World Trade Center (2001–present)

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World Trade Center
One World Trade Center May 2015.jpg
View of 1 and 7 WTC in 2015
General information
Status Under construction[note 1]
Location New York City
Coordinates 40°42′42″N 74°00′45″W / 40.71167°N 74.01250°W / 40.71167; -74.01250Coordinates: 40°42′42″N 74°00′45″W / 40.71167°N 74.01250°W / 40.71167; -74.01250
Groundbreaking 2002
Construction started
  • 1 WTC: April 27, 2006[1]
  • 2 WTC: June 1, 2010
  • 3 WTC: 2010
  • 4 WTC: January 2008
  • 5 WTC: TBA
  • 6 WTC (Performing Arts Center): TBA 2018
  • 7 WTC: May 7, 2002[2]
Completed
  • 1 WTC: July 2014
  • 4 WTC: November 13, 2013[3]
  • 7 WTC: May 23, 2006[4]
Opening
  • 1 WTC: November 3, 2014
  • 2 WTC: 2021 (est.)
  • 3 WTC: Summer 2018
  • 4 WTC: November 12, 2013
  • 5 WTC: TBA
  • 6 WTC (Performing Arts Center): TBA 2020 (est.)
  • 7 WTC: May 23, 2006
  • Transportation Hub: March 3, 2016[5]
Owner

Port Authority of New York and New Jersey

Other information
Height
Antenna spire One WTC: 1,776 feet (541 m)
Roof
  • 1 WTC: 1,368 ft (417.0 m)[6]
  • 4 WTC: 978 ft (298 m)
  • 7 WTC: 741 ft (226 m)[7]
Top floor
  • 1 WTC: 1,268 ft (386.5 m)[8]
  • 7 WTC: 679 ft (207 m)[9]
Technical details
Floor count
Floor area
  • 1 WTC: 3,501,274 sq ft (325,279 m2)[6][13]
  • 4 WTC: 2,500,000 sq ft (232,258 m2)[8]
  • 7 WTC: 1,681,118 sq ft (156,181 m2)[9]
Lifts/elevators
  • One WTC: 71[8]
  • 4 WTC: 55
  • 7 WTC: 29[9]
Design and construction
Engineer Worthington, Skilling, Helle & Jackson,[14] Leslie E. Robertson Associates
Main contractor Tishman Realty & Construction Company

[15]

The World Trade Center is a partially completed complex of buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, U.S., replacing the original seven World Trade Center buildings on the same site that were damaged or destroyed in the September 11 attacks. The site is being rebuilt with five new skyscrapers, a memorial and museum to those killed in the attacks, and a transportation hub. One World Trade Center, the tallest building in the United States and the Western Hemisphere, is the lead building for the new complex, reaching more than 100 stories upon its completion in November 2014.

The original World Trade Center featured the landmark Twin Towers, which opened in 1973, and were the tallest buildings in the world at their completion. They were destroyed on the morning of September 11, 2001, when al-Qaeda-affiliated hijackers flew two Boeing 767 jets into the complex in a coordinated act of terrorism. The attacks on the World Trade Center killed 2,753 people. The resulting collapse caused structural failure in many of the surrounding buildings as well. The process of cleaning up and recovery at the World Trade Center site took eight months, after which rebuilding of the site commenced.

After years of delay and controversy, reconstruction at the World Trade Center site started. The new complex includes One World Trade Center, 7 World Trade Center, three other high-rise office buildings, a museum and memorial, and a transportation hub similar in size to Grand Central Terminal. One World Trade Center was completed on August 30, 2012, and the final component of its spire was installed on May 10, 2013. 4 World Trade Center opened on November 12, 2013, making it the first building completed as part of the site's master plan. The 9/11 memorial is complete, and the museum opened on May 21, 2014. The World Trade Center Transportation Hub opened to the public on March 4, 2016, and 3 World Trade Center is under construction set to be finished in 2018. 2 World Trade Center's full construction was placed on hold in 2009, with a new design announced in 2015.

