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Sakha family.jpg
a Yakut family
Total population
Regions with significant populations
 Russia 478,085 (2010 census)[1]
 United States 17,454 (1999-2007 census)[2]
 Canada 4,257 (2017 census)[3]
 China 2,820 (2010 census)[4]
 Kazakhstan 415 (2009 census)[5][6]
 Ukraine 304 (2001 census)[7]
Yakut, Russian
Predominantly Russian Orthodox Christianity, with a significant part of the population practicing Shamanism and Tengrism
Related ethnic groups
Turkic peoples, Mongolic people, Tungusic people, Dolgans
Percentages of Yakuts in the districts of Yakutia according to the 2010 census

The Yakuts are a Turkic ethnic group who mainly live in the Republic of Sakha in the Russian Federation, with some extending to the Amur, Magadan, Sakhalin regions, and the Taymyr and Evenk Autonomous Districts. The Yakut language belongs to the Turkic languages.

The Yakuts engage in animal husbandry focusing on horses and cattle.

Origin and history

Yakut elder, early 20th c.

The ancestors of Yakuts were Kurykans who migrated from Yenisey river to Lake Baikal and were subject to a certain Mongolian admixture prior to migration [8][9][10] in the 7th century. The Yakuts originally lived around Olkhon and the region of Lake Baikal. Beginning in the 13th century they migrated to the basins of the Middle Lena, the Aldan and Vilyuy rivers under the pressure of the rising Mongols. The northern Yakuts were largely hunters, fishermen and reindeer herders, while the southern Yakuts raised cattle and horses.[11][12]

In the 1620s the Tsardom of Muscovy began to move into their territory and annexed or settled down on it, imposed a fur tax and managed to suppress several Yakut rebellions between 1634 and 1642. The tsarist brutality in collection of the pelt tax (yasak) sparked a rebellion and aggression among the Yakuts and also Tungusic-speaking tribes along the River Lena in 1642. The voivode Peter Golovin, leader of the tsarist forces, responded with a reign of terror: native settlements were torched and hundreds of people were killed. The Yakut population alone is estimated to have fallen by 70 percent between 1642 and 1682 because of the Muscovite expeditions.[13]

In the 18th century the Russians reduced the pressure, gave Yakut chiefs some privileges, granted freedom for all habitats, gave them all their lands, sent Eastern Orthodox missions, and educated the Yakut people regarding agriculture. The discovery of gold and, later, the building of the Trans-Siberian Railway, brought ever-increasing numbers of Russians into the region. By the 1820s almost all the Yakuts claimed to have converted to the Russian Orthodox church, but they actually retained (and still retain) a number of shamanist practices. Yakut literature began to rise in the late 19th century, and a national revival occurred in the early 20th century.

In 1922, the new Soviet government named the area the Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The last conflict of the Russian Civil War, known as the Yakut Revolt, occurred here when Cornet Mikhail Korobeinikov, a White Russian officer, led an uprising and a last stand against the Red Army.

Yakuts Sakha , early 20th c.

In the late 1920s through the late 1930s, Yakut people were systematically persecuted, when Joseph Stalin launched his collectivization campaign.[14] It's possible that hunger and malnutrition during this period resulted in a decline in the Yakut total population from 240,500 in 1926 to 236,700 in 1959. By 1972, the population began to recover.[15]

A Yakut woman in traditional dress

The majority of Yakut males belong to Haplogroup N3a (89%).[16]

Russian President Medvedev in the Sakha Republic in 2011

Currently, Yakuts form a large plurality of the total population within the vast Sakha Republic. According to the 2010 Russian census, there were a total of 466,492 Yakuts residing in the Sakha Republic during that year, or 49.9% of the total population of the Republic.


According to the 2010 census, some 87% of the Yakuts in the Sakha Republic are fluent in the Yakut (or Sakha) language, while 90% are fluent in Russian.[17] The Sakha/Yakut language belongs to the Northern branch of Altaic languages. It is most closely related to the Dolgan language. Slightly less closely related languages include Tuvan and Shor.


"In East Asia, Yakut, whose language is Altaic, and Japanese, whose language is often classified as Altaic, were usually identified as distinctive. Other speakers of Altaic languages, including Daur, Hezhen, Mongola, Oroqen, and Xibo, all from northern China, shared a greater degree of membership with Japanese and Yakut than with more southerly groups" by Genetic Structure Of Human Populations[18]


The cuisine of Sakha prominently features the traditional drink kumis, dairy products of cow, mare, and reindeer milk, sliced frozen salted fish stroganina (строганина), loaf meat dishes (oyogos), venison, frozen fish, thick pancakes, and salamat — a millet porridge with butter and horse fat. Kuerchekh [Куэрчэх] or kierchekh, a popular dessert, is made of cow milk or cream with various berries. Indigirka is a traditional fish salad. This cuisine is only used in Yakutia.[citation needed]

See also


  1. ^ "ВПН-2010". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  2. ^ [http:// http://] Check |url= value (help). Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. ^ http://www.gks.ru/fre.co. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. ^ "Yakuts in China". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  5. ^ "Қазақстан 2009 жылы". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  6. ^ Агентство Республики Казахстан по статистике. Перепись 2009. Archived 2013-08-10 at the Wayback Machine. (Национальный состав населения Archived 2011-07-23 at the Wayback Machine..rar)
  7. ^ Всеукраїнський перепис населення 2001. Русская версия. Результаты. Национальность и родной язык. Archived 2010-07-01 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ V.A. Stepanov "Origin of Sakha: Analysis of Y-chromosome Haplotypes" Molecular Biology, 2008, Volume 42, No 2, p. 226-237,2008
  9. ^ V.A. Stepanov "Origin of Sakha: Analysis of Y-chromosome Haplotypes" – Migration map
  10. ^ Происхождение якутов Archived 2015-07-07 at the Wayback Machine. (Russian)
  11. ^ И. С. Гурвич., ed. (1956), Народы Сибири
  12. ^ И. С. Гурвич., ed. (1963), История Якутской АССР
  13. ^ Mark Levene; Penny Roberts, eds. (1999), The massacre in history, p. 155
  14. ^ Book of Peoples of the World: A Guide to Cultures, ed. by Davis, Harrison, Howe, National Geographic Books, ç2008, p.141
  15. ^ Lewis, Martin (14 May 2012). "The Yakut Under Soviet Rule". GeoCurrents. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  16. ^ Khar'kov VN, Stepanov VA, Medvedev OF, Spiridonova MG, Maksimova NR, Nogovitsyna AN, Puzyrev VP (2008). "[The origin of Yakuts: analysis of Y-chromosome haplotypes]". Molekuliarnaia Biologiia (in Russian). 42 (2): 226–37. PMID 18610830.
  17. ^ http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/Documents/Vol4/pub-04-07.pdf
  18. ^ Rosenberg, N. A. (2002-12-20). "Genetic Structure of Human Populations". Science. 298 (5602): 2381–2385. doi:10.1126/science.1078311. ISSN 0036-8075.

Further reading

  • Conolly, Violet. "The Yakuts," Problems of Communism, vol. 16, no. 5 (Sept.-Oct. 1967), pp. 81–91.
  • Sakha Yakut Republic Regional Investment and Business Guide. (US Government Agencies Business Library) (3rd ed.) International Business Publications, 2001.

External links

  • Recipes for traditional Yakut cuisine (in Russian)
  • Yakut language site with lyrics, mp3 and video
  • Yakut newspaper site
  • A good brief description of Yakut Society
  • Russian translations of Yakut texts (heroic poetry, fairy tales, legends, proverbs, etc)
  • A multi-language dictionary: Yakut – Classical Mongolian – Khalkha – Russian – German – English
  • Historical and administrative background
  • Korolenko, Vladimir Galaktionovich (1980) "Sibirskie rasskazy i ocherki" Hudozhestvennaya literatura, Moscow in Russian
  • Ethnic groups -Yakuts
  • North-Eastern Federal University in Yakutsk
  • Yakut People and Their Culture
  • Trannie Mystics
  • Yakut History of America
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