Xiamen

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Xiamen

厦门市

Amoy
From top: Xiamen's CBD, Xiamen University, Gulangyu Island, South Putuo Temple, beach on Gulangyu Island, and Haicang Bridge
From top: Xiamen's CBD, Xiamen University, Gulangyu Island, South Putuo Temple, beach on Gulangyu Island, and Haicang Bridge
Motto(s): 
温馨城市·海上花园 (Comfortable city, oceanfront garden)
Location of Xiamen City jurisdiction in Fujian
Location of Xiamen City jurisdiction in Fujian
Xiamen is located in China
Xiamen
Xiamen
Location in China
Coordinates: 24°28′47.41″N 118°05′21.91″E / 24.4798361°N 118.0894194°E / 24.4798361; 118.0894194Coordinates: 24°28′47.41″N 118°05′21.91″E / 24.4798361°N 118.0894194°E / 24.4798361; 118.0894194
Country People's Republic of China
Province Fujian
County-level
divisions
6 districts
Government
 • Party Secretary Hu Changsheng
 • Mayor Zhuang Jiahan
Area
 • Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city 1,699.39 km2 (656.14 sq mi)
 • Urban
281.6 km2 (108.7 sq mi)
 • Metro
3,217.98 km2 (1,242.47 sq mi)
Population
 (2010)
 • Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city 3,531,347[1]
 • Urban
1,861,289[2]
 • Metro
5,114,758
 • Major nationalities
Han: 96%
Manchu: 2%
Hui: 2%
Mongolian: 0.3%
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
361000
Area code(s) 592
ISO 3166 code CN-FJ-02
GDP 2018
 - Total CNY 479.141 billion (US$69.22 billion)
 - Per capita CNY 118,015 (US$17,105)
 - Growth Increase 7.7%
License plate prefixes 闽D
Language Standard Mandarin (Official), Xiamen Min Nan (Local Vernacular)
Website www.xm.gov.cn
Xiamen
Xiamen (Chinese characters).svg
"Xiamen" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese 厦门
Traditional Chinese 廈門
Hokkien POJ Ē-mn̂g or Ē-mûi
Postal Amoy
/əˈmɔɪ/[4]
Literal meaning "Mansion Gate"[3]

Xiamen (厦门) alternately known from its Hokkien pronunciation as Amoy [e˨˩ bŋ̍˨˨ ʨʰi˨˨], is a sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, People's Republic of China, beside the Taiwan Strait. It is divided into six districts: Huli, Siming, Jimei, Tong'an, Haicang, and Xiang'an. Altogether, these cover an area of 1,699.39 square kilometers (656.14 sq mi) with a population of 3,531,347 as of 2010. The urbanized area of the city has spread from its original island to include parts of all six of its districts, with a total population of 1,861,289. This area connects to Quanzhou in the north and Zhangzhou in the west, making up a metropolis of more than five million people. The Jinmen or Kinmen Islands administered by the Republic of China lie less than 6 kilometers (4 mi) away.

Xiamen Island possessed a natural harbor in Yundang Bay, but Fujian's international trade was long restricted to Quanzhou or to Guangzhou in Guangdong. Due to the siltification of Quanzhou's harbor, the British insisted that Xiamen be opened to foreign trade in the treaty that ended the First Opium War in 1842. Under the Qing, both before and after the war, there was a large-scale emigration of Chinese from southern Fujian who spread Hokkien-speaking communities to Singapore, Malaysia (especially in Penang), Indonesia (Medan and Riau Province) and the Philippines. The overseas Chinese continue to support Xiamen's educational and cultural institutions. As part of the Opening Up Policy under Deng Xiaoping, Xiamen became one of China's original four special economic zones opened to foreign investment and trade in the early 1980s. Its former harbor was enclosed using land excavated during the city's expansion, however, the city remains an island connected by bridges to the rest of mainland China.[5]

The city is known for its mild climate, Hokkien culture and Gulangyu Island, as well as its relatively low pollution. In 2006, Xiamen was ranked as China's second-"most suitable city for living", as well as China's "most romantic leisure city" in 2011.

Contents

Name

The statue of Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong) on Gulangyu Island.

The area around Xiamen Bay appears as Tong'an in some Han records. Xiamen Island was described as Jiahe Islet c. 976. It received its present name from the Xiamen Castle erected on the island by Zhou Dexing in 1387 during the Ming.[6] The name was formerly written using the Chinese characters meaning "Lower Gate". When its port prospered under the Qing, the name was considered unrefined and changed to homophonous characters meaning "Mansion Gate". Xiamen is the atonal pinyin romanization of the characters' pronunciation in Mandarin. It has also been romanized as Hiamen.[7] The former English name "Amoy" was based on the same name's pronunciation in the Zhangzhou dialect of Hokkien, Ē-mûi.

Xiamen was also named Siming ("Remembering the Ming") for a few years (1656–c. 1661) during its occupation by the loyalist Southern Ming forces of Koxinga. The Qing restored the former name upon their conquest of the area, but Koxinga's name was in turn restored after the Xinhai Revolution that inaugurated the republic in 1912. The name Xiamen was later restored again[when?] but Siming continues to be used as the name of one of its districts.

Geography

Xiamen Island, looking south. The Gaoji Causeway lies at the bottom and the old Yundang Harbor—now an inclosed lake—lies to the right. The Kinmen Islands controlled by the Republic of China are visible to the upper left. The photo was taken aboard a China Eastern Airbus A320-214.

Xiamen is a sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian whose urban core grew up from the port of Xiamen on southern Xiamen Island, now located within Siming District. It now also includes Gulangyu Island and the rugged coast of the mainland from the northeast bank of the Jiulong River in the west to the islands of Xiang'an in the east. Xiamen Island lies about one degree north of the Tropic of Cancer.[8] It is divided between Huli District in the north and Siming District in the south. Siming also includes Gulangyu. Its mainland territory is divided among Haicang, Jimei, Tong'an, and Xiang'an districts.

In the 19th century, Xiamen's harbor on Yundang Bay was considered one of the world's great natural harbors. Land reclamation has since been used to fill in the mouth of this inlet, turning it into Siming District's Yundang Lake. The municipal government is located on other reclaimed land beside it.

The nearest point of Liehyu in the Kinmen Islands, still controlled by the Republic of China from Taiwan, lies only 6 kilometers (4 mi) off Xiamen Island.[9]

Climate

Xiamen has a monsoonal humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), characterised by long, hot and humid summers (but moderate compared to much of the rest of the province) and short, mild and dry winters. The warmest month is July, with a 24-hour average of 27.8 °C (82.0 °F), and the coolest month is January, averaging 12.8 °C (55.0 °F); the annual mean is 20.7 °C (69.3 °F). Extremes since 1951 have ranged from 1.5 °C (35 °F) on 29 December 1991 to 39.2 °C (103 °F) on 20 July 2007.[10] Spring, both by humidity and percentage of sunshine, is the dampest season but typhoons in late summer and early autumn can make the latter period wetter overall. Summer and autumn are marked by comparatively sunny conditions, while autumn is warm and dry. The annual rainfall is 1,350 millimeters (53 in). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 24% in March to 56% in July, the city receives 1,853 hours of bright sunshine annually. Frost occurs very rarely, and the last snowfall in the city took place in January 1893, when snow also fell at Guangzhou, Macau, in the inland parts of Hong Kong and in the hills of Taipei.

