Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties

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Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties
UNESCO World Heritage site
Location People's Republic of China
Criteria Cultural: (i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)
Reference 1004ter
Inscription 2000 (24th Session)
Extensions 2003, 2004

Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties (simplified Chinese: 明清皇家陵寝; traditional Chinese: 明清皇家陵寢; pinyin: Míng Qīng Huángjiā Língqǐn) is the designation under which the UNESCO has included several tombs and burial complexes into the list of World Heritage Sites (WHS). These tombs date from the Ming and Qing dynasties of China.

Tombs were included in the list in 2000, 2003 and 2004. Three Imperial tombs in Liaoning Province, all built in the 17th century, were added in 2004: the Yongling tomb, the Fuling tomb and the Zhaoling tomb were constructed for the founding emperors of the Qing dynasty and their ancestors. These tombs feature rich decoration of stone statues and carvings and tiles with dragon motifs, illustrating the development of the funerary architecture of the Qing dynasty. The three tomb complexes, and their numerous edifices, combine traditions inherited from previous dynasties and new features of Manchu culture.[citation needed]

Properties included in the World Heritage Site

WHS No. 1004ter includes the following tombs or tomb groups:

Serial ID No. Tomb Province Location Coordinates Area (m²) Buffer (m²) Year inscribed
1004-001 Xianling Tomb Hubei Zhongxiang 31°01′N 112°39′E / 31.017°N 112.650°E / 31.017; 112.650 876,000 2,264,000 2000
1004-002 Eastern Qing Tombs Hebei Zunhua 41°11′N 117°38′E / 41.183°N 117.633°E / 41.183; 117.633 2,240,000 78,000,000 2000
1004-003 Western Qing Tombs Hebei Yi County 39°20′N 115°13′E / 39.333°N 115.217°E / 39.333; 115.217 18,420,000 47,580,000 2000
1004-004 Ming Tombs Beijing Changping District 40°16′10″N 116°14′40″E / 40.26944°N 116.24444°E / 40.26944; 116.24444 8,230,000 81,000,000 2003
1004-005 Xiaoling Tomb Jiangsu Nanjing 32°03′37″N 118°50′04″E / 32.06028°N 118.83444°E / 32.06028; 118.83444 1,160,000 1,800,000 2003
1004-006 Tomb of Chang Yuchun Jiangsu Nanjing 32°03′44″N 118°49′54″E / 32.06222°N 118.83167°E / 32.06222; 118.83167 9,800   2003
1004-007 Tomb of Qiu Cheng Jiangsu Nanjing 32°03′51″N 118°49′59″E / 32.06417°N 118.83306°E / 32.06417; 118.83306 5,500   2003
1004-008 Tomb of Wu Liang Jiangsu Nanjing 32°04′00″N 118°49′51″E / 32.06667°N 118.83083°E / 32.06667; 118.83083 4,000 1,800,000 2003
1004-009 Tomb of Wu Zhen Jiangsu Nanjing 32°04′05″N 118°49′57″E / 32.06806°N 118.83250°E / 32.06806; 118.83250 3,500   2003
1004-010 Tomb of Xu Da Jiangsu Nanjing 32°04′30″N 118°50′06″E / 32.07500°N 118.83500°E / 32.07500; 118.83500 8,500   2003
1004-011 Tomb of Li Wenzhong Jiangsu Nanjing 32°04′47″N 118°50′23″E / 32.07972°N 118.83972°E / 32.07972; 118.83972 8,700   2003
1004-012 Yongling Tomb of the Qing dynasty Liaoning Fushun 41°42′36.4″N 124°48′08.8″E / 41.710111°N 124.802444°E / 41.710111; 124.802444 2,365,900 13,439,400 2004
1004-013 Fuling Tomb of the Qing dynasty Liaoning Shenyang 41°49′48.0″N 123°35′26.0″E / 41.830000°N 123.590556°E / 41.830000; 123.590556 538,600 7,023,600 2004
1004-014 Zhaoling Tomb of the Qing dynasty Liaoning Shenyang 41°51′09.1″N 123°25′39.0″E / 41.852528°N 123.427500°E / 41.852528; 123.427500 478,900 3,187,400 2004
Total 34,379,400 234,294,400

Other Imperial tombs

The UNESCO World Heritage Site does not include the mausoleum complexes which the Hongwu Emperor (Ming dynasty) had built for his ancestors:

References

External links

  • Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties on the World Heritage Sites website
  • Advisory Body Evaluation (for the Liaoning Tombs, January 22, 2003)
  • Original Decision Document (October 29, 2004 - see p. 38, 39)
  • Locational Information: Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties (for the sites listed in 2000 and 2003)
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