Withdrawal through Andalal (1741)

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Withdrawal through Andalal (1741)
Part of the Nader's Campaigns
Date 1741
Location Dagestan
Result Persian withdrawal harried,[1]
causing heavy casualties[2]
Belligerents
Flag of the Lak