Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties

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Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties
Noel 2005 Pékin tombeaux Ming voie des âmes.jpg
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Location People's Republic of China
Coordinates 41°42′N 124°48′E / 41.7°N 124.8°E / 41.7; 124.8
Criteria Cultural: (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (vi)
Reference 1004
Inscription 2000 (24th Session)
Extensions 2003, 2004
Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties is located in China
Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties
Location of Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties
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Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties (simplified Chinese: 明清皇家陵寝; traditional Chinese: 明清皇家陵寢; pinyin: Míng Qīng Huángjiā Língqǐn) is the designation under which the UNESCO has included several tombs and burial complexes into the list of World Heritage Sites. These tombs date from the Ming and Qing dynasties of China.

Tombs were included in the list in 2000, 2003 and 2004. The property now includes the following tombs or tomb groups:

Serial ID No. Tomb Province Location Coordinates Area (m²) Buffer (m²) Year inscribed
1004-001 Xianling Tomb Hubei Zhongxiang 31°01′N 112°39′E / 31.017°N 112.650°E / 31.017; 112.650 876,000 2,264,000 2000
1004-002 Eastern Qing Tombs Hebei Zunhua 41°11′N 117°38′E / 41.183°N 117.633°E / 41.183; 117.633 2,240,000 78,000,000 2000
1004-003 Western Qing Tombs Hebei Yi County 39°20′N 115°13′E / 39.333°N 115.217°E / 39.333; 115.217 18,420,000 47,580,000 2000
1004-004 Ming Tombs Beijing Changping District 40°16′10″N 116°14′40″E / 40.26944°N 116.24444°E / 40.26944; 116.24444 8,230,000 81,000,000 2003
1004-005 Xiaoling Tomb Jiangsu Nanjing 32°03′37″N 118°50′04″E / 32.06028°N 118.83444°E / 32.06028; 118.83444 1,160,000 1,800,000 2003
1004-006 Tomb of Chang Yuchun Jiangsu Nanjing 32°03′44″N 118°49′54″E / 32.06222°N 118.83167°E / 32.06222; 118.83167 9,800   2003
1004-007 Tomb of Qiu Cheng Jiangsu Nanjing 32°03′51″N 118°49′59″E / 32.06417°N 118.83306°E / 32.06417; 118.83306 5,500   2003
1004-008 Tomb of Wu Liang Jiangsu Nanjing 32°04′00″N 118°49′51″E / 32.06667°N 118.83083°E / 32.06667; 118.83083 4,000 1,800,000 2003
1004-009 Tomb of Wu Zhen Jiangsu Nanjing 32°04′05″N 118°49′57″E / 32.06806°N 118.83250°E / 32.06806; 118.83250 3,500   2003
1004-010 Tomb of Xu Da Jiangsu Nanjing 32°04′30″N 118°50′06″E / 32.07500°N 118.83500°E / 32.07500; 118.83500 8,500   2003
1004-011 Tomb of Li Wenzhong Jiangsu Nanjing 32°04′47″N 118°50′23″E / 32.07972°N 118.83972°E / 32.07972; 118.83972 8,700   2003
1004-012 Yongling Tomb of the Qing dynasty Liaoning Fushun 41°42′36.4″N 124°48′08.8″E / 41.710111°N 124.802444°E / 41.710111; 124.802444 2,365,900 13,439,400 2004
1004-013 Fuling Tomb of the Qing dynasty Liaoning Shenyang 41°49′48.0″N 123°35′26.0″E / 41.830000°N 123.590556°E / 41.830000; 123.590556 538,600 7,023,600 2004
1004-014 Zhaoling Tomb of the Qing dynasty Liaoning Shenyang 41°51′09.1″N 123°25′39.0″E / 41.852528°N 123.427500°E / 41.852528; 123.427500 478,900 3,187,400 2004
Total 34,379,400 234,294,400

2004 additions

The three Imperial tombs of the Qing dynasty in Liaoning Province include the Yongling tomb, the Fuling tomb, and the Zhaoling tomb, all built in the 17th century. Constructed for the founding emperors of the Qing dynasty and their ancestors, the tombs follow the precepts of traditional Chinese geomancy and fengshui theory. They feature rich decoration of stone statues and carvings and tiles with dragon motifs, illustrating the development of the funerary architecture of the Qing dynasty. The three tomb complexes, and their numerous edifices, combine traditions inherited from previous dynasties and new features of Manchu culture.

Ming imperial tombs not included in the list

Note that the UNESCO World Heritage site presently does not include the mausoleum complexes that the Hongwu Emperor had built for his ancestors, viz. the Ming Ancestors Mausoleum (Zuling) in Xuyi County, Jiangsu and the Huangling Mausoleum in Fengyang, Anhui.

References

External links

  • Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties on the World Heritage Sites website
  • Advisory Body Evaluation (for the Liaoning Tombs, January 22, 2003)
  • Original Decision Document (October 29, 2004 - see p. 38, 39)
  • Locational Information: Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties (for the sites listed in 2000 and 2003)
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