarta sultanate palace's main pavilion
The Taman Sari Water Castle, the former royal garden of the Sultan of Yogyakarta

A civil war in the Mataram Sultanate broke out between Pakubuwono II (1745–1749), the last ruler of Kartasura, and his younger brother and heir apparent to the throne, Prince Mangkubumi (later known as Hamengkubuwono I, the first Sultan of Yogyakarta, and the founder of the current ruling royal house). Pakubuwono II had agreed to cooperate with the Dutch East India Company, and ceded some Mataram territory to the Dutch. His younger brother, Prince Mangkubumi, stood against the agreement, citing concerns that the people would become slaves under Dutch rule. During the war, Prince Mangkubumi defeated Pakubuwono II’s forces and declared sovereignty in the Sultanate of Yogyakarta, occupying the southern parts of the former Mataram Sultanate.

With Pakubowono II dead from illness, the Yogyakarta Sultanate was established as a result of the Treaty of Giyanti (Perjanjian Gianti), signed and ratified on 13 February 1755 among Prince Mangkubumi, the Dutch East India Company, and his nephew Pakubuwono III and his allies. Ascending to the newly-created Yogyakarta throne with the name Sultan Hamengkubuwono I, Mangkubumi thus established the royal House of Hamengkubuwono, still the ruling house of Yogyakarta today. Sultan Hamengkubuwono I and his family officially moved into the Palace of Yogyakarta, still the seat of the reigning sultan, on 7 October 1756. These events consequently marked the end of the Mataram Sultanate, resulting in the births of the rival Yogyakarta Sultanate and the Surakarta Sunanate.

During the British occupation of Java in 1811, rumors of plans by the Yogyakarta court to stage a rebellion caused uneasiness among the colonial authorities. On 20 June 1812, Stamford Raffles led a 1,200-strong British force to attack the royal city. The Javanese, surprised by the attack, were easily subdued; Yogyakarta fell in one day, with the city destroyed and its palace looted. The event completely stripped the Sultanate of its remaining power and influence.[12] The sack also left the court humiliated and ultimately fueled a rebellion against the Dutch, which would be known as the Java War (1825–1830).

Republic of Indonesia era (1945–present)

In 1942, the Japanese Empire invaded the Dutch East Indies and ruled Java until they were defeated in 1945. Sukarno proclaimed the independence of the Indonesian Republic on 17 August 1945; Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX promptly sent a letter to Sukarno, expressing his support for the newly born nation of Indonesia and acknowledging the Yogyakarta Sultanate as part of the Indonesian Republic. The Sultanate of Surakarta did the same, and both of the Javanese kingdoms were accordingly awarded privileged statuses as "Special Regions" within the Indonesian Republic. However, because of a leftist anti-royalist uprising in Surakarta, the Sunanate of Surakarta lost its special administrative status in 1946 and was absorbed into Central Java Province.

Yogyakarta's support was essential in the Indonesian struggle for independence during the Indonesian National Revolution (1945-1949). The city of Yogyakarta became the capital of the Indonesian Republic from 1946 to 1948, after the fall of Jakarta to the Dutch. Later the Dutch also invaded Yogyakarta, causing the Republic's capital to be transferred once again, to Bukittinggi in West Sumatra on 19 December 1948. The General Offensive of 1 March 1949 resulted in an Indonesian political and strategic victory against the Dutch and the withdrawal of Dutch forces from Yogyakarta. On 29 June 1949 Yogyakarta was completely cleared of Dutch forces, under pressure from the United Nations.

Because of its significant contribution to the survival of the Indonesian Republic, Yogyakarta was given autonomy as a "special district"[13], making it the only region headed by a recognized monarchy in Indonesia.