Original towers

The original World Trade Center featured the landmark Twin Towers, which opened on April 4, 1973, and were the tallest buildings in the world at their completion. The other buildings in the complex included the Marriott World Trade Center (3 WTC), 4 WTC, 5 WTC, 6 WTC, and 7 WTC.[16][17]

Destruction

They were destroyed on the morning of September 11, 2001, when Al-Qaeda-affiliated hijackers flew two Boeing 767 jets into the complex in a coordinated act of terrorism. At 8:46 A.M. Eastern Time (ET), a team of five hijackers intentionally crashed American Airlines Flight 11 into the northern facade of the North Tower. At 9:03 A.M. ET, a second team of five hijackers intentionally crashed United Airlines Flight 175 into the southern facade of the South Tower. After burning for 56 minutes, the South Tower collapsed at 9:59 A.M. At 10:28 A.M., the North Tower collapsed, after burning for 102 minutes. The attacks on the World Trade Center killed 2,753 people.[18] The resulting collapse caused structural failure in many of the surrounding buildings as well. The process of cleaning up and recovery at the World Trade Center site took eight months, after which rebuilding of the site commenced.[19][20]

Cleanup

Preliminary site plans for the World Trade Center's reconstruction.

The process of cleanup and recovery continued 24 hours a day over a period of eight months. Debris was transported from the World Trade Center site to Fresh Kills Landfill on Staten Island, where it was further sifted.[21] On May 30, 2002, a ceremony was held to officially mark the end of the cleanup efforts.[22] In 2002, ground was broken on construction of a new 7 WTC building located just to the north of the main World Trade Center site. Since it was not part of the site master plan, Larry Silverstein was able to proceed without delay on the rebuilding of 7 World Trade Center, which was completed and officially opened in May 2006; this had been considered a priority since restoring Consolidated Edison Co.'s electrical substation in the building's lower floors was necessary to meet power demands of Lower Manhattan.[23][24][25] While 7 World Trade Center was not part of the master plan for the Twin Towers site, Silverstein and Con Edison recognized that the rebuilding of 7 World Trade Center would have to be consistent with the master plan which was expected to re-open the street grid which had been blocked by the original World Trade Center super-block. As a result, the design for the new 7 World Trade Center allowed for the re-opening of Greenwich Street, which had been blocked by the original 7 World Trade Center.[26] A temporary PATH station at the World Trade Center opened in November 2003, pending replacement by a permanent station designed by Santiago Calatrava.[27]

With the main World Trade Center site, numerous stakeholders were involved including Silverstein and the Port Authority, which in turn meant that George Pataki, the then-Governor of New York, had some authority. In addition, the victims' families, people in the surrounding neighborhoods, Mayor Michael Bloomberg, and others wanted input. Governor Pataki established the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC) in November 2001 as an official commission to oversee the rebuilding process.[28] The LMDC held a competition to solicit possible designs for the site. The Memory Foundations design by Daniel Libeskind was chosen as the master plan for the World Trade Center site.[29] The plan was anchored by the 1,776 feet (541 m) One World Trade Center and featured a memorial and a number of other office towers.[30][31] Out of the World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition, a design by Michael Arad and Peter Walker titled Reflecting Absence was selected in January 2004.[32]

Planning

Governor Pataki established the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC) in November 2001, as an official commission to oversee the rebuilding process.[33] The LMDC coordinates federal assistance in the rebuilding process, and works with the Port Authority, Larry Silverstein, and Studio Daniel Libeskind, the master plan architect for the site's redesign. The corporation also handles communication with the local community, businesses, the city of New York, and relatives of victims of the September 11 attacks.[34] A 16-member board of directors, half appointed by the governor and half by the mayor of New York, governs the LMDC.[35] The LMDC had questionable legal status regarding the restoration of the World Trade Center site, because the Port Authority owns most of the property and Larry Silverstein leased the World Trade Center's office space in July 2001. But the LMDC, in an April 2002 articulation of its principles for action, asserted its role in revitalizing lower Manhattan.[36]

In the months following the attacks, architects and urban planning experts held meetings and forums to discuss ideas for rebuilding the site.[37] In January 2002, New York City art dealer Max Protetch solicited 50 concepts and renderings from artists and architects, which were put on exhibit in his Chelsea art gallery.[38] In April 2002, the LMDC sent out requests for proposals to redesign the World Trade Center site to 24 Manhattan architecture firms, but then soon withdrew them. The following month, the LMDC selected Beyer Blinder Belle as planner for the redesign of the World Trade Center site.[39] The new 7 World Trade Center, which was not part of the new plan, began construction on May 7, 2002.[40]On July 16, 2002, Beyer Blinder Belle unveiled six concepts for redesigning the World Trade Center site.[41] All six designs were voted "poor" by the roughly 5,000 New Yorkers that submitted feedback, so the LDMC announced a new, international, open-design study.[42] In an August 2002 press release, the LMDC announced a design study for the World Trade Center site.[43] The following month, the LMDC, along with New York New Visions – a coalition of 21 architecture, engineering, planning, landscape architecture and design organizations – announced seven semifinalists. The following seven architecture firms were then invited to compete to be the master plan architect for the World Trade Center:[44]

The National September 11 Memorial & Museum. The memorial is in the foreground, the museum to the left.

Peterson Littenberg, a small New York architecture firm, had been enlisted by the LMDC earlier that summer as a consultant, and was invited to participate as the seventh semifinalist.[44] The seven semifinalists presented their entries to the public on December 18, 2002, at the Winter Garden of the World Financial Center. In the following weeks, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill withdrew its entry from the competition.[46]

Days before the announcement of the two finalists in February 2003, Larry Silverstein wrote to LMDC Chair John Whitehead to express his disapproval of all of the semifinalists' designs. As the Twin Towers' insurance money recipient, Silverstein claimed that he had the sole right to decide what would be built. He announced that he had already picked Skidmore, Owings & Merrill as his master planner for the site.[47] On February 1, 2003, the LMDC selected two finalists, the THINK Team and Studio Daniel Libeskind, and planned on picking a single winner by the end of the month.[48] Rafael Viñoly of the THINK Team and Studio Daniel Libeskind presented their designs to the LMDC, which selected the THINK design. Earlier the same day, however, Roland Betts, a member of the LMDC, had called a meeting and the corporation had agreed to vote for the THINK design before hearing the final presentations. Governor Pataki, who had originally commissioned the LMDC, intervened and overruled the LMDC's decision.[47] On February 27, 2003, Studio Daniel Libeskind officially won the competition to be the master planner for the World Trade Center redesign.[47][49]

Libeskind's original proposal, which is titled Memory Foundations, underwent extensive revisions during collaboration with Larry Silverstein, and Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, whom Silverstein hired.[50] Though Libeskind designed the site, the individual buildings have been designed by different architects. While not all of Liebeskind's ideas were incorporated into the final design, his design and the public support it garnered did solidify the principle that the original footprints of the Twin Towers should be turned into a memorial and not be used for commercial purposes. As a result, Liebeskind's lawyers at the New York firm of Wachtell Lipton embarked on the multi-year negotiation process to frame a master plan for the rebuilding.[51] The first step in this process, completed in 2003, was the "swap" in which Silverstein gave up his rights to the footprints of the Twin Towers so that they could become a memorial, and in exchange received the right to build five new office towers around the memorial.[52] The "swap" and the ensuing negotiations, which lasted for many years, have been referred to as the most complex real estate transaction in human history because of the complexity of the issues involved, the many stakeholders, and the difficulty of reaching consensus.[53]

Controversy and criticism

There was much debate regarding the future of Ground Zero following the destruction of the World Trade Center. Disagreement and controversy regarding who owned the property and what would be built there hindered construction at the site for several years. Many wanted the Twin Towers to be rebuilt, but stronger and taller. The project for new Twin Towers was called Twin Towers II which was led by the informal organization, Twin Towers Alliance.[54] Others did not want anything built there at all or wanted the entire site to become a memorial. Finally, a master plan was agreed upon, which would feature a memorial and museum where the original Twin Towers stood and six new skyscrapers surrounding it.[55]

The social center of the old World Trade Center included a spectacular restaurant on the 107th floor, called Windows on the World, and its Greatest Bar in the World; these were tourist attractions in their own right, and a social gathering spot for people who worked in the towers.[56][57] This restaurant also housed one of the most prestigious wine schools in the United States, called "Windows on the World Wine School", run by wine personality Kevin Zraly.[58] Despite numerous assurances that these local landmarks and global attractions would be rebuilt,[59] the Port Authority scrapped plans to rebuild these WTC attractions, which has outraged some observers.[60]

An episode of CBS's 60 Minutes in 2010 focused on the lack of progress at Ground Zero, particularly on the lack of completion dates for a majority of the buildings, the main tower, One World Trade Center's having undergone three different designs, and the delays and monetary expense involved. Investor Larry Silverstein said the Port Authority's estimated completion date for the entire site was 2037, and billions of dollars had already been spent on the project, even though Ground Zero "is still a hole in the ground". During an interview for the episode, Larry Silverstein said: "I am the most frustrated person in the world....I'm seventy-eight years of age; I want to see this thing done in my lifetime".[61]

One World Trade Center itself was met with criticism early in its planning and construction stages.[62] The original design, which was asymmetrical, significantly shorter, and called for an off-center spire, was met with much disapproval, causing a new one to be devised. A key feature of the final design, the fortified, windowless base, was also denounced as looking dreary and unwelcoming.[63] To alleviate this problem, the designers decided to clad it with prismatic glass panels. The name change from Freedom Tower to One World Trade Center was met with some criticism.[64] The then-Governor of New York, George Pataki, stated in 2003 that "[t]he Freedom Tower isn't going to be One World Trade Center, it's going to be the Freedom Tower."[65]

Rebuilding

Early construction and final planning

Large construction side with cranes and two recessed, square areas
Construction of the 9/11 Memorial complex in December 2010

The design for the World Trade Center was finalized in 2004, but was revised extensively after the NYPD raised security concerns regarding various sites in the complex, which delayed the start of the construction of the entire complex by two years.[66] The new plans for the World Trade Center Transportation Hub, which involved doubling the number of support columns, pushed back the construction timeline. In the original plan, the construction of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum would have begun after the Transportation Hub had been completed because the roof of the Transportation Hub provided the foundation on which the Memorial rested upon and the walls of the Museum.[67] Due to the two-year delay and pressure by the victims' families to have the Memorial completed by the 10-year anniversary, it was decided to concentrate on building the Memorial and holding off construction of the Transportation Hub,[68][69] which increased costs to an estimated $3.4 billion.[70][69] A Performing Arts Center was also announced that year.[71]

In 2006, the Port Authority took over One World Trade Center's ownership from Silverstein Properties. The project's developer Tishman Construction Corporation was the construction manager at the time.[72] On March 13, 2006, workers arrived at the World Trade Center site to remove remaining debris and start surveying work. This marked the official start of construction of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum, though not without controversy and concerns from some family members.[73] In April 2006, the Port Authority and Larry Silverstein reached an agreement in which Silverstein ceded rights to develop Towers One and Five in exchange for financing with Liberty Bonds for Towers Two, Three, and Four.[74][75] On April 27, 2006, a ground-breaking ceremony was held for the Freedom Tower.[76] The building was designed to be 1,368 feet (417 m) tall, the height of the original World Trade Center north tower, and its antenna rises to the symbolic height of 1,776 feet (541 m), a reference to the year in which the United States Declaration of Independence was signed.[77]

In May 2006, architects Richard Rogers and Fumihiko Maki were announced as the architects for Towers Three and Four, respectively.[78] The final designs for Towers Two, Three and Four were unveiled on September 7, 2006. Tower Two, or 200 Greenwich Street, will have a roof height of 1,254 feet (382 m) and a 96 feet (29 m) tripod spire for a total of 1,350 feet (410 m). Tower Three, or 175 Greenwich Street will have a roof height of 1,155 feet (352 m) and an antenna height reaching 1,255 feet (383 m). Tower Four, or 150 Greenwich Street, will have an overall height of 946 feet (288 m).[79] The new 7 World Trade Center opened on May 23, 2006, achieving LEED gold status and being the first tower in the complex to reopen.[80]

On June 22, 2007, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey announced that JP Morgan Chase will build Tower 5, a 42-story building on Site 5 occupied by the Deutsche Bank Building,[81] and Kohn Pedersen Fox was selected as the architect for the building.[82] Four renowned architects—including Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava, who designed the transit hub; One WTC designer David Childs of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill; and the British architect Norman Foster of Foster and Partners, who designed Tower Two and masterminded the diamond design—would greatly enhance the street-level atmosphere of the rebuilt site.[83] However, JPMorgan's March 2008 acquisition of Bear Stearns caused construction on Tower 5 to stagnate, as the company changed its plans and relocated its headquarters to 383 Madison Avenue.[84]

Rebuilding progress in April 2011, looking west from the transportation hub's site

Groundbreaking for 3 WTC occurred in fall 2008, and in May 2009, the Port Authority proposed reducing the tower to four stories.[85] Work continued on One WTC, but digging the foundation and installing tower-foundation steel columns, concrete, and rebar for that tower took twice as long as it normally would due to the existence of the subway line under West Broadway nearby.[86] The One WTC building reached grade level by 2010.[87][88] From there, it progressed at a pace of one floor a week,[88] Publisher Condé Nast agreed to move its headquarters to One World Trade Center in 2010, and with this shift, many more tenants were expected to move to the building.[89]

The St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church, which was destroyed during the 2001 attacks, was originally supposed to be relocated from the site,[90] and on July 23, 2008, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey reached a deal with the leaders of the church for the Port Authority to acquire the 1,200-square-foot (110 m2) lot that the church occupied for $20 million, and relocate the church.[90][91] Officials reneged in 2009,[91][92] leading the Greek Orthodox Diocese of America to sue the Port Authority for failing to rebuild the church.[93] On October 14, 2011, an agreement for the reconstruction of the church was signed that ended all legal action.[94]

Significant progress

By August 2011, One World Trade Center was at 80 stories with glass up to the 54th floor, Tower Four was up around 38 stories with glass up to the 15th floor, and the former Deutsche Bank Building had been completely dismantled, and the Port Authority was working on their Vehicle Security Center.[95] The memorial officially opened to relatives of the deceased on September 11, 2011, and to the general public on September 12.[96][97] Construction on 5 WTC's foundation also began in September 2011.[98] By December 2011, 2 WTC's foundations were finished and assembly of the frame was started.[99] Because numerous American and Chinese companies were "very interested" in leasing space at the WTC, Two World Trade Center was likely to be finished earlier than expected.[100]

In January 2012, with Silverstein still unable to find tenants for 4 WTC, construction on the above-ground levels was delayed indefinitely, with plans for only 7 stories.[101] Meanwhile One World Trade Center topped out in August 2012,[102][103] and its antenna was then shipped from Quebec to New York, with the first section of the antenna being hoisted to the top of the tower on December 12, 2012.[104][105]The World Trade Center Museum was supposed to open that year. However, construction was halted in December 2011 to September 2012 due to cost duspites,[106][107] and further delays were caused when Hurricane Sandy significantly damaged the site in November 2012.[108]

Several of the towers reached significant milestones in 2013: for instance, One WTC's antenna was installed from January 15[109] to May 10, 2013.[110][111][112] Construction of 2 WTC up to street level was completed in mid-2013,[113][114] with work on the rest of the building delayed until tenants for Tower 2 could be found.[115][116] Work also progressed on 3 WTC's below-grade foundations and the ground-level podium, which was completed by October 2013.[117][118] 4 WTC, meanwhile, opened in November 2013, making it the second tower on the site to open behind 7 World Trade Center, as well as the first building on the Port Authority property.[119] The first tenants to move into 4 WTC were two government agencies.[120] The foundation of 5 WTC was also completed by November 2013, although construction on the main structure stalled because of a lack of tenants.[98] In early December 2013, Australian retail corporation Westfield announced that it would invest US$800 million for complete control of the retail space at the rebuilt center, with subsidiary Westfield Corporation buying out the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey’s 50 percent stake in the retail part of the World Trade Center site.[121] Liberty Park, a new elevated park, also began construction in late 2013 when the Vehicle Security Center was completed.[122] About $50 million was allocated to the park's construction by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey in December 2013.[123]

Rebuilding progress in April 2014, looking east from the memorial

The 9/11 Museum opened to victims' families on April 15, 2014, and to the general public six days later.[124] Temporary fences were removed around the 9/11 Memorial. At the same time, the 9/11 Memorial discontinued the requirement for tickets in order to enter the memorial, not only providing pedestrian access to the future towers, but also a path through the site to the Memorial Plaza and surrounding streets.[125] Tower 3's construction resumed in August 2014, with projected completion by 2018.[126] In September 2014, it was announced that the original plans for the Performing Arts Center had been canceled;[127] construction had been slated to start in December 2014.[128] The St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church's ground blessing ceremony and symbolic laying of the cornerstone took place at Liberty Park in October 2014, with construction expected to be completed within two years.[129] One WTC opened on November 3, 2014, and the first 170 employees of anchor tenant Conde Nast began their work there.[130][131]

The World Trade Center Transportation Hub formally opened on March 3, 2016, several years behind schedule and billions of dollars over budget.[132][133] Liberty Park opened on June 29, 2016,[134][135] while Westfield World Trade Center, located partially within the hub, opened with its first group of stores on August 16, 2016.[136][137] The performing arts center was renamed that summer for billionaire businessman Ronald Perelman, who donated $75 million to the center,[138] and on September 8, 2016, a design was revealed for the new center.[139] Tower 3 was topped out in October 2016.[140] On November 29, 2016, the St. Nicholas Church was ceremoniously topped out with a temporary cross.[141]

On March 27, 2017, it was announced that construction on the Perelman Performing Arts Center would be delayed due to ongoing funding disputes.[142] Construction on the center's underground parking garage began in August 2017, with the center itself expected to be built between 2018 and 2020.[143] The same month, the Port Authority installed the iconic sculpture The Sphere within the park, overlooking its original location in the old World Trade Center. Previously, the damaged sculpture by Fritz Koenig had been located in Battery Park.[144]

3 World Trade Center is slated to open in spring 2018,[145] and the church is also expected to open in November 2018.[146]

Structures

Six towers, a 9/11 memorial and museum, a mall, a transportation hub, a parking lot, a park, a church, and a performing arts venue are to eventually occupy the new World Trade Center. As of December 2017, progress on the construction of the redesigned site was as follows:

Name Image Date construction started Date of completion Height /
(height w/ spire)
Current status
One World Trade Center OneWorldTradeCenter.jpg April 27, 2006 November 3, 2014 1,368 feet (417 m)
(1,776.0 feet (541.32 m))
Completed
2 World Trade Center N/A November 10, 2008 c. 2021 1,253 feet (382 m)
(1,350 feet (410 m))
Base completed; tower planned
3 World Trade Center 3 World Trade Center 2017.jpg November 10, 2008 c. 2018 1,155 feet (352 m)
(1,257 feet (383 m))
Structurally topped-out
4 World Trade Center 4 WTC May 17 2013.jpg November 10, 2008 November 13, 2013 945 feet (288 m) Completed
5 World Trade Center N/A September 9, 2011 c. 2020 741 feet (226 m) No longer planned
7 World Trade Center 7 World Trade Center.jpg May 7, 2002 May 23, 2006 679 feet (207 m) Completed
National September 11 Memorial WTCmemorialJune2012.png March 13, 2006 September 11, 2011 Completed
National September 11 Museum September 11 Museum Foundation Hall.jpg March 13, 2006 May 21, 2014 Completed
World Trade Center Transportation Hub WTC PATH station at night 2016.jpg April 26, 2010 March 3, 2016 Completed
Ronald O. Perelman Performing Arts Center N/A 2017 c. 2020 Construction on garage began
Vehicular Security Center N/A November 10, 2011 c. 2017 Completed
Liberty Park Liberty Street park NW opening day jeh.jpg November 20, 2013 June 29, 2016 Completed
St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church St Nicholas reconstruction west 2017-08 jeh.jpg October 18, 2014 c. 2018 Structurally topped-out; construction halted
Fiterman Hall N/A 2008 2012 Completed

Towers

One World Trade Center (previously coined the "Freedom Tower" by Governor Pataki) is the centerpiece of Libeskind's design. The building rises to 1,368 feet (417 m), the height of the original World Trade Center north tower, and its antenna rises to the symbolic height of 1,776 feet (541 m). This height refers to 1776, the year in which the United States Declaration of Independence was signed. The tower was a collaboration between Studio Daniel Libeskind and Skidmore, Owings & Merrill architect David Childs.[77] Childs acted as the design architect and project manager for the tower, and Daniel Libeskind collaborated on the concept and schematic design.[147] The building opened on November 3, 2014.[130][131]

Danish architect Bjarke Ingels designed Two World Trade Center, also known as 200 Greenwich Street. The building's gardens integrate Tribeca with the Financial District at the World Trade Center.[113][114] Construction of everything up to street level was completed in mid-2013,[113][114] but the rest of the building has yet to be built until tenants for Tower 2 can be found.[115][116]

Richard Rogers Partnership designed Three World Trade Center, or 175 Greenwich Street, which stands across Greenwich Street from the Memorial's two reflecting pools.[117][118] The below-grade foundations and the ground-level podium was completed by October 2013.[117][118] After a two-year stoppage in above-ground construction, the tower project itself started in August 2014, and the building is scheduled to open by 2018.[148][149]

Maki and Associates designed Four World Trade Center, also known as 150 Greenwich Street.[150][151] The building opened in November 2013, making it the second tower on the site to open behind 7 World Trade Center, as well as the first building on the Port Authority property.[119]

Five World Trade Center was designed by Kohn Pedersen Fox and will stand where the Deutsche Bank Building once stood.[152][153] Although the foundation was completed in 2013, construction on the main structure never commenced.[98]

7 World Trade Center stands off of Port Authority property. David Childs of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill designed the tower.[154] The building is 52 stories tall (plus one underground floor), making it the 28th-tallest in New York.[8][155] It opened on May 23, 2006, achieving LEED gold status and being the first tower in the complex to reopen.[80]

Memorial and museum

The completed South Pool in April 2012

A memorial called Reflecting Absence honors the victims of the September 11 attacks and the 1993 World Trade Center bombing.[156] The memorial, designed by Peter Walker and Israeli-American architect Michael Arad, consists of a field of trees interrupted by the footprints of the twin towers. Pools of water fill the footprints, underneath which sits a memorial space whose walls bear the names of the victims. The slurry wall, which holds back the Hudson River in the west and was an integral part of Libeskind's proposal, remains exposed.[157] Walker and Arad were selected from more than 5,000 entrants in the World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition in January 2004.[158]

On October 12, 2004, the LMDC announced that Gehry Partners LLP and Snøhetta, an architectural firm from Norway, would design the site's performing arts and museum complexes, respectively, in the same area as the memorial.[159][160] The Snøhetta-designed museum[161] will act as a memorial museum and visitors' center, after family members of 9/11 victims objected to the building's original occupant, the International Freedom Center.[162] Gehry's performing arts complex will house only the Joyce Theater, as the Signature Theater Company dropped out due to space constraints and cost limitations.[162] The Ground Zero Museum Workshop is a privately run 501c nonprofit museum that is not connected to the official Ground Zero Memorial or Gehry's museum.[163]

Construction of the memorial was completed by early 2011.[164][165] The memorial opened on September 11, 2011, coinciding with the 10th anniversary of the attacks.[96][97] The museum was initially scheduled to open on September 11, 2012,[166][167] but was delayed due to financial disputes[106][107] and again when Hurricane Sandy significantly damaged the site.[108] The museum was opened in May 2014.[124]

Retail space

Westfield World Trade Center opened with its first group of stores on August 16, 2016.[136][137] It has roughly 365,000 square feet (33,900 m2) of retail space, which once again makes it the largest shopping mall in Manhattan. Although the new mall is only spread over roughly one-half of the original mall's footprint (due to the new space required for the below-grade National September 11 Memorial & Museum), the mall is double-level, whereas the original mall was a single level. Three additional levels will exist above-grade on the lower floors of 2 and 3 World Trad Center, while 4 World Trade Center currently houses four above-grade levels. The World Trade Center station's headhouse, the Oculus, also houses a large amount of retail space.[168]

Transportation Hub

Entrance to the PATH at the World Trade Center (January 2009)

Santiago Calatrava designed the World Trade Center Transportation Hub (its main asset being the PATH station) to replace the old World Trade Center station.[169] The Transport Hub will connect the PATH station to the Cortlandt Street station (1 and ​2 trains), the Battery Park City Ferry Terminal, the Brookfield Place, and One World Trade Center on the west; and the 2, ​3​, 4, ​5​, A, ​C​, J, ​Z​, N, ​R, and ​W trains through the Fulton Center on the east. The Port Authority will cool the new station, as well as the September 11 Memorial and Museum, via a heat exchanger fed by four pipes carrying water from the Hudson River.[170] The cost for the transportation hub is estimated at $3.44 billion, a statistic that has seen much controversy given its greatly inflated cost.[171][172][173] The hub formally opened on March 3, 2016, several years behind schedule and billions of dollars over budget.[132][133]

Performing Arts Center

The World Trade Center's Performing Arts Center was announced in 2004, with the building to be designed by Gehry Partners LLP and Snøhetta.[71] Construction was to begin in December 2014 when the removal of the temporary PATH station commenced.[128] However, the original plans were shelved in September 2014.[127] After a design was chosen in 2015, it was announced that Joshua Prince-Ramus was awarded the contract to design the building.[174] In June 2016, the center was renamed after billionaire businessman Ronald Perelman, who donated $75 million to the center,[138] and on September 8, 2016, a design was revealed for the new center.[139] The underground parking garage started construction in 2017 and the center proper will begin construction in 2018,[175] The center is planned to open in 2020.[175][176]

When completed, the Performing Arts Center will include approximately 90,000 square feet across three floors. The public floor will be located at street level, and will house a restaurant/bar to provide refreshments during show intermissions. The second floor will consist of rehearsal and dressing rooms for theater actors, and the third floor will house three distinguished theaters. All three theaters are designed so that the walls will be able to rotate and expand to provide extra space for a single theater if needed. The theaters will occupy approximately 1,200 people combined.[177]

Liberty Park and constituent structures

Liberty Park, a new elevated park, was built on top of a parking complex named the Vehicular Security Center at the southwest corner of the site. Construction began in 2013 when the Vehicular Security Center was completed.[122]About $50 million was allocated to the park's construction by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey in December 2013.[123] The park opened on June 29, 2016.[134][135] On August 16, 2017, the Port Authority installed the iconic sculpture The Sphere within the park, overlooking its original location in the old World Trade Center..[144] The St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church was originally supposed to be relocated,[90] but the most recent plans call for the church to be built in Liberty Park.[178]

The 1-acre (0.40 ha) park has a capacity of 750 people. A "living wall" is located on the Liberty Street facade, which is "essentially a vertical landscape, roughly 300 feet long and more than 20 feet high, made of periwinkle, Japanese spurge, winter creeper, sedge and Baltic ivy." A walkway from the pedestrian bridge curves along the park; egresses include three stairways, the pedestrian bridge, and a straight ramp down to Greenwich Street. Of these exits, a wide, "monumental" staircase is located parallel to Greenwich Street and directly behind the church. There are wood benches and a small amphitheater-like elevated space at the West Street end of the park. Finally, there is a "continuous overlook" along much of Liberty Street in addition to "a gently curving balcony" at the church's foot.[179]

Fiterman Hall

The original Fiterman Hall opened as an office building in 1959 and occupied a block bounded by Greenwich Street, Barclay Street, West Broadway, and Park Place.[180] It was donated to BMCC in 1993 by Miles and Shirley Fiterman, for whom the building was subsequently named.[181][182] In 2000, the State of New York Dormitory Authority, which owned the building, began a massive renovation to better adapt the building for classroom use.[183] During the September 11 attacks in 2001, Fiterman Hall's structure was severely damaged by debris from the collapse of 7 World Trade Center. The renovation was never completed, and the building was condemned and demolished in 2008.[183] After a series of delays, a new building designed by the architectural firm Pei Cobb Freed & Partners[184] was completed in 2012.[183][185]

World trade center 2014 logo detail.png

The World Trade Center's new logo, revealed in August 2014, was designed by the firm Landor Associates and shaped like a "W". All the black bars, the empty spaces, and the "W" itself symbolizes something, giving the logo at least six meanings:[186]

  • Each of the five bars in the logo represents the five towers that will be the World Trade Center when it is complete.[187][188]
  • The top half of the logo features bars cut off at a 17.76-degree angle, evoking One World Trade Center's 1,776-foot height.[187][188]
  • There are two white columns at the top symbolizing the Tribute in Light memorial.[187][188]
  • The three black bars at the top also symbolize the Twin Towers' trident-shaped columns.[187][188]
  • The two black bars at the bottom also stand for the twin pools of the 9/11 Memorial.[187][188]
  • The logo, as a whole, is in the shape of a "W", which stands for "World Trade Center" and "Westfield World Trade Center".[187][188]

Landor Associates was awarded a $3.57 million contract in 2013 for redesigns, which comprised "the performance of professional services for the development and implementation of the World Trade Center (WTC) site-wide wayfinding, signage, and operational communications program" and included the development of the new logo.[189] Douglas Riccardi, the principal in the design firm Memo, stated, "Its strength is its ability to be seen in many ways. You could never get more meaning in five little bars. The problem is that people may not bother to find out what the meanings are."[188]

See also

References

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ One, 3, 4, and 7 WTC, as well as the 9/11 Memorial , Liberty Park, and the Transportation Hub are complete. Two and 5 WTC, as well as the Vehicle Security Center and the Performing Arts Center are under construction.

Citations

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Bibliography

  • "World Trade Center Building Performance Study". Federal Emergency Management Agency. May 2002. Archived from the original on April 30, 2011. Retrieved June 9, 2011. 

External links

  • World Trade Center – Silverstein Properties
  • World Trade Center – Port Authority of New York & New Jersey
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