Yaminawa language

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Yaminawa
Yaminahua
Native to Peru, Bolivia, Brazil
Ethnicity Yaminawá and related peoples
Native speakers
2,729 (2006–2011)[1]
Est. 400 uncontacted speakers of Yora (2007)
Panoan
  • Mainline Panoan
    • Nawa
      • Headwaters
        • Yaminawa
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Variously:
yaa – Yaminawa
ywn – Yawanawa
mcd – Sharanawa
swo – Shaninawa
mts – Yora
Glottolog yami1255[2]

Yaminawa (Yaminahua) is a Panoan language of western Amazonia. It is spoken by the Yaminawá and some related peoples.

Yaminawa constitutes an extensive dialect cluster. Attested dialects are[3] two or more Brazilian Yaminawa dialects, Peruvian Yaminawa, Chaninawa, Chitonawa, Mastanawa, Parkenawa (= Yora or "Nawa"), Shanenawa (Xaninaua, = Katukina de Feijó), Sharanawa (= Marinawa), Shawannawa (= Arara), Yawanawa, Yaminawa-arara (obsolescent; very similar to Shawannawa/Arara), Nehanawa)

Very few Yaminawá speak Spanish or Portuguese, though the Shanenawa have mostly shifted to Portuguese.[4]

Phonology

The vowels of Yamanawa are /a, i, ɨ, u/. Yaminawa replaces /u/ with /ɯ/. Sharanawa, Yaminawa, and Yora have nasalized counterparts of the vowels, and these dialects demonstrate contrastive nasalization.[5]

Consonants
Bilabial Alveolar Palato-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop p t k
Affricate t͡s t͡ʃ
Fricative β s ʃ ʂ h
Nasal m n
Approximant j w
Flap ɾ

Yaminawa has a similar phonology to Yamanawa, but Yaminawa adds a voiced retroflex fricative /ʐ/ and replaces the voiced bilabial fricative /β/ with a voiceless bilabial fricative /ɸ/, and lacks the voiced labio-velar approximant /w/. Yora also lacks /ɸ/ and /w/. Sharanawa has /ɸ/ instead of /β/, and Shanewana has a labiodental fricative /f/ instead of /ɸ/.[5]

Notes

  1. ^ Yaminawa at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
    Yawanawa at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
    Sharanawa at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
    Shaninawa at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
    Yora at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Yaminawa Complex". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ David Fleck, 2013, Panoan Languages and Linguistics, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History #99
  4. ^ "Yaminahua." Ethnologue. (retrieved 25 June 2011)
  5. ^ a b "SAPhon – South American Phonological Inventories". linguistics.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2018-07-23. 

External links


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