Geography

The area of the city of Yogyakarta is 32.5 square kilometres (12.5 square miles). While the city spreads in all directions from the Kraton, the Sultan's palace, the core of the modern city is to the north, centered around Dutch colonial-era buildings and the commercial district. Jalan Malioboro, with rows of pavement vendors and nearby markets and malls, is the primary shopping street for tourists in the city, while Jalan Solo, further north and east, is the shopping district more frequented by locals. The large local market of Beringharjo (id) and the restored Dutch fort of Vredeburg are on the eastern part of the southern end of Malioboro.

Surrounding the Kraton is a densely populated residential neighbourhood that occupies land that was formerly the Sultan's sole domain. Evidence of this former use remains in the form of old walls, scattered throughout the city, and the ruins of the Taman Sari water castle, built in 1758 as a pleasure garden. No longer in use by the Sultan, the garden was largely abandoned before being used for housing by palace employees and descendants. Reconstruction efforts began in 2004, and the site is now a popular tourist attraction.

Nearby to the city of Yogyakarta is Mount Merapi, with the northern outskirts of the city running up to the southern slopes of the mountain in Sleman Regency. Mount Merapi (literally "mountain of fire" in both Indonesian and Javanese), is an active stratovolcano located on the border between Central Java and Yogyakarta. It is the most active volcano in Indonesia and has erupted regularly since 1548, with the last eruption occurring in May 2018.

Climate

Climate in Yogyakarta features tropical wet and dry climate (Aw) as the precipitation in the driest month, August is below 60 millimetres (2.4 inches). The wettest month in Yogyakarta is January with precipitation totalling 392 millimetres (15.4 inches). The climate is influenced by the monsoon. The annual temperature is roughly about 26 to 27 Celsius. The hottest month is April with average temperature 27.1 Celsius.

Climate data for Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 31
(88)
32
(90)
32
(90)
33
(91)
32
(90)
32
(90)
32
(90)
32
(90)
34
(93)
35
(95)
35
(95)
32
(90)
35
(95)
Average high °C (°F) 29.8
(85.6)
30.2
(86.4)
30.4
(86.7)
31.3
(88.3)
31.1
(88)
31.0
(87.8)
30.3
(86.5)
30.7
(87.3)
31.1
(88)
31.4
(88.5)
30.7
(87.3)
30.1
(86.2)
30.7
(87.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.3
(79.3)
26.5
(79.7)
26.6
(79.9)
27.1
(80.8)
26.9
(80.4)
26.2
(79.2)
25.4
(77.7)
25.6
(78.1)
26.4
(79.5)
27.0
(80.6)
26.8
(80.2)
26.4
(79.5)
26.4
(79.6)
Average low °C (°F) 22.9
(73.2)
22.8
(73)
22.9
(73.2)
23.0
(73.4)
22.7
(72.9)
21.5
(70.7)
20.6
(69.1)
20.6
(69.1)
21.7
(71.1)
22.7
(72.9)
23.0
(73.4)
22.8
(73)
22.3
(72.1)
Record low °C (°F) 20
(68)
20
(68)
18
(64)
20
(68)
18
(64)
16
(61)
17
(63)
16
(61)
17
(63)
18
(64)
20
(68)
20
(68)
16
(61)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 392
(15.43)
299
(11.77)
363
(14.29)
149
(5.87)
141
(5.55)
68
(2.68)
29
(1.14)
16
(0.63)
49
(1.93)
136
(5.35)
237
(9.33)
278
(10.94)
2,157
(84.91)
Average relative humidity (%) 82 82 81 78 77 74 74 71 69 73 77 82 77
Source #1: Climate-Data.org (temp and precip)[14]
Source #2: Weatherbase (temp records & humidity)[15]

Administration

Administration of Yogyakarta City

The city of Yogyakarta is an administrative part of the Yogyakarta Special Region which has the status of a province in Indonesia. The regencies of Bantul and Sleman have population densities far higher than the surrounding countryside (over 1,500 per square kilometer) and are effectively dormitory communities of the greater area of Yogyakarta. Within the greater Yogyakarta area lies the city of Yogyakarta called Kota Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta Special Region having 4 regency and 1 city: 1. Kulon Progo the capital is Wates 2. Sleman the capital is Sleman 3. Bantul the capital is Piyungan 4. Gunung Kidul the capital is Wonosari and 5. Yogyakarta City.

Yogyakarta is divided into 14 districts (kecamatan), listed below with their populations as of the 2010 Census:[16]

Economy

In 2017, Gross Domestic Regional Product (GRDP) of Yogyakarta City at current price were 31.31 trillion rupiahs. Tertiary sector played an important role on economy. It covered category of wholesale and retail trade; repair of cars and motorcycles, transportation and warehousing; provision of accommodation and eating and drinking; categories of information and communication; categories of financial services and insurance; real estate; corporate services; government administration, defense and compulsory social security; educational services; health services and social activities as well as the other services category. The contribution of this tertiary sector to GRDP was 78.28 percent. In 2017, economic growth of Yogyakarta City reached 5.24 percent slightly faster compared to 2016, which the growth reached 5.11 percent.

Demographics

A large majority of the population are Javanese. However, as a city with large numbers of schools and universities and relatively low cost of living compared to other Indonesian cities, Yogyakarta has attracted significant numbers of students from all over Indonesia. As a result, there are many other Indonesian ethnic groups living in Yogyakarta, especially from eastern parts of Indonesia.

There are some foreigner communities in the city, which is mainly composed of tourist and foreign students.

Tourism

Borobudur is world's largest Buddhist archaeological site.[17]

Partially a result of its proximity to the Borobudur and Prambanan temples, and because of the Javanese court Kraton culture of Kraton Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta hosts a sizable tourist industry. Most tourists come to Yogyakarta as an accommodation base to visit Borobudur and Prambanan.

Geoheritage sites

Nine rock sites in the Yogyakarta area have been declared as geoheritage sites.[18]

Other sites

See also

Society and traditions

Wayang (shadow puppets) in Yogyakarta style, a scene from Irawan's Wedding, mid 20th century, University of Hawaii Dept. of Theater and Dance.
Kawung Motif in batik from Yogyakarta.
Kotagede silverwork.

Notable local traditions and marketplaces in Yogyakarta include:

  • Batik fabric production area. The most famous batik marketplace is Beringharjo market.
  • Silverwork, fine filigree jewellery, the production center is in Kotagede
  • Mask wood carving work at Bobung village, Wonosari is very attractive with a various collections of mask and other crafts made from woods.
  • Traditional Javanese dance performance, especially Ramayana Wayang wong dance performed in Prambanan and Purowisata. Other Javanese court dances are also performed in the Kraton.
  • Wayang kulit, a traditional Javanese leather puppetry used for shadow plays.
  • Contemporary puppetry and theatre, for example the Papermoon Puppet Theatre
  • Gamelan music, including the local Gamelan Yogyakarta which was developed in the courts.
  • Annual traditional Javanese festivals such as Sekaten or Gerebeg Mulud.
  • Visual artists including the Taring Padi community in Bantul.

Cuisine

  • Gudeg Yogya: a traditional food from Yogyakarta[19] and Central Java which is made from young unripe jack fruit boiled for several hours with palm sugar, and coconut milk. This is usually accompanied by opor ayam (chicken in coconut milk), hard boiled egg stew, and krechek a spicy beef inner skin and tofu stew. This dish has a unique sweet and savoury taste. The Yogyakarta gudeg is drier and has a reddish coloring because of the addition of Java teak leaf.
  • Ayam goreng Kalasan: chicken, stewed in spices consisting of coriander, garlic, candlenut, and coconut water, then deep-fried until crispy. Served with sambal and raw vegetables.
  • Sego kucing: rice with small side dishes.
  • Mung bean cake: a sweet pastry filled with sugared mung bean paste. Derived from Chinese pastry. The famous bakpia producing area is Pathok near Jalan Malioboro, where bakpia pathok is sold.
  • Ronde (wedhang ronde): a hot Javanese dessert containing glutinous rice balls stuffed with peanut paste, floating in a hot and sweet ginger and lemongrass tea.
  • Angsle (wedhang angsle): a hot soupy dessert of sago pearls, pre-cooked glutinous rice and mung beans, putu mayang (brightly colored, noodle-shaped flour cakes), fried peanuts all covered in hot, sweet coconut milk.
  • Kipo: the name derived from Javanese word iki opo? (what is this?), a small sweet snack from Kotagede made of glutinous rice flour and coconut milk dough filled with grated coconut and palm sugar.
  • Wedhang Uwuh (wedhang uwuh) : a hot Javanese drink of clove leaves.

Museums

Yogyakarta has several historical tourist attractions as the Candi Prambanan temple, museums in the royal court, and museums in colonial buildings such as the Fort Vredeburg Museum, a former Dutch fort. Due to the importance of Yogyakarta during the war of independence from the Dutch, there are numerous memorials and museums such as the Monument to the Recapture of Yogyakarta.

To the east of the town centre is the large Air Force Museum (Museum Pusat Dirgantara Mandala), with 36 aircraft in the building and six aircraft displayed outdoors. As Indonesia was for a period in the Soviet sphere of influence, this museum contains a number of vintage Russian aircraft not widely available for inspection in the NATO sphere of influence. The collection includes examples of the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 trainer, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 and Tupolev Tu-16, together with an assortment of Japanese, American and British aircraft.[20] Other museums include the Jogja National Museum.

Sport

PSIM Yogyakarta football team, which currently plays in the Liga 2, is based in Yogyakarta.

Education

Main office of Gadjah Mada University.

Yogyakarta is home to Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia's largest university and one of its most prominent. Other public universities in Yogyakarta include Yogyakarta State University, Sunan Kalijaga Islamic University, and the Indonesian Institute of the Arts. The city also houses several well-known private universities such as Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta, College of Health Sciences Ahmad Yani Yogyakarta, Islamic University of Indonesia, Atma Jaya University, Duta Wacana Christian University and Sanata Dharma University.

Transportation

Airport

Yogyakarta is served by Adisucipto International Airport which connects the city with other major cities in Indonesia, such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Denpasar, Makassar, Balikpapan, Banjarmasin, Pekanbaru, Palembang, and Pontianak. It also connects the city with Kuala Lumpur (operated by AirAsia and Indonesia AirAsia) and Singapore (operated by Silkair).

Rail

In 1872 Yogyakarta served by train on the first time.The city is located on one of the two major railway lines across Java between Jakarta or Bandung and Surabaya. It has two passenger railway stations, Tugu railway station which serves business and executive class trains, and Lempuyangan Station which serves economy class trains. Both stations are located in the heart of the city. One commuter train in Yogyakarta is the Prambanan Ekspress, also known as Prameks, which runs from Lempuyangan Station to Solo Balapan Station in Surakarta (Solo) (East of Yogyakarta), Kutoharjo Station in Kutoharjo (West of Yogyakarta). Other commuter trains run from Madiun Jaya (Madiun-Lempuyangan), and Joglosemar (Semarang-Lempuyangan).

Roads

The city has an extensive system of public city buses, and is a major departure point for inter-city buses to other cities in Java and Bali, as well as taxis, andongs, and becaks. Motorbikes are by far the most commonly used personal transportation, but an increasing number of residents own automobiles.[21] Yogyakarta also has a highway known as the Ringroad and overpasses including Janti Overpass, Lempuyangan Overpass, and a recently built overpass in the northern part of the Ringroad.

Buses

Trans Jogja Bus. A bus rapid transit system in Yogyakarta.

Since early 2008, the city has operated a bus rapid transit system called Trans Jogja, also known as "TJ" (Indonesian), an abbreviation from "T" for 'Trans', and "J" for 'Jogja'. This system is modeled after the TransJakarta system in the capital, but unlike Trans Jakarta, there is no particular lane for Trans Jogja buses; they run on main streets. Currently there are six Trans Jogja lines, with routes throughout the main streets of Yogyakarta, some of which are overlapping. The lines extend from Jombor bus station in the north as far as Giwangan main bus terminal in the south and Prambanan bus shelter in the east via Adisucipto International Airport.

Future transportation

In a 2008 forum discussion on long-term transportation plans in Yogyakarta held at Universitas Gadjah Mada, the head of the Yogyakarta region transportation master plan team, Prof Ahmad Munawar, said that in 2016 modern transport modes including monorail, aerobus, and tram will begin operating in the city and the region.[22]

Health facilities

Main building of Panti Rapih Hospital.

Notable hospitals in Yogyakarta include :

Twin towns – sister cities

Notes

  1. ^ Stevens, Alan M; Schmidgall-Tellings, A. (August 30, 2004). A Comprehensive Indonesian-English Dictionary (in English and Indonesian). Ohio University Press. p. 522. ISBN 0821415840.
  2. ^ Data Sensus Penduduk 2010 - Badan Pusat Statistik Republik Indonesia <http://sp2010.bps.go.id/index.php/site/tabel?tid=321&wid=3400000000&lang=id>
  3. ^ "Yogyakarta | Define Yogyakarta at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
  4. ^ "Introducing UGM". Universitas Gadjah Mada. 26 March 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
  5. ^ "Top Universities in Indonesia". Top Universities. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
  6. ^ "UGM Ranks First in Indonesia and 53rd in Asia". Southeast Asian University Consortium for Graduate Education in Agriculture and Natural Resources. 3 October 2018. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  7. ^ Indeks-Pembangunan-Manusia-2014
  8. ^ Pospelov, E. M. (2002). Географические названия мира. Топонимический словарь. (Geograficheskie nazvaniya mira. Toponimicheskiy slovar) [Geographical names of the world. Toponymic dictionary.] (in Russian). Russkie slovari, Astrel, AST. p. 138. ISBN 5170013892.
  9. ^ "Complimentary addresses from the people of Java to Raffles on his retirement as Lieutenant-Governor in 1816, Raffles Papers f.26v, in the collection of The British Library" (Letter). Letter to Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles. 1816. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  10. ^ Spuler, Bertold; F.R.C Bagley (1981). The Muslim World: A Historical Survey, Part IV. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Archive. p. 252. ISBN 9789004061965.
  11. ^ Cœdès, George (1968). Vella, Walter F., ed. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. Translated by Brown Cowing, Sue. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 241. ISBN 9780824803681.
  12. ^ When Raffles ran Java, Tim Hanningan, historytoday.com
  13. ^ Friend, Theodore (2003). Indonesian Destinies. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 420. ISBN 0-674-01834-6.
  14. ^ "Climate: Yogyakarta". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  15. ^ "YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA". Weatherbase. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  16. ^ Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  17. ^ "Candi Borobudur dicatatkan di Guinness World Records". Antara News. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
  18. ^ 'Nine unique geo-heritage sites declared', The Jakarta Post, 3 November 2014.
  19. ^ Tempat Makan Favorit di 6 Kota. AgroMedia. 2008. p. 136. ISBN 9789790061668.
  20. ^ "Muspusdirla, Koleksi Pesawatnya Luar Biasa". 19 April 2012.
  21. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 February 2015. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  22. ^ [1] "Tahun 2016, di DIY akan Beroperasi Monorail, Aerobus, dan Trem Listrik" (in Indonesian)
  23. ^ "Peringatan 25 Tahun Sister City Kyoto-Yogya, Kedua Kota Mendapat Manfaat" (in Indonesian). Koran Tempo. 6 October 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  24. ^ "Kerjasama Sister City, Eratkan RI-Suriname" (in Indonesian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Republic of Indonesia. 7 April 2011. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014.

External links

  • Official website
  • Yogyakarta travel guide from Wikivoyage
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Yogyakarta&oldid=867982064"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yogyakarta
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Yogyakarta"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA