Ynglism

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The symbol of Ynglism as a body of religious believers (church).[1] It represents Yngly, the word and action of the supreme God begetting and ordering the universe, as the spinning astral images of the northern culmen of the sky (Svarga, "Heaven").[note 1]

Ynglism (Russian: Инглии́зм, also spelled "Yngliism" or "Ingliism"), institutionally the Ancient Russian Ynglist Church of the Orthodox Old Believers—Ynglings (Древнерусская Инглиистическая Церковь Православных Староверов—Инглингов, Drevnerusskaya Ingliisticheskaya Tserkov' Pravoslavnykh Staroverov—Inglingov) is a direction of the Slavic Native Faith (Rodnovery) movement established in the early 1990s by Aleksandr Khinevich from Omsk, in Siberia.[4] Members call themselves simply "Orthodox Old Believers", seldom "Ynglists". The church is described by scholar Kaarina Aitamurto as having a well-defined doctrine, an authoritative leadership, and focusing on esoteric teachings.[5]

Ynglists regard themselves as perserving the true, Orthodox (i.e. in accordance with the universal order), religious tradition of the Russians and of all Slavs.[6] Other Rodnover groups in Russia are strongly critical of Ynglism; the international veche (assembly) of Rodnover organisations even declared it a false religion. In the early 2000s the church faced judicial prosecutions for ethnic hatred, and volkhv Khinevich himself was imprisoned from 2009 to 2011.[7] The holy writings of Ynglism are the four Slavo-Aryan Vedas.

Terminology

According to Ynglist history and terminology, the Slavic term for "Orthodox", Pravoslavie (Православие, that like the Greek counterpart precisely means "right glory"), which refers to the right way of living in accordance with the universal laws, was appropriated by the Christian Eastern Orthodox Church among the Slavs only by the 17th century, through the reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow, in order to wholly absorb the indigenous religion which was then still prevalent among the population. Prior to the reform, Christianity used the Greek loanword Ortodoksalnost (Ортодоксальность).[8]

The definition "Old Believers" (Староверы, Starovery), which today is employed to refer to Christians who preserved pre-Nikonian rituals, who are more correctly called the "Old Ritualists" (Старообрядцы, Staroobryadtsy), was imposed on the latter during the same Nikonian reform. Their previous name was "Righteous Christians" (Праведные Христиане, Pravednye Khristiane), and "Old Believers" it itself referred to indigenous Slavic religion. According to the Ynglist Church, these theories would be proven by 13th-century documents preserved by a sect of the Christian Old Believers.[8]

Beliefs

In his teachings, Aleksandr Khinevich, the father of Ynglism who is known among his followers as Pater Diy (Патер Дий, meaning "Father Deity" or "Shining Father"),[9] does not qualify Ynglism either as a "paganism" or as a "religion".[10]

Theology and cosmology

Victor Shnirelman (2017) describes Ynglist theology as esoteric, and, by the words of volkhv Aleksandr Khinevich himself, as "neither monotheistic nor polytheistic" as were the beliefs of the "early ancestors"—the Indo-Europeans, whom Khinevich identifies as the Slavic-Aryans. According to Shnirelman, Ynglist theology owes much to Slavic, Germanic, Iranian and Indian sources, but integrates gods and concepts from other cultures as well.[10] The idea of reincarnation matching that of Hinduism, and the idea of a struggle between good and evil forces matching that of Zoroastrianism, are both incorporated within Ynglism. All deities are regarded as the manifestations of a supreme universal God,[11] so that Ynglist theology may be defined as monistic. Ynglist resources define Ynglism, and Slavic religion overall, as a "rodotheism", that is to say "worship of the gods of the kin", that links back to the supreme God of the universe, which is the universe's supreme ancestor.[12]

Ynglists believe that all these ideas fit the original "Russian spiritual culture" which may rescue people from corruption. Much like other esoteric sciences, they are ambivalent towards Christianity, recognising Jesus as an important prophet (a "great wanderer", veliky putnik) while accusing Christian churches to have distorted his original message, which would be preserved in apocryphal literature. The journal Zhiva-Astra issued by the Ynglist Church has published Gnostic scriptures that are popular among Russian nationalists, such as the Secret Gospel of John and the New Testament of the Holy Apostle Thomas discovered in 1945. Ynglists say that early Slavic volkhvs were aware of the concepts of a supreme God and of the trinity, which were later borrowed by Christian organisations. Like other Rodnover groups, Ynglists consider Christianity as an anti-national international machination aimed at the enslavement of people, chiefly Russians.[11]

The highest God and its order

According to Ynglism, "Yngly" (Ингли, also called "Ynglia", Инглия; cf. the Germanic Yng, Yngwi, whose Scandinavian runic consists in square symbols → Runic letter ingwaz.svg, and cf. the Germanic suffix "-ing", implying the action of generation and production) is the structural order of the universe and of all phenomena, characterised as a fiery radiance emanated by the supreme God, called "Ramha" (Рамха, also spelled "Ramkha") in the Ynglist usage. Ramha is absolute, unknowable, unfathomable, and yet manifest in the gods generating of all phenomena in accordance with the supreme order, Yngly.[13] This last is personified as the intelligence of God, keeper of the source of the fire of the universe, and is the model of the earliest progenitor of humanity (Rod).[14] Yngly is represented by the swastika symbol, which Ynglists call the "image of Yngly", the first written symbol of humanity.[2]

Besides the similarity of the names of the Ynglist Ramha and the Indian Rama, it is worthwhile to note that Ramha is identified with the ancient Egyptian concept of Ra central to the other Russian Native Faith practice Vseyasvetnaya gramota.[15]

A hymn to Ramha declaims:[13]

Great Ramha, one supreme creator, you are in all worlds, giving them life! We glorify you, in all our nations, temples and sanctuaries, in all our settlements, cities and villages, in all sacred groves and in all oaks, on the banks of the sacred rivers and lakes; for holy Yngly, that brings to us the light of love and joy, and illuminates our hearts and thoughts. Let all our deeds be done, for your glory, now and ever from circle to circle.

A hymn to Yngly declaims:[14]

Great god Yngly, keeper of holy Ynglia! Hallow and warm our souls and our hearts, our temples and our homes, do not leave our clans without care, now and ever from circle to circle.

The gods of nature

Primary concepts are the already described absolute God and the matrix into which its gods incarnate—the Earth, characterised as Midgard ("Middle-Realm") in Scandinavian terminology. A third important concept is Rod, who is the archetype of humanity, progenitor of all ancestors. Gods are described as immutable, informational personal laws who harmoniously engender the different forms of life in the universe and support them in their course. They are all in accordance with the order (Yngly) begotten by the supreme God, but at the same time they may exceptionally intervene in the course of phenomena helping people's spiritual evolution along the right path, if people are motivated by sincere creativity and love. An Ynglist dictum is that "the gods are our fathers, and we are their children".[16]

Ynglists distinguish three classes of gods: "Gods-Protectors" (Боги-Покровители, Bogi-Pokroviteli) are those patronising the celestial bodies, the stars and planets, the Earth, the Moon as well as the "Rods", the progenitors of human lineages (of the bright Aryan "great race"); "Gods-Governors" (Боги-Управители, Bogi-Upraviteli) are those who control various elements, desires, the measured flows of life on Earth; "Gods-Guardians" (Боги-Охранители, Bogi-Okhraniteli) are those who ward various locations on Earth, such as arable lands, forests and the countries of the Aryans. The most important gods from these categories are the "Highest Gods" (Вышние Боги, Vyshniye Bogi): the "Rod-Forefather", Vyshen (Вышень, Slavicised Vishnu), Svarog, Perun, Ramkhat, Matushka, Veles, god-generatrix Mokosh, Chislobog, Dazhbog, Zhiva, god-generatrix Rozhana, Simargl, Kupala, Svetovid, Indra and Kryshen (Крышень, Slavicised Krishna).[16]

"Rod-Forefather" (Род-Породитель, Rod-Poroditel) is the archetype of all the progenitors of the lineages, and is described as one and the same with Ramha, through Yngly. He is without image, like Ramha, but Ynglists worship him through the three-runes symbol of Ramha. His protection flows through Prav, Yav and Nav, the three worlds of traditional Slavic cosmology.[17]

A hymn to Rod-Forefather declaims:[17]

Great is our Parent! Attend to the call of you! For you are the eternal source of the life of our gods and of our generations, and therefore greatly glorify you, and day and night we are and we rule, now and ever from circle to circle.

Prav, Yav, Nav, and Slav

According to Ynglist cosmology, reality consists of the three dimensions recognised by common Rodnover cosmology, Prav (lit. "Right"), Yav (Явь, lit. "actuality") and Nav (Навь, lit. "probability"); Ynglists, however, distinguish a fourth concept defining a part of Nav, Slav (Славь, lit. "glory"). Prav is the plane of the gods, who follow the right law (Yngly) of Ramha; Yav is the plane of matter in which all phenomena are incarnated; Nav is the world of spirit/movement, which can be Bright Nav (Светлый Навь, Svetly Nav) or Dark Nav (Темный Навь, Temny Nav). Bright Nav, otherwise called Slav, is the dimension of ancestors, while Dark Nav is the dimension of chthonic demons. In the cosmological scheme, the Bright Nav is above while the Dark Nav is below, and the Yav is the boundary in-between the two and may develop according to the model of both. Also, Prav is purely mental, while Nav is astral (it consists in the movements of the asterisms of Heaven), and Nav is physical (phenomenical).[18]

Ethics—the Nine Great Warps

The "Nine Great Warps" (Девять Великих Основ, Devyat' Velikikh Osnov) constitute the ethical code of Ynglism which guides the "weft" of the destiny of the Aryans and their descendants towards perfection. Only Aryans are considered to be the offspring of the gods of the Bright Nav, while non-Aryans (black races) are considered the offspring of chthonic demons.[1] The union of whites and blacks is held to produce wicked mixlings, the "grey race"; Abrahamic religions and the masses they persuade are believed to be essentially of a grey nature.[8]

The Warps are: 1. dedication, towards the study of holy writings, traditions and ancestral wisdom, and to the worship of the gods; 2. spirituality, that is to say engagement in understanding and developing one's spiritual side; 3. compassion, for all living things created by God; 4. penitence, for upkeeping the harmony of body and spirit which grants peace; 5. tolerance, for the freedom of others which nevertheless may not go against the right laws of God; 6. friendship, towards other human lineages but not towards wicked people who go against the right laws of God; 7. love, towards all living things created by God and reflected among humans as the worship of ancestors; 8. testing, to be gone through in order to develop spiritual virtue; 9. integration, that is to say the search for and upkeeping of the meaning and purpose that everything has within its own context.[1]

Views on history

Alatyr Stone, by Russian artist Lola Vyacheslavovna Lonli.
Woman from Belovodye, Lola Lonli.

Ynglists believe that "Yngling", a name that identifies the earliest royal dynasties of Scandinavia, means "offspring of Yngly", and that the historical Ynglings migrated to Scandinavia from the region of Omsk, which was a spiritual centre of the early Indo-Europeans. They hold that the Ynglinga saga of the Edda (itself composed by Snorri Sturluson on the basis of an older Ynglingatal), proves their ideas about the origins of the Ynglings in Omsk and is ultimately a more recent version of texts contained in their own sacred books, the Slavo-Aryan Vedas.[19]

Ynglism presents itself as the true spirituality of the Indo-Europeans or Aryans, a term which means "harmonious men", those who act in accordance with the laws of God and therefore manifest bright white features.[1] The first Aryans were spiritually influenced by the northern celestial pole and the circumpolar stars, especially the Great Bear and the Little Bear, and the Big Dipper and Little Dipper astral images; these constellations, spinning umbe the pole, draw the changing image of Yngly (the swastika) in the four phases of the day and the year. The first Aryans dwelt at the geographic North Pole, whence they are known in Greek sources by the name "Hyperboreans" (lit. "over the north"). After leaving their original homeland they mostly settled in what is today Russia and broader Eurasia, where the richest occurrences of hooked cross symbolism in historical testimonies have been found, in patterns of architecture, weaponry, and tools of everyday life. Ynglism would be the means to regather the Aryans and reconnect them to their progenitors, reawakening their pristine way to perceive the world.[1]

The area that Aryans settled once they left the pole was that which in Russian folklore is known as Belovodye (Беловодье, lit. "White Waters"), which Ynglists locate in Siberia and identify as the same as the Tibetan concept Shambhala, the Scandinavian Asgard ("Gods-Realm"), and the land of the Rigvedic rivers: they identify the rivers as the Yenisei and Angara, the Lena, the Irtysh and Ob, and ultimately the Ishim and the Tobol. Architectures were built according to the pattern of Alatyr (Slavic mythological stone or mountain which represents the world centre or the world axle), which is the same as the image of Yngly (hooked cross), which endows human consciousness with virtue.[8]

Beliefs about society and health

Family and politics

The Ynglist Church is concerned with the health of the Russians, and other Slavic peoples, and of the family as any folk's fundamental unit. They emphasise that men are innately disposed towards "public" life, while women fulfil themselves in the "private" life of the family at home.[20] Aitamurto (2008) characterises the church as strongly patriarchal; the social model that Ynglism proposes is the traditional hierarchy of the family, headed by male elders. The veche of the church itself is conceived as the gathering of these elders, the fathers. According to Ynglist beliefs, women are "so tied to their natural task of reproduction" that they may not reach the same intellectual and spiritual achievements of men, who are naturally more prone to the abstract thinking that is needed for political assignments.[21]

Ynglism is critical of modern Western liberal democracy, and espouses instead an ideal of democracy that is more similar to ancient Greek democracy. According to the Ynglists, universal suffrage leads to unwise decisions and ultimately to the disruption of society, because the majority of people are not wise. In their view, modern liberal democracies are dictatorships of the "biggest minorities", whereas ancient Slavic veche and mir were based on "consensual decision-making". Ynglists propose the traditional Slavic principle of samoderzhavie, meaning "people ruling themselves", which according to them is the highest "true will of the people" which comes to be incarnated and exercised by a wise ruler.[22]

Education and "beneficial offspring"

According to the church, the demographic decline of contemporary Russia has to be studied as a crisis of the psycho-physical heritage transmitted by Russian parents to their children, and of the environment where these children grow up. Within the Ynglist Church, miscegenation is considered as unhealthy, and they also condemn perverted sexuality and the consumption of alcohol and drugs as threats imported from the degenerated West. As a solution, Ynglists emphasise the theme of "creating beneficial descendants" (sozidanie blagodetel'nogo potomstva).[23]

In a broader metaphysical discourse, all forces of globalisation coming from the West are perceived as alien models that infiltrate and spoil the spirit of Slavic culture. An excerpt from the Slavo-Aryan Vedas declaims:[24]

It is not appropriate for Slavs and Aryan to venerate alien idols, to pour water into an alien watermill, to give one's psychic energy to an alien egregor! There is no point for Russians to destroy their own Slavic and Aryan culture with their own hands by adopting an alien pseudo-culture! Our ancestors warn us from the distant past: "... we ourselves are the grandchildren of Dazhdbog and have not aspired to sneak in the footsteps of foreigners".

Writings

The central holy writings of the Ynglist movement are the Slavo-Aryan Vedas (Славяно-Арийские Веды, Slavyano-Ariyskiye Vedy), purportedly ancient texts,[25] allegedly passed down generation by generation in Siberia. They were allegedly originally written on sheets of precious metal (сантии, santy), which would be now kept in a secret location by the high priests of Ynglism. Bad translations of the books, misinterpreted through the lens of Western science fiction, have circulated through the Internet.

The first Veda comprises the Book of the Wisdom of Perun (Сантьи Веды Перуна, Santy Vedy Peruna; also translated as Книга Мудрости Перуна, Kniga Mudrosti Peruna) and a Russian version of the Ynglinga saga. The second Veda comprises the Book of Light (Книга Света, Kniga Sveta) and the first part of the Word of the Wisdom of the Wise Velimudra (Слово Мудрости Волхва Велимудра, Slovo Mudrosti Volkhva Velimudra). The third Veda comprises the Ynglism, the Ancient Faith of Slavic and Aryan Folks (Инглиiзмъ, Древняя Вера Славянскихъ и Арiйскихъ Народовъ; Ingliizm, Drevnyaya Vera Slavyanskikh i Ariyskikh Narodov) and the second part of the Word of the Wisdom. The fourth and last Veda of Ynglism contains the Source of Life (Источник Жизни, Istochnik Zhizni) and the White Way (Белый Путь, Bely Put). A fifth book, though not part of the canonical Vedas, is Slavic Worldview, Confirmation of the Book of Light (Славянское Мiропонiмание, Подтверждение Книги Света; Slavyanskoye Miroponimaniye, Podtverzhdeniye Knigi Sveta).[26] As reported by Victor Shnirelman, the Ynglist Church also relies upon Gnostic gospels.[11]

Practices

The spiritual academy of the Ynglist Church teaches their version of the Vedas, "Aryan mathematics" and ancient grammar, and health techniques.[7] They also use a system of "Slavic runes" in which the original tablets of the Slavo-Aryan Vedas are written.[27] The church is known for its intensive proselytism,[25][28] carried out through a "massive selling" of books, journals and other media. Ynglists organise yearly gatherings (veche) in summer.[7]

Yujism

Yujism (юджизм, lit. "good life"), also spelled "yudzhism" or "eujism", is the theory, learning and practice of the right vision of reality, characteristic of and taught by the "earliest ancestors" with whom the Ynglists identify (Aryans). The basic requirement for yujism is the ability of figurative thought; according to Ynglists, images convey much more informations than either sounds or gestures, whence their emphasis on runes, which immediately set in motion images in the mind. The goal of yujism is the understanding of reality as a process which reveals itself as consciousness.[29]

The first rune, the aforementioned "image of Yngly" which is the swastika symbol, is conceived as well as the representation of yuj or yudzh (юдж) itself, which Ynglist sources themselves equate with Indian yoga. Yuj is the expansion of human consciousness that is triggered by becoming aware of Yngly in reality. Such consciousness articulates into two opposite actions, a positive and a negative one respectively called HaTha (Ха–Тха) and represented by two beams of the swastika. Ynglists claim that they are the ancient Slavic name of the same concept that is known in Chinese thought and language as yin–yang.[29]

The worldview that results from the practice of yujism is symbolised by Ynglists as an image of a "flat earth sustained by three elephants sustained by a turtle which swims in an unlimited ocean": the flat earth represents the twofold structure of perception (articulating in all dualities, from "yes–no" to "up–down"); the three elephants are symbols of the three dimensions of reality—Yav, Nav and Prav—material, ideal (which realises in word) and mystical, which are also three forms of life; the turtle is yuj itself, awakened consciousness, which draws information from the ocean, which represents infinite energy.[30]

Calendar

Ynglist "Wheel of the Year". The runes representing the nine months are to be read leftwise starting from the top-left hooked cross of Yngly, representing the beginning of the year.[31]

Structure of the year

Ynglism has a different structure of time distinguishing it from mainstream Rodnovery. According to Ynglist teachings, the structure of the year is itself a phenomenon reflecting the order of the supreme God, his action which is Yngly. Each month's name may also be written as a compound of two Ynglist runes. Ynglists claim that original Slavic months are nine, instead of twelve, and each month comprises forty or forty-one days. The first rune is either Ay (Ай), Bey (Бэй), Gey (Гэй), Day (Дай), E (Э), Vey (Вэй), Xey / Khey (Хей), or Tay (Тай), reflecting basic sounds in Indo-European tongues and representing the character of the given month. The second rune in the names is always the rune Ynglist Let rune.svg Let (Летъ), which means "year" as well as "summer", as months are phases of the year which comes to full maturity in summer. The only exception to this rule is the first month whose name is "Ramhat" (Рамхатъ), a term which refers to the beginning of Ramha's ordering action, Yngly, represented by the swastika-like first rune.[31]

Name Runic sign Meaning Corresponding Latinate month(s)
Ramhat / Ramkhat
Рамхатъ
Ynglist Ramhat runic.svg
Yngly (supreme God's action) rune.svg
Represents the principle of divinity; Ramha/Ramkha who creates and approves a new year cycle.[31] Another symbol of this month is a hooked cross, which is the symbol of "Yngly" itself (the fiery action of the supreme God in the universe).[2] September–October
Aylet
Айлетъ
Ynglist Ay rune.svg
Aylet is the month of new gifts. The rune Ay means prosperity, full baskets. It is the propitious tide for weddings, for beginning building new things, and for harvests.[31] November
Beylet
Бэйлетъ
Ynglist Bey rune.svg
Beylet is the month of white light and peace, representing the pure radiance of divinity, glory and the rest of the soul.[31] December
Geylet
Гэйлетъ
Ynglist Gey rune.svg
Geylet is the month of blizzards and fierce and severe cold.[31] January–February
Daylet
Дайлетъ
Ynglist Day rune.svg
Daylet is the month of the rebirth of nature; plants and animals awaken and are strengthened.[31] March
Elet
Элетъ
Ynglist E rune.svg
Elet is the month of sowing, this being the foremost meaning of the rune E. It is the sowing not only of seeds in the ground, but also of the word in people; it is therefore the month of naming and renaming of persons, for them to be born again.[31] April
Veylet
Вэйлетъ
Ynglist Vey rune.svg
Veylet is the month of winds. The rune Vey is an image of flying, and of blowing wind. This month is sacred to Stribog ("Wind God").[31] May–June
Xeylet
Хейлетъ
Ynglist Xey rune.svg
Xeylet, or spelled "Kheylet", is the month of the receipt of the gifts of nature. The rune Xey is an image of positive force. What was sown in Elet and grew throughout Veylet, is finally harvested in Xeylet.[31] July
Taylet
Тайлетъ
Ynglist Tay rune.svg
Taylet is the month of completion of the year, of divine creation, of full summer. The rune Tay means the top, the limit, the end of something (just like the homophonous Chinese grapheme and in words like "Taiga", literally "end of the path").[31] August

Holidays

Ynglism respects eight holidays throughout the year. They are arranged in a "year's wheel" (кологод, kologod) and they correspond to the eight major deities of nature. Holidays are called "thresholds" (порог, porog) and they mark the beginning of various phases of the year. There are also overarching phases: the phase between the holidays of Koliada and Kupalo is that of the blossoming of males, while the phase between Lelia and Mokosh that of the blossoming of females. The threshold of Perun marks a period of quiescence of forces, while the subsequent Mara is a phase that is unfavourable for both sexes. Each holiday and the period that it begins has appropriate, different ritual actions to be carried out; Ynglists believe that if one behaves incorrectly, his life cycle is disrupted, he becomes unhealthy and quickly grows old.[32]

Festival Meaning Period
Koliada Winter solstice. This is the threshold that marks the beginning of the spiral of the new year; forces are ready for their expansion in new creations. Men are instructed by ancestors on how to project the new year.[32] December
Veles Veles is the god of the underworld and of wild nature, from which new growth may develop. The Veles threshold marks the period in which man thinks how to interact with natural laws and resources in order to bring his projects to completion.[32] February
Lelia Spring equinox. The Lelia threshold is moment when the male transmits his power to the female, and symbolises impregnation, in which their power is perfectly balanced. In this phase projects are sown into matter.[32] March–April
Yarilo The Yarilo threshold marks the phase when powers sprout. In nature, everything starts its growth and things mate with one another (in Slavic called яриться, yaritsya). In this time for merrymaking and feasts, and is a period of great creativity.[32] May–mid June
Kupalo Summer solstice. This is the threshold when forces reach their utmost strength, and marks the phase when it is more likely for healthy children to be born.[32] Mid June–July
Perun It is the threshold that marks the full maturity of males. On the day of Perun men show their skills with weapons and in crafts. At the same time it marks the start of the decline of youth, while women are in bloom.[32] August
Mokosh Fall equinox. Mokosh is the goddess of fate. This threshold marks a phase of introspection, as the year is coming to its end. Men examine their actions carried out during the outgoing year, in order to be transformed for the forthcoming year. The day of Mokosh is celebrated with a ritual consisting in taking a handful of earth, reckoning an action, and giving it back to the Earth.[32] September–October
Mara This threshold marks the death of the Sun and the triumph of the chthonic goddess Marzanna, the primordial mother. However, things die only in body, while thought continues to work and concentrates to be reborn in the new year. This makes this phase propitious for study and understanding spiritual truths.[32] November

Social impact

Links with political parties

Aitamurto (2016) characterises the Ynglist Church as less politically goal-oriented than other Rodnover movements.[7] By contrast, Russian scholar of religion Vladimir B. Yashin of the Department of Theology and World Cultures of Omsk State University wrote in 2001 that the church has close ties with the regional branch of the far-right Russian National Unity of Alexander Barkashov, whose members provide security and order during the mass gatherings of the Ynglists.[9]

Judicial prosecutions and international spread

The headquarters of the Ynglist Church were prosecuted and liquidated by law between 2002 (in the Omsk region) and 2004 (in Russia), primarily because of its use of swastika-like religious symbolism and because of its teachings about the unhealthiness of interracial mixing. Aleksandr Khivevich himself was prosecuted on 11 June 2009 at the International Court of Justice of Omsk, which found him guilty of inciting racial hatred under the article 282 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation and sentenced him to one year and a half of prison with two years of probation.[9][7]

Despite the prosecutions, the church continued its activities and mass celebrations as an unregistered religious movement, expanding to other regions of Russia and abroad, and Aleksandr Khinevich resumed large-scale preaching activities in 2011. Scholar Vladimir Yashin reports that it was impossible to uproot the church from public life, since in 2001 there were already about three thousand members in Omsk alone.[9]

According to Yashin, Ynglism has come out strengthened from the prosecutions, turning into a decentralised phenomenon, so that as of 2015 it is more correct to describe it as a movement of dozens of organisations spread between the regions of Chelyabinsk, Krasnodar, Tyumen, Moscow, but also Ukraine, Germany and the Czech Republic. Ynglism, together with mainstream Rodnovery, has gathered many adherents in the North Caucasus regions, according to Yashin as a Slavic-identity counterweight against Islam. In 2015 it was the turn of the Slavo-Aryan Vedas, the sacred writings of Ynglism, to be condemned as "extremist literature" in Omsk.[9] In the same year, Ynglist communities based in Stavropol were prosecuted on the charge of extremism.[33]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Hooked cross (swastika) symbols represent the Yngly, the ordered word and action of the supreme God who begets the universe.[2] Various hooked cross patterns represent the various forms of life which generate in accordance with this supreme order (the patterns of the gods of planets, earthly weather phenomena, classes of entities, etc.).[3]
    Oberezhnik

    Besides hooked cross symbols, the oberezhnik (обережник) or nine-pointed "star of Yngly" is used as a symbol of Ynglism as a doctrine (its theology and cosmology). It is also called "Mati-Gotka" in Russian folk tradition, referring to matter ready to be ordained by the divine force.[3]

    The hooked cross of Yngly is often represented in the middle of the star. The oberezhnik also represents the harmonious man. The three intersecting triangles represent the three worlds of traditional Slavic cosmology (Prav, Yav and Nav), but also spirit, body and soul on the human plane. The circle umbegoing the triangles represents Yngly itself, and also human consciousness awakened by the awareness of Yngly; while the infinite space beyond the circle is God's infinite potentiality. Elementally, ultimately, the three triangles represent earth, water and fire, while the circle represents air and the infinite space beyond it represents the infinite Heaven (Svarga).[1]

Sources

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Ynglism – Ancient Faith of the Slavic and Aryan Peoples (Инглиизм – Древняя Вера Славянских и Арийских Народов)". Derzhava Rus. Archived from the original on 27 June 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c "Ynglism – lesson 1 (Инглиизм – урок 1)". Derzhava Rus. Archived from the original on 26 June 2017. 
  3. ^ a b "Slavic symbols (Обереги славян)". Derzhava Rus. Archived from the original on 21 June 2017. 
  4. ^ Aitamurto 2016, p. 50; Skrylnikov 2016.
  5. ^ Aitamurto 2007; Aitamurto 2016.
  6. ^ Aitamurto 2016, p. 50.
  7. ^ a b c d e Aitamurto 2016, p. 51.
  8. ^ a b c d "Belovodye – the ancestral home of Aryans and Slavs (Беловодье – древняя прародина Ариев и Славян)". Derzhava Rus. Archived from the original on 3 July 2017. 
  9. ^ a b c d e Maltsev, V. A. (18 November 2015). "Расизм во имя Перуна поставили вне закона". Nezavisimaya Gazeta. Retrieved 3 July 2017. 
  10. ^ a b Shnirelman 2017, p. 97.
  11. ^ a b c Shnirelman 2017, p. 98.
  12. ^ "Rodotheism – the veneration of the Kin (Родотеизм – это почитание Рода)". Derzhava Rus. Archived from the original on 3 July 2017. 
  13. ^ a b "Ramha (Рамха)". Derzhava Rus. Archived from the original on 26 June 2017. 
  14. ^ a b "God Yngly (Бог Инглъ)". Derzhava Rus. Archived from the original on 26 June 2017. 
  15. ^ Aitamurto 2016, p. 41.
  16. ^ a b "Highest Gods (Вышние Боги)". Derzhava Rus. Archived from the original on 26 June 2017. 
  17. ^ a b "Rod-Forefather (Род-Породитель)". Derzhava Rus. Archived from the original on 26 June 2017. 
  18. ^ "Yav, Nav, Slav, Prav (Явь, Навь, Славь, Правь)". Derzhava Rus. Archived from the original on 26 June 2017. 
  19. ^ Aitamurto 2016, pp. 50–51.
  20. ^ Aitamurto 2016, p. 86.
  21. ^ Aitamurto 2008, p. 4.
  22. ^ Aitamurto 2008, p. 5.
  23. ^ Aitamurto 2016, p. 88.
  24. ^ Aitamurto 2016, p. 99.
  25. ^ a b Aitamurto 2007.
  26. ^ List of the Slavo-Aryan Vedas as it appears on their official Russian website as of 27 June 2017 (archived 27/06/2017).
  27. ^ Aitamurto 2016, p. 120, note 23.
  28. ^ Gennadevich, Kuzmin Aleksandr (2014). "Неоязыческая печать в современной России: особенности идеологии и пропагандистской деятельности (Neo-Pagan Press in Modern Russia: Specifics of Ideology and Propagandistic Activity)". Грамота (Gramota). 12 (50) pp. 121-124. ISSN 1997-292X. Abstract: «The article is devoted to the analysis of the publishing and propagandistic activity of the modern Russian neo-paganism in the structure of national patriotic movement. The paper assesses the level of the radicalism of the ideas propagated by the analyzed publications. Special attention is paid to the propagandistic and publishing activity of the ideologists of the so-called Ynglism.»
  29. ^ a b "Yujism – Slavic worldview (Юджизм – мировосприятие славян)". Derzhava Rus. Archived from the original on 27 June 2017. 
  30. ^ "Earth on three elephants (Земля на трёх слонах)". Derzhava Rus. Archived from the original on 27 June 2017. 
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Slavic names of the months (Славянские названия месяцев)". Derzhava Rus. Archived from the original on 21 June 2017. 
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Кологод — природосообразность (Year's wheel – accordance with nature)". Derzhava Rus. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. 
  33. ^ "Racism and Xenophobia in October 2015". SOVA Center for Information and Analysis. 9 November 2015. Retrieved 3 July 2017. 

References

  • Aitamurto, Kaarina (2007). Russian Rodnoverie: Negotiating Individual Traditionalism. CESNUR 2007 International Conference: Globalization, Immigration, and Change in Religious Movements. Bordeaux, France. 
  •  ———  (2008). "Egalitarian Utopias and Conservative Politics: Veche as a Societal Ideal within Rodnoverie Movement". Axis Mundi: Slovak Journal for the Study of Religions. 3. pp. 2–11. 
  •  ———  (2016). Paganism, Traditionalism, Nationalism: Narratives of Russian Rodnoverie. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 9781472460271. 
  • Shnirelman, Victor A. (2017). "Obsessed with Culture: The Cultural Impetus of Russian Neo-Pagans". In Kathryn Rountree (ed.). Cosmopolitanism, Nationalism, and Modern Paganism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 87–108. ISBN 9781137570406. 
  • Skrylnikov, Pavel (20 July 2016). "The Church Against Neo-Paganism". Intersection. Retrieved 20 May 2017. 

External links

  • Slavo-Aryan Vedas main website
  • Держава Русь, Derzhava Rus — State of Rus
  • Летопись Славян, Letopis' Slavyan (Letoslav) — Chronicle of the Slavs
  • Родовые Истоки, Rodovye Istoki — Ancestral Origins, website of the Pankov's Altaic transmission of Ynglism
  • Akademie-Rod, Pankovs' Ynglism in Germany
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