The area is known within China for its relatively low pollution.[11]

History

The first flag in the second row was a flag of Amoy as recorded in a map published in 1787
"Amoy" and "Kolang-soo" in 1844[12]
"Amoy" Town and Harbor from "Kalangsu" in 1874.
Lai Afong's c. 1870 photograph of "Amoy" from "Koolansoo".
A Krupp gun at the Hulishan Battery, installed to protect Xiamen during the late Qing era.
"Hsia-men" and "Ku-lang Hsü" in a 1945 American map.
Large characters saying "Peaceful Reunification" and "One Country, Two Systems" on Xiamen Island's west coast, facing the nearby Taiwanese-controlled Kinmen Islands. Similar propaganda on Kinmen face Xiamen, reading "Three Principles of the People Unite China".
Gulangyu (foreground) and Xiamen (background).

The area of Xiamen was largely bypassed by the Qin and Han conquests and colonization of Guangdong, which passed west of Fujian down the Lingqu Canal between the Xiang and Li rivers. It was first organized as Tong'an County in AD 282 under the Jin, but it lost this status soon afterwards. Tong'an County was again established in 933 under the Later Tang.

The settlement on the southeastern shore of Xiamen Island[13] (now part of Siming District) developed as a seaport under the Song, although legal foreign trade was restricted to nearby Quanzhou, which administered the area. In 1387, attacks by the "Japanese" or "dwarf" pirates—many of them actually disaffected Chinese—prompted the Ming to protect the harbor with the fortress that gave Xiamen its name. The Portuguese first reached Xiamen in 1541. After the fall of the Ming to the Qing in 1644, Southern Ming loyalists including Koxinga used Xiamen as a base from which to launch attacks against the invading Manchus from 1650 to 1660.[14] In 1661, Koxinga drove the Dutch from Taiwan and moved his operations there. His base on Xiamen fell to a combined Qing and Dutch invasion in 1663.[15] The East India Company traded extensively with the port, constructing a factory there in 1678.[15][a] It was raised to the status of a subprefecture in 1680,[citation needed] but the taxes and other restrictions placed on traders compelled the British to relocate to Canton and Fuzhou the next year.[15] Trade resumed in 1685[16] and continued until the imposition of the Canton System.

By the 19th century, the city walls had a circumference of around 9 miles (14 km), with an inner and outer city divided by an inner wall and a ridge of hills surmounted by a well-built fort.[13] The inner harbor on Yundang Bay was also well fortified[13] and these defenses were further strengthened upon the outbreak of the First Opium War.[16] Nonetheless, Xiamen was captured in 1841 between Guangzhou and Zhoushan. Rear Adm. Parker bombarded the Qing position to little effect, but the assault by the men under Lt. Gen. Gough caused the Chinese to flee their positions without a fight.[16][17] The city was abandoned during the night[12] and fell the next day on 27 August.[18] The Chinese had spirited out the entire treasury of sycee bullion under the nose of the British by disguising it inside hollow logs.[12] Xiamen being too large to garrison, a small force was left to hold Gulangyu.[19] The next year, the Treaty of Nanjing made Xiamen one of the first five ports opened to British trade, which had previously been legally restricted to Guangzhou. Subsequent treaties opened the port to other international powers.

As the primary international port for Fujian, particularly Zhangzhou and its hinterland,[13] Xiamen became a center of China's tea trade, with hundreds of thousands of tons shipped yearly to Europe and the Americas.[20] Its local dialect influenced a variety of translations of Chinese terms. Its principal exports during the period were tea, porcelain, and paper;[b] it imported sugar, rice, cotton, and opium, as well as some manufactured goods.[13][c] Xiamen was also a center of Protestant missionaries in China;[21][22] the missions operated the city's two hospitals.[23] The merchants of Xiamen were thought among the richest and most entrepreneurial[13] and industrious[24] in China, but the city was widely accounted the dirtiest city in China.[13][7][23] Owing to local belief in feng shui, the streets were "as crooked as ram's horns"[23] and averaged about 4 feet (1 m) in width to keep out sunlight and control public disturbances.[25] Its population was estimated at 250,000 in the 1870s;[13][d] by that point the island was largely barren and full of roughly 140 villages, with a total population around 400,000.[26] European settlement in the port was concentrated on Gulangyu Island off Xiamen proper; it remains known for its colonial architecture.[citation needed]

A 1915 map of the "Environs of Amoy",[30] showing the city and island before the massive land reclamation projects of the 20th century.

By the 20th century, the local export economy had collapsed due to the success of British tea plantations in India.[7] During the Qing and the early 20th century, many southern Fujianese emigrated to Southeast Asia and Taiwan, spreading Hokkien language and culture overseas. Some 350,000 overseas Chinese currently trace their ancestry to Xiamen.[31] Some of this diaspora later returned: an estimated 220,000 Xiamen residents are returning overseas Chinese and their kin.[31] Others continue to help fund universities and cultural institutions in Xiamen.

At the time of the Xinhai Revolution, the native population of the city was estimated at 300,000 and the foreign settlement at 280.[7] After the establishment of the Republic of China, the area around Xiamen was renamed Siming County. Xiamen's trade during the period was largely conducted through Taiwan,[7] which had been seized by Japan during the First Sino-Japanese War. The Japanese subsequently claimed Fujian as their sphere of influence during the colonial squabbling over China.[7] Japan occupied Xiamen Island from May 1938 to September 1945 during World War II. In the late phases of the Chinese Civil War that followed, the Communists captured Xiamen and Gulangyu in October 1949 but failed to capture Kinmen. The same year, Xiamen became a provincially administered city (省辖市).

In 1955 and 1958, mainland China escalated Cold War political tensions by shelling nearby islands from Xiamen in what became known as the First and Second Taiwan Strait Crisis. The Nationalists responded by reinforcing Kinmen and shelling Xiamen. The Gaoji Causeway built from 1955–57 notionally transformed Xiamen Island into a peninsula, and so it was termed in the heady propaganda of the time. Due to political tensions, the eastern half of Xiamen Island and much of the Fujian Coast facing the offshore islands remained undeveloped in the 1960s and 1970s. The Water Police and Post-Office were situated directly across the water from the American embassy.

Siming District, looking north from the southern shore of Yundang Lake

When Deng Xiaoping initiated his Opening Up Policy, Xiamen was made one of the first four special economic zones in 1980, with special investment and trade regulations attracting foreign investment, particularly from overseas Chinese.[32] The city grew and prospered. On 18 April 1988, Xiamen was promoted to sub-provincial status and began to be specially considered in China's state planning. In 2001, the governments of mainland China and Taiwan agreed to initiate the "Three Mini-Links" and restored ferry, commercial, and mail links between the mainland and offshore islands. Trade and travel between Xiamen and Kinmen was restored and later expanded to include direct air travel to Taiwan Island. In 2010, travelers between Xiamen and Kinmen made 1.31 million trips.[33]

In 1999, the largest corruption scandal in China's history was uncovered in Xiamen, implicating up to 200 government officials. Lai Changxing is alleged to have run an enormous smuggling operation, which financed the city's football team, film studios, largest construction project and a vast brothel rented to him by the local Public Security Bureau. According to Time, "locals used to joke that Xiamen should change its name to Yuanhua, the name of Lai's company." They subsequently claimed that potential investors were discouraged by the taint of corruption.[34]

In 2006, Xiamen was ranked as China's 2nd-"most suitable city for living",[35] as well as China's "most romantic leisure city" in 2011.[36]

Demographics

According to the 2010 Census, Xiamen has a population of 3,531,347 inhabitants, almost 1.8 times the population counted for the last census in 2000 (which was of 2,053,070 inhabitants). The annual average population growth was of 5.57% for the period 2000–2010.[37] This masks the population explosion in Jimei District, however, which quadrupled since the prior census; Huli District's population more than doubled.[38] The resident population was 1,967,800 in 2013 yearend, and with a population of 3.73 million (those residing at least half a year).[39] The total resident population is said to be 4,255,000 in December 2014, without specifying what counts as a resident.[40]

Languages

The local variety is Xiamenese (also known as Amoynese), a dialect of Hokkien that is part of the Southern Min languages. Amoy dialect is widely used and understood across the southern part of Fujian province as well as overseas. While it is widely spoken in and around Xiamen, especially by its native speakers, the Amoy dialect has no official status. The official language of all government and political business is Mandarin, although the locals do not use much of it in their everyday lives. The English words "Amoy", "tea" (茶; tê), "cumshaw" (感謝; kám-siā), "pekoe" (白毫; pe̍h-hô), kowtow (磕頭; khàu-thâu), "ketchup" (鮭汁; koê-chiap) originated from Amoy dialect.

Religion

In the 19th century, Xiamen proper had two Dutch Reformed[e] and two LMS churches.[21] Xiamen Island was home to three Dutch Reformed missions at "Kang-thau", "Kio-than", and "Chhan-chhu-oa".[26]

Administration

Xiamen is a sub-provincial city[41] of Fujian with direct jurisdiction over 6 districts.

Map Name Simplified Chinese Pinyin Population
(2010 census)
Area
(km2)
Density
(/km2)
Huli 湖里区 Húlǐ Qū 931,291 73.77 14,782
Siming 思明区 Sīmíng Qū 929,998 83.99 12,740
Haicang 海沧区 Hǎicāng Qū 288,739 186.46 1,863
Jimei 集美区 Jíměi Qū 580,857 274.29 2,105
Tong'an 同安区 Tóng'ān Qū 496,129 669.36 754
Xiang'an 翔安区 Xiáng'ān Qū 304,333 411.50 865

In May 2003, Gulangyu and Kaiyuan districts were merged into Siming District; Xinglin District () was merged into Jimei District; and Xiang'an District was created out of a section of Tong'an District.

Economy

China Construction Bank Building, Xiamen

Xiamen has a diverse and well-developed economy. It is the first to refer to the business environment indexes of the World Bank with the aim of creating world's first-rated business environment.[42] In 2018, its business environment ranked 2nd among 22 cities across the country that was evaluated by the National Development and Reform Commission.[43] Its measures in areas such as dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, and trading across borders take the lead in the country.

Its social credit system has been improved. In 2018, its overall credit index ranked 2nd among 36 provincial capitals and sub-provincial cities and above.

The Siming and Huli districts form its Special Economic Zone.

Xiamen focuses on the development of five major industries - electronic information, equipment manufacturing, tourism and culture, modern logistics, and financial services.

The city strives to build more than 10 industrial chains, each with an output value of 100 billion yuan ($14.71 billion), including panel displays, computer and communication equipment, semiconductors and integrated circuits, software and information services, machinery and equipment, new materials, tourism and exhibitions, cultural creativity, modern logistics, financial services, biological medicine and urban modern agriculture.

Xiamen's GDP has grown at an average annual rate of 15.4 percent since China's reform and opening-up four decades ago. In 2018, per capita GDP: 118,015 yuan ($17,105); per capita disposable income: 50,948 yuan; public financial budget revenue: 128.3 billion yuan; 1,626 hi-tech enterprises, accounting for 44 percent of the total number of Fujian province; 600.5 billion yuan of total foreign trade value; degree of dependence on foreign trade has reached 125 percent.[44]

By the end of 2018, Xiamen brought in a total of 14,818 foreign-invested projects; contractual foreign investments: $66 billion, actual foreign investments: $37.9 billion; 62 overseas Fortune 500 companies invested in 112 projects in Xiamen.[45]

The city has economic and trade relations with 162 countries[citation needed] and regions worldwide, and benefits from foreign investment, particularly capital from Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Singapore, US, Japan, Switzerland, Malaysia, Philippines, German and UK.

Xiamen is also the host of the China International Fair for Investment and Trade held annually in early September to attract foreign direct investment into the Chinese mainland.

Xiamen also hold Straits Forum annually. The 2019 edition kicked off in the coastal city from June 15-21. More than 10,000 people attended the annual forum this year.

Well-known foreign and Chinese enterprises in Xiamen

Europe

ABB/Nestle/Shell/Linde/Swire/AB InBev/Maersk/Philips/Schneider/ECCO/GN Hearing/GN Audio/TOMRA

Americas

Dell/Amazon/GE/Boeing/Honeywell/UTC

Asia

Toyota/Panasonic/Hitachi/NEC/TDK/FDK/NEG/SK/ST Aerospace/IOI/

Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan

China Merchants Group/China Resources Group/HKCTS/Hutchison Whampoa/Xiashun/Leadcore Technology Co/ AU Optronics/TPK/AOC

Chinese mainland

Tianma Micro-electronics/Kaistar Lighting/CSIC/COSCO Shipping/MIGU/Tongfu Microelectronics/

Silan/ANTA/SEPTWOLVES/Xtep/China Capital Investment Group/JD.com/Shenzhen Huaqiang Holdings/UCAR/Luckin Coffee/toutiao.com/meituan.com/Qudian.com/DiDi

Financial services

Xiamen has highly developed banking services. The biggest bank is the state-owned commercial bank, Sino-foreign joint venture Xiamen International Bank, solely foreign-funded Xiamen Bank, and Xiamen Rural Commercial Bank.

Various foreign banks that have established representative offices in Xiamen.

There are more than 600 financial institutions in operation in Xiamen.[citation needed]

Development zones

Haicang Investment Zone (厦门海沧台商投资区)[46] is situated to the southeast of Xiamen Island, at the tip of the Xiamen-Zhangzhou-Quanzhou Delta in South Fujian bordering Zhangzhou City to the west, Jimei District to the north, and overlooking Xiamen Island across the narrow water. The 100-square-kilometer Haicang Investment Zone is the largest national investment zone for Taiwan business people authorized by the State Council in 1989. It is situated close to Xiamen Port.[47] The zone aims at becoming a new port area, a new industrial area and a sub-center of greater Xiamen in the 21st century. It is divided into the following four functional areas in line with its overall plan: Haicang Port Area, Xinyang Industrial Area, Southern Industrial Area and Haicang New Urban Area.

Xiamen Area of China (Fujian) Pilot Free Trade Zone (福建自贸试验区厦门片区管委会)[48] is located in the northwest part of Xiamen, within the area of Dongdu port. Near No 319 national road and Yingxia railway, it is connected with Gaoqi International Airport. On Oct 15, 1992, the State Council approved establishment of the zone with an area of 5 square kilometers; the first phase covers 0.63 square kilometers and was put into operation on Nov 28, 1993. It is the most modern international logistics zone in the southeast part of China.

Xiamen Torch Development Zone for High Technology Industries (厦门火炬高新区管委会)[49] was jointly established by the former State Scientific and Technological Commission and the Xiamen municipal government in 1990 and has gradually developed into "one zone with multi parks". A favorable investment environment and high returns has made the zone into a hot spot for foreign investment. Bourns Inc. of the United States concluded the zone the most ideal target for foreign investors in China. Some of the world's top 500 companies such as Dell, ABB Switch, ABB Low-Voltage, ABB High-Voltage, Panasonic, FDK, Xiamen Tungaloy, and Fujitsu are rapidly expanding their operations in Xiamen. The zone is oriented towards information technology, biotechnology, new energy, new materials, oceanology, advanced manufacturing, and environment technology. Most of its exports go to countries and areas such as the US, Japan, Southeast Asia, West Europe, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan. Hi-tech exports include computers, color monitors, microscopes, power supply units, integrated circuits, stepping motors, wireless telephones, switching equipment, tungsten carbide micro-drills, and similar products.

Gulangyu Island-Wanshi Mountain Scenic Spot (鼓浪屿-万石山风景名胜区)[50]

Key industries[51]

Panel display industry

Xiamen is one of China's regions with rapid development of the TFT liquid crystal display (LCD) industry. Its industrial scale ranks sixth in the country and is the only pilot city with a national optoelectronic display industrial cluster. The city also has the largest R&D and production base of touch screen modules in the world. Xiamen's panel display industry reached an output value of 131.5 billion yuan in 2018, forming a complete industrial chain layout. Industrial parks include Xiamen Tongan Xiang'an Hi-tech Industrial Base and Xiamen Torch Hi-Tech Industrial Zone (Xiang'an).

Computer and communication equipment industry

Xiamen has gathered integrated manufacturing enterprises in such fields as complete computers, mobile phones, mobile phone lenses, micro motors, flexible circuit boards, bluetooth and wireless access equipment, and positioning and navigation sensors, as well assupporting enterprises of basic components, accessories, external equipment and IT services. The complete machine brand has global influence. The industry reached an output value of 120.4 billion yuan ($17.68 billion) in 2018. Industrial parks include Xiamen Tongan Xiang'an Hi-tech Industrial Base and Xiamen Torch Hi-Tech Industrial Zone (Xiang'an).

Semiconductor and integrated circuits industry

Xiamen is home to more than 200 integrated circuit (IC) enterprises which form an industrial chain covering IC design, manufacturing, testing, equipment and materials as well as applications. Xiamen's IC industry reached an output value of 41.7 billion yuan ($6.11 billion) in 2018. Industrial parks include Xiamen Tongan Xiang'an Hi-tech Industrial Base, Xiamen Science and Technology Innovation Park, Xiamen Haicang Information Industrial Park, and Xiamen IC Strait Free Trade Zone Industrial Base.

Software and information services industry

The software and information services industry in Xiamen covers various fields including the platform economy, industrial application software, animation and games and cloud computing and information security. The city has won the title of "China's Characteristic City in Software". The industrial output value of Xiamen's software and information services industry in 2018 reached 149.3 billion yuan ($21.78 billion), with Xiamen Software Park accounting for 67 percent of that figure.

Machinery and equipment industry

Xiamen's machinery and equipment industry covers five industrial sectors - large and medium-sized passenger cars, power transmission and distribution equipment, aviation maintenance, engineering machinery and shipbuilding, with an output value of 103.7 billion yuan ($15.13 billion) in 2018. Industrial parks include Xiamen Machinery industry concentration area, Xiamen Torch Power Transmission and Distribution Industry Base, Xiamen Haicang Ship Industrial Zone, Xiamen Aviation Industrial Zone, and Xiamen Airport Industrial Zone.

New materials industry

Xiamen's new materials industry is dominated by special metal materials and advanced polymer materials, including photoelectric information materials, new energy, energy saving and environmental protection materials, and advanced carbon nanomaterials. The industry reached an output value of 88.9 billion yuan ($12.95 billion) in 2018. Industrial parks include Xiamen Tongan Xiang'an Hi-tech Industrial Base and Xiamen Torch Hi-Tech Industrial Zone (Xiang'an).

Tourism industry

Xiamen has been honored as the Top Tourist City in China, a Demonstration City of Tourism and Leisure in China and one of China's most romantic leisure cities. The holiday tourism popularity and tourist satisfaction in Xiamen has long been at the forefront in China, and its inbound tourism and foreign exchange earnings have been ranked in China's top 10. The number of people going to Taiwan via Xiamen Port ranks first in China.

Exhibition industry

In 2018, Xiamen held a total of 229 exhibitions, with a total exhibition area of 2.38 million square meters, up 8.6 percent year-on-year. The hotels and conference centers in the city hosted 9,262 commercial meetings with more than 50 people attending, up 12.1 percent year-on-year. The total number of participants from home and abroad to Xiamen reached 1.88 million, with a year-on-year increase of 12.1 percent. The total revenue of the exhibition industry in Xiamen reached 40.3 billion yuan ($5.86 billion). Industrial parks include Xiamen International Conference & Exhibition Center, Xiamen International Conference Center, Xiamen Fliport Conference & Exhibition Center, and Xiamen east sports exhibition area (under construction).

Culture and creativity industry

Xiamen has seen rapid development in creative design, the film industry and high-end artworks in recent years. The city was listed among the first National Culture Export Bases and is home to the world's third Red Dot Design Museum. Also, the Golden Rooster and Hundred Flowers Film Festival, one of the top events in China's film industry, is to be presented in Xiamen once every two years for the 10 years following 2019. The total revenue of Xiamen's culture and creativity industry reached 104 billion yuan ($15.13 billion) in 2018. Industrial parks include National demonstration base for the integration of culture and science and technology, National Fujian and Taiwan cultural industry experimental park, Longshan cultural and creative industrial park, Huli creative industrial park, Jimeiji film and television industrial park, Tongan cultural industrial park, and Cross-Straits architectural design cultural and creative park.

Modern logistics industry

Xiamen has been approved as a national modern logistics innovation and development city, a national cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot zone, a smart logistics city and a logistics standardization pilot zone, and a demonstration city for the standardization of cold chain circulation of agricultural products. In 2018, the modern logistics industry in Xiamen achieved an output value of 118 billion yuan ($17.17 billion). And Xiamen port ranked 7th in China and 14th in the world in terms of container throughput. Xiamen has formed a freight hub integrating the southeast coastal area highways and railroads. There are five logistics industry agglomeration areas in Xiamen: Haicang and Dongdu port-surrounding areas, Qianchang, Tongan and Xiang'an.

Financial services industry

In 2018, Xiamen's total revenue of financial services reached 152.9 billion yuan ($22.24 billion), and added value accumulated to 52.4 billion yuan. Industrial parks include Xiamen cross-Straits financial center and Xiamen Area of China (Fujian) Pilot Free Trade Zone.

Bio-medicine and health industry

Xiamen is a pilot city for the regional agglomeration of emerging industries in bio-medicine, with a total output value of 58.9 billion yuan ($8.56 billion) in 2018. A total of 241 State-level high-tech enterprises have settled in the city. Xiamen Biobay is the incubation center for local bio-medicine achievements.

Urban modern agriculture industry

Urban modern agriculture in Xiamen covers the planting industry, animal husbandry, agricultural and sideline products, the food processing industry, rural tourism and ecological leisure agriculture. In 2018, Xiamen's agricultural product processing developed steadily, with 44 leading agricultural industrialization enterprises generating sales revenue of 55.3 billion yuan ($8.05 billion). Industrial parks include Xiamen cross-Straits agricultural high-tech park, Xiamen Tongan National Agricultural Science and Technology Park, Xiamen Tongan light industry food industrial park, Agricultural and sideline products logistics center of southern Fujian, and Leisure agriculture areas including Xiangshan, Damaoshan and Zhubawuxian.

Transportation

Local transportation

The Haicang Bridge in 2007
The Xiamen BRT beside the main railway station. Its expressways and elevated roads form a closed network accessible only to the system's busses.

The Gaoji Causeway, five main road bridges (the Jimei, Xiamen, Xiang'an, Xinglin, and Haicang Bridges), and two undersea tunnel (Xiang'an Tunnel and Haicang Tunnel) link Xiamen Island with the mainland.

The main forms of public transportation in Xiamen are buses, bus rapid transit (BRT) and the subway. Xiamen's BRT system features a dedicated bus-only closed road system with stations and ticketing system similar to light rail. Most of the 115-kilometer (71 mi) BRT network consist of bus lanes along expressways and elevated BRT viaducts on Xiamen Island. BRT routes have no traffic lights and travel speed is limited by design to 60 kilometers per hour (37 mph). Five BRT routes are currently in service: BRT-1 Route, BRT-2 Route, Huandao Avenue BRT Route, Chenggong Avenue BRT Route and Connecting BRT Route. The fare is 0.6 RMB per km for the air-conditioned busses. The BRT is supplemented by 20 shuttle bus services that connect nearby places to the BRT stations. The shuttle bus service has a flat rate of 0.5 RMB. Fare discount is available when pre-paid e-card is used.[citation needed]

Taxis can be easily hailed in most areas of the city. Bicycles are commonly used by residents, especially on Xiamen Island. Unlike many Chinese cities, motorcycles, mopeds, tricycles, and wooden handcarts are not permitted in Xiamen. The city has upheld a ban on these vehicles since the 1990s. Electric bikes are permitted with proper licensing and obedience of traffic laws.[52] On the small island of Gulangyu off Xiamen Island, automobiles are also banned.

Xiamen Metro has been under construction since 13 November 2013 and the first line began operation on 31 December 2017. A system of five lines has been approved so far, with plans to eventually expand to eleven lines including service to surrounding suburban areas.

Road

The Fuzhou-Xiamen and Zhangzhou-Xiamen Express Highways link Xiamen with the highway network of Fujian and the neighboring provinces of Guangdong, Jiangxi, and Zhejiang. There are also container freight services available between Xiamen and Shenzhen and Hong Kong.[53]

Railways

Xiamen Railway Station's south entrance.

Xiamen is served by the Yingtan–Xiamen railway, Fuzhou–Xiamen railway, Longyan–Xiamen railway and the Xiamen–Shenzhen railway, which are connected to China's national railway network. Direct passenger trains are available from Xiamen to Shanghai, Nanjing, Hefei, Fuzhou, Nanchang and Yingtan. The completion of the Xingguo–Yong’an–Quanzhou railway, Fuzhou–Xiamen High-Speed railway, Nanchang–Xiamen High-Speed railway, Longyan–Xiamen High-Speed railway, Xiamen–Shantou High-Speed railway in late 2020 expanded train services to destinations to the west and southwest.

The Xiamen Railway Station on the island of Xiamen is connected to the mainland by a railway bridge.

The Xiamen North Railway Station is located in Jimei District.

The Xiamen East Railway Station will be located in Xiang'an District.[54]

Air

The Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport in northeastern Xiamen Island is a main air hub in East China with flights to over 90 domestic and international destinations. Among airports in China, Xiamen ranked the top 11 for passenger traffic, top 8 for cargo traffic and top 10 for air traffic. It can handle 27 million passengers annually. The airport is the headquarters hub of Xiamen Airlines.

Xiamen has direct flights to most cities in China, Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan, and major cities in east Asia like Tokyo, Osaka and Seoul.Intercontinental flights to Amsterdam, Sydney, Melbourne, Vancouver, Seattle(stopover Shenzhen), Los Angeles started from 2011. Xiamen also holds a strong network to southeast Asia cities like, Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Jakarta, Cebu and Singapore, to serve the large communities of southern Fujian's overseas diaspora and the increasing tourism flows.

There are also coach bus services connecting Xiamen with Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA).[55]

Sea

Ferries

Xiamen has passenger ferry services to cities along the coast of China as well as the neighbouring island of Kinmen to the east, which is administered by the Republic of China on Taiwan. These ferries are all served from the Wutong Ferry Terminal to Shuitou Pier, Kinmen on the north-east side of the Xiamen Island (quite distant from downtown Xiamen), ferries to Kinmen take 60 minutes. There are facilities in both directions allowing for quick transfers between Xiamen Gaoqi Airport (for Mainland destinations) and Kinmen Airport (for Taiwanese destinations), which are very popular especially among large tour groups.

While the Heping Wharf Ferry Terminal on the south-west side of Xiamen Island offers short 5 minute boat rides to the island of Gulangyu, this ferry is only accessible by Xiamen residents. Tourists and non-locals must now take a longer 20 minute ferry ride from the main International Ferry Terminal, also called the Dongdu International Terminal, on the south-west side of Xiamen Island, as of 20 October 2014 with a fare increase from 8RMB to 35RMB. The purpose was to reduce the number of tourists accessing the island in an effort to conserve it. This terminal used to have ferries, taking 90 minutes, to Kinmen Island but were ceased in 2014.

Port

The headquarters of the Xiamen Port administration.

The historic port of Xiamen in Yundang Bay on the southwest side of Xiamen Island has been converted into a lake by land reclamation projects.

The present-day Port of Xiamen lies on the northwestern shore of Xiamen Island, opposite its airport, and at eleven other sites around Xiamen Bay and along the Jiulong estuary, including the neighboring jurisdiction of Zhangzhou. The port facilities are interconnected by ship, road, and rail. The port has been one of the busiest in China since the early 1980s[54] and is serviced by all of the 20 largest shipping lines in the world. In 2016, Xiamen ranked among the top 15 ports in the world for container freight.

The natural coastline in the port area is 64.5 kilometers (40 mi) while the water is over 12 meters (39 ft) in depth. There are 81 berths, including 16 deep-water berths, of which 6 operate containers of over 10,000 tonnes. Among other cargoes handled, Xiamen is the world's largest supply base for raw tungsten materials[53] and sunglasses, exporting 120 million pairs each year.[53]

Xiamen is also an important base in Fujian province for making medium-sized and large container vessels and yachts.[53]

Tourism

Walkway on Gulangyu
A local store on Gulangyu
Buddhist library, Nanputuo Temple
Painted roofs at Nanputuo Temple
Xiamen local handicraft, gold plated lacquer ware

Xiamen and its surrounding countryside is known for its scenery and tree-lined beaches.[citation needed] Gulangyu, a former treaty port enclave, is a popular weekend getaway[citation needed] with views of the city and features many Victorian-style buildings. Xiamen's Botanical Garden is a nature lover's paradise. The Buddhist Nanputuo Temple, dating back to the Tang Dynasty, is a national treasure. Xiamen is also well known as a continuing frontline in the Chinese Civil War, with the nearby Jinmen Islands remaining under Taiwanese control. Water Garden Expo Park has a total area of about 6.76 km2 (2.61 sq mi), with a land area of 3.03 km2 or 1.17 sq mi consisting of five exhibition park islands, four ecological landscapes islands and two peninsulas, including the main pavilion, Chinese Education Park, Marine Culture Island, Spa Island, and other functional areas and related facilities.

Culture

Xiamen is famed for its music, puppet shows, Gezi Opera, and temple celebration events.

Cuisine

As with much of southern China, the staple foods of Xiamen have long been rice, seafood, pork, sweet potatoes, various pickled vegetables, and bok choy.[56] Its traditional dishes form a branch of southern Fujianese cuisine, with Taiwanese influence. It is particularly well known within China for its street food and snacks. A local specialty is worm jelly (t 土笋凍, s 土笋冻, tǔsǔndòng), a gelatin made from a kind of marine peanut worm.

Music

Many famous Chinese musicians hail from Xiamen and Gulangyu Island, including Huang Yujun, Yin Chengzong, Jing Yang, and Xu Feiping. It has a major symphony orchestra, the Xiamen Philharmonic Orchestra. Every May there's an international music festival, and piano competitions and music festivals are also frequently held. On Gulangyu, on Huangyan Road on the way to Sunlight Rock is the Gulangyu Concert Hall, where classical concerts are regularly held on weekends.

Art

Wushipu Oil Painting Village, Xiamen

Xiamen Wushipu oil painting village has been named as “the second of the world oil painting industry base” and the second batch of national cultural (art) industry base” by the China artist association and the culture property department of Culture Ministry.[citation needed]

Xiamen has strong industry advantage in hand-done oil painting, which has two main manufacturing bases here, Xiamen Wushipu Oil Painting Village and Xiamen Haicang Oil Painting Village. 80% market shares in European and American market is taken up by products exported from Xiamen. As the main manufacturing base of hand painted oil painting in China, Xiamen Wushipu Oil Painting Village has more than 5,000 artists. It has the ability to produce all kinds of oil paintings with different specifications and styles. With the support of Xiamen Municipal Government, it has formed a powerful industrial chain, provided related accessories such as frames, brushes and paint colors and formed stable target customers composed by hotels, villas, high-class departments, galleries and so on. As another mail manufacturing base of oil painting, Xiamen Haicang Oil Painting Village has more than 3,000 painters. The scale of Xiamen Haicang Oil Painting Village has developed rapidly in recent years, which is from originally 28 enterprises to more than 250 enterprises at the moment. The combination of manufacturing, sales and distribution makes it become industrial base of commercial oil painting.[citation needed]

Media

Xiamen is served by Xiamen Media Group, which broadcasts news and entertainment such as movies and television series by AM/FM radio, close circuit television, and satellite television. Media in Xiamen were temporarily blocked by the Government in June 2007 when about 10,000 people participated in protests against the building of a paraxylene factory by Tenglong Aromatic PX (Xiamen) Co. Ltd., which is owned by Taiwanese businessman Chen Yu-hao.[57] The incident, however, was solved smoothly later that year.

Colleges and universities[58]

A view of the Xiamen University campus
A view of the Xiamen University
Jiannan Auditorium at Xiamen University

Public Universities

The first two universities below were founded by Tan Kah Kee.

  • Xiamen University (厦门大学) (founded 1921, Project 985, Project 211, powered by the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China): The school has cooperated with over 300 overseas universities and made substantive exchanges with 47 foreign universities that rank among the top 200 in the world. The university vigorously promotes the campaign of teaching Chinese as a foreign language worldwide by co-establishing 15 Confucius Institutes with universities in North America, Europe, and Africa.[59]
  • Jimei University (集美大学)(powered by the Fujian Provincial Department of Education): The university enrolls students from all over the country as well as from overseas; about 600 overseas students are now studying at Jimei.[60]
  • Jimei University Chengyi College (集美大学诚毅学院)(independent college)
  • Huaqiao University (华侨大学): 4,627 international students from over 50 countries and regions including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan are now studying at Huaqiao University. The school is one of the top destinations for overseas students in China.[61]
  • Chinese Language and Culture College of Huaqiao University (华侨大学华文学院)(secondary school of Huaqiao University)
  • Xiamen University of Technology (厦门理工学院): Attracting international students from more than 10 countries to study.[62]
  • Xiamen Medical College (厦门医学院): The college has established friendly cooperation ties with National Taiwan Ocean University, National Yang-Ming University, National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Tzu Chi University of Science and Technology, Fooyin University, China University of Science and Technology, Central Taiwan University of Sciences and Technology, South Korea's Catholic University of Deagu, Gimcheon College, Daejeon University, Daegu Haany University, and Germany's Cologne University of Applied Sciences. They have conducted international cooperation in running joint schools and research programs while encouraging exchange visits of scholars.[63]
  • Xiamen Academy of Arts and Design, Fuzhou University (福州大学厦门工艺美术学院) (secondary school of Fuzhou University)

Private Universities

  • Xiamen Huaxia University (厦门华夏学院): The school has signed agreements with universities and colleges from the United States and Taiwan, including the University of Arkansas-Little Rock, National Taichung University of Science and Technology and Tzu Chi University of Science and Technology. They exchange teachers and students, with over 200 students having been sent to Taiwan and the US on exchange studies.[64]
  • Xiamen Institute of Technology (厦门工学院): The school upholds a constantly upgraded international vision of talent training and has carried out various forms of cooperation and exchanges with 16 universities in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Taiwan and other countries and regions. A cooperation system has been developed to encourage students to learn at other schools for a certain time in the context that credits are accepted by both schools. There is another program that offers double degrees and continuous undergraduate and graduate study.[65]

Public Higher Vocational Schools

  • Xiamen Ocean Vocational College (厦门海洋职业技术学院)
  • Xiamen City University (厦门城市职业学院): The school has admitted a total of 193 overseas students from nine countries. It has also set up a subsidiary college, known as the International Vocational Education College, and has cooperated with universities from the US, Canada, Japan and other countries to cultivate professional talent with an international vision and a "craftsman's spirit".[66]

Private Higher Vocational Schools

  • Xiamen Huatian International Vocational Institute (厦门华天涉外职业技术学院): The college has been actively expanding international cooperation, enjoying partnerships with Hosan University and Catholic University in South Korea. The school also reached cooperative intentions with four US universities, including the South Seattle Community College, and the Victoria University of Wellington in New Zealand.
  • The Xiamen Academy For Performing Arts (厦门演艺职业学院): The school emphasizes cultural and artistic exchanges between Fujian and Taiwan, and built a long-term tie with a Taiwan vocational college in 2010. It also uses the favorable location of Xiamen to invite prestigious artists and arts groups from Taiwan to give lectures and conduct academic exchanges.
  • Xiamen Xingcai Vocational & Technical College (厦门兴才职业技术学院)
  • Xiamen Institute of Software Technolog y (厦门软件职业技术学院): The school cooperates with top universities such as Deakin University in Australia, Dublin Business School in Ireland, University of Central Lancashire in the United Kingdom and Feng Chia University in Taiwan on academic exchanges and scientific research.
  • Xiamen Nanyang University (厦门南洋职业学院): The school maintains cooperative relationships with colleges and universities from the United States, Canada, Singapore and Taiwan, and is gearing up to enhance mutual exchanges and promote Xiamen to a wider international audience.[67]
  • Xiamen Donghai Institute (厦门东海职业技术学院): To advance its international exchange and cooperation, the institute set up an international school in December 2017, and built partnerships with South Korea's Daegu University, Sangmyung University, Hosan University and the Wesleyan University in the United States.[68]
  • Xiamen Security Science And Technology College (厦门安防科技职业学院): The college has been dedicated to international education since 2017 with the aim of improving the quality of its education. It gained qualification to recruit overseas students after receiving approval from senior administration. At present, it has recruited a number of overseas students from the United Kingdom, Turkey, India and other countries.[69]

Continuing Education

  • Xiamen National Accounting Institute (厦门国家会计学院)

Non-Degree Higher Learning Institutions[70]

  • Xiamen Far East Training Institute(厦门远东专修学院)
  • Xiamen College of Science and Technology (厦门科技专修学院)

Military

Xiamen functions as the headquarters of the 73rd Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the three group armies under the Nanjing Military Region, which is responsible for the defense of the eastern China, including any military action in the Taiwan Strait.[citation needed]

Celebrities

International relations

Consulates

Singapore, Philippines and Thailand have the consulates in Xiamen.[71]

Sister cities[72]

Friendly exchange cities[73]

Sister ports[74]

Friendly cooperation ports[75]

Notes

  1. ^ The factory represented an investment of $30,000 in bullion and $20,000 in goods.[15]
  2. ^ For 1870, 314 British and 240 other foreign ships cleared the port with £1,144,046 of exports, apart from the domestic traders.[13] This had fallen to £384,494 by 1904.[7]
  3. ^ For 1870, 315 British and 245 other foreign vessels entered the port with £1,915,427 of imports, apart from the domestic traders.[13] For 1904, the figure was £2,081,494.[7]
  4. ^ The estimate is very rough. Pitcher, writing a little later, placed the town's population at 60–100,000.[21]
  5. ^ The churches bore the names "Sin-Koe-a" and "Tek-Chhiu-Kha".[21]
  1. ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census (No. 1)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 28 April 2011. Archived from the original on 8 November 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  2. ^ 2010 census
  3. ^ Formerly "Lower Gate" (下門); see Name section.
  4. ^ "Amoy". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  5. ^ "Hot Terms in China's Reform". CRI English. 31 October 2008. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  6. ^ Zhongguo Gujin Diming Da Cidian 中国古今地名大词典, 2855.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h EB (1911).
  8. ^ Pitcher (1893), p. 26.
  9. ^ 《环球时报》2002-04-22 Archived 25 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. .china.com.cn. Retrieved on 28 August 2011.
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 March 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ Wile, Rob. "These 10 Cities Are Your Best Bet At Escaping China's Epic Pollution Problem". Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016..
  12. ^ a b c Ouchterlony (1844), p. 175
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j EB (1878).
  14. ^ Struve, Lynn A. (1984), The Southern Ming 1644–1662, New Haven: Yale University Press, p. 181.
  15. ^ a b c d Pitcher (1893), p. 31.
  16. ^ a b c Pitcher (1893), p. 32.
  17. ^ Ouchterlony (1844), pp. 173 ff.
  18. ^ Pitcher (1893), p. 33.
  19. ^ Ouchterlony (1844), p. 176.
  20. ^ Pitcher (1893), p. 30.
  21. ^ a b c d Pitcher (1893), p. 27.
  22. ^ Cheung, David Yiqiang (2004), Christianity in Modern China: The Making of the First Native Protestant Church, Leiden, pp. 205 ff.
  23. ^ a b c Pitcher (1893), p. 28.
  24. ^ Pitcher (1893), p. 34.
  25. ^ Pitcher (1893), p. 29.
  26. ^ a b Pitcher (1893), p. 25.
  27. ^ Wright, G.N. (1843), China, in a Series of Views, Displaying the Scenery, Architecture, and Social Habits of That Ancient Empire, Vol. II, Fisher, Son, & Co., p. 69, archived from the original on 20 December 2016, retrieved 29 October 2017, illustrated by Thomas Allom.
  28. ^ Morrison, George Ernest (c. 1870), Album of Hongkong, Canton, Macao, Amoy, Foochow, p. 50.
  29. ^ Thomson, John (1898), Through China with a Camera, Westminster: A. Constable & Co., p. 96, archived from the original on 8 May 2016, retrieved 23 November 2016.
  30. ^ An Official Guide to Eastern Asia, Vol. IV: China, Tokyo: Imperial Japanese Gov't Railways, 1915.
  31. ^ a b (Chinese) "侨乡厦门" 厦门市华侨博物院 Archived 12 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 11 June 2011
  32. ^ Brown, Bill & Brown, Sue, URL=http://www.amoymagic.com/bhistory.htm,[permanent dead link] History of Xiamen
  33. ^ (Chinese) "厦门港为赴台自由行开通夜航 拉动厦漳泉旅游资源整合" 厦门商报 Archived 12 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine 2 June 2011
  34. ^ Beech, Hannah (28 July 2014). "Smuggler's Blues". Time. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
  35. ^ Jing Fu (3 January 2006). "Beijing drops out of top 10 'best city' list". China Daily. Archived from the original on 27 October 2007. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
  36. ^ Daily, Xiamen (4 November 2011). "Xiamen dubbed 'Most Romantic Leisure City'". Xiamen Daily. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
  37. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Chinese) Compilation by LianXin website. Data from the Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China Archived 25 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ "China: Fújiàn (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map". www.citypopulation.de. Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
  39. ^ "Floating population in Xiamen reaches 2.07 million - What's On Xiamen". www.whatsonxiamen.com. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
  40. ^ "Report shows Xiamen population reaches 4.255 million in 2014 - What's On Xiamen". www.whatsonxiamen.com. Archived from the original on 21 January 2015. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
  41. ^ 中央机构编制委员会印发《关于副省级市若干问题的意见》的通知. 中编发[1995]5号 (in Chinese). 豆丁网. 19 February 1995. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  42. ^ "厦门:"多规合一"改善营商环境 _光明日报 _光明网". news.gmw.cn. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  43. ^ "厦门:聚焦"互联网+政务服务" 提升城市营商环境_地方政务_中国政府网". www.gov.cn. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  44. ^ "2018年厦门经济运行年报出炉:厦门2018年GDP增长7.7%_时政要闻_厦门_新闻中心_台海网". www.taihainet.com. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  45. ^ "对外经济--中国厦门". www.xm.gov.cn. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  46. ^ "National-level Taiwanese Investment Zone". www.haicang.gov.cn. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
  47. ^ Xiamen Haicang Taiwanese Investment Zone Archived 5 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine. RightSite.asia. Retrieved on 28 August 2011.
  48. ^ "China(fujian·xiamen)pilot free trade zone". english.xmftz.gov.cn. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
  49. ^ "厦门火炬高技术产业开发区". xmtorch.xm.gov.cn. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
  50. ^ "Xiamen Gulangyu". gly.xm.gov.cn. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
  51. ^ "Xiamen Investment Manual" (PDF).
  52. ^ "Xiamen cracks down on electric bicycle traffic violations – What's On Xiamen". www.whatsonxiamen.com. Archived from the original on 2 September 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  53. ^ a b c d "China Expat city Guide Xiamen". China Expat. 2008. Archived from the original on 24 January 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2009.
  54. ^ a b "China Briefing Business Reports". Asia Briefing. 2009. Archived from the original on 18 February 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2009.
  55. ^ "Mainland Coaches Archived 8 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine." Hong Kong International Airport. Retrieved on May 8, 2018. "Services are available at the Coach Station of Terminal 2 for travel to destinations such as [...] Xiamen via different cross-boundary land control points."
  56. ^ Pitcher (1893), p. 38.
  57. ^ Cody, Edward (28 June 2007). "Text Messages Giving Voice to Chinese". Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2017 – via www.washingtonpost.com.
  58. ^ "在厦部、省、市属高等院校名录-高等院校名录-厦门教育局". edu.xm.gov.cn. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  59. ^ "Overview". en.xmu.edu.cn. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  60. ^ "About JMU-集美大学英文站". english.jmu.edu.cn. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  61. ^ "Overview of HQU-HUAQIAO UNIVERSITY". en.hqu.edu.cn. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  62. ^ "Xiamen University Of Technology". english.xmut.edu.cn. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  63. ^ "学校简介-厦门医学院-XIAMEN MEDICAL COLLEGE". www.xmmc.edu.cn. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  64. ^ "Xiamen Huaxia University" (in Chinese). Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  65. ^ "厦门工学院-学院概况". www.xit.edu.cn. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  66. ^ "厦门城市职业学院-欢迎您". xmcu.cn. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  67. ^ "厦门南洋学院简介 --- 厦门南洋学院". www.ny2000.cn. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  68. ^ "学校概览 | 厦门东海职业技术学院". www.xmdh.com. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  69. ^ "厦门安防科技职业学院". www.xmafkj.com. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  70. ^ "民办非学历高等教育机构-高等院校名录-厦门教育局". edu.xm.gov.cn. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  71. ^ 厦门领事馆区大楼封顶.
  72. ^ "厦门市外事办-友城一览-厦门市20个国际友好城市名录". fao.xm.gov.cn. Retrieved 21 June 2019.
  73. ^ "厦门市外事办-国际友好交流城市-厦门市国际友好交流城市一览". fao.xm.gov.cn. Retrieved 21 June 2019.
  74. ^ "厦门市外事办-国际友好港口-厦门市友好港口一览". fao.xm.gov.cn. Retrieved 21 June 2019.
  75. ^ "厦门市外事办-国际友好港口-厦门市友好港口一览". fao.xm.gov.cn. Retrieved 21 June 2019.

See also

References

  • Wikisource Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878), "Amoy" , Encyclopædia Britannica, 1 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 748.
  • Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), "Amoy" , Encyclopædia Britannica, 1 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 878.
  • Ouchterlony, John (1844), The Chinese War, London: Saunders & Otley.
  • Pitcher, Philip Wilson (1893), Fifty Years in Amoy or A History of the Amoy Mission, China, New York: Reformed Church in America, ISBN 9785871498194.

Further reading

  • Ng, Chin-Keong (1983). Trade and Society, the Amoy Network on the China Coast, 1683–1735. NUS Press. ISBN 978-9971690694. Retrieved 24 April 2014.

External links

  • Xiamen Municipal People's Government
  • Xiamen, China – local news, business, education, trave
  • Xiamen, Fujian province – Your online guide to government services in China
  • Xiamen English website powered by Xiamen Daily
  • What's On Xiamen
  • Amoy Magic – English Guide to Xiamen & Fujian
  • Xiamen travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Historic maps
    • US Army map of Xiamen, 1945
    • Japanese Government Railways map of Xiamen and surrounds, 1915

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Xiamen&oldid=906929515"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xiamen
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Xiamen"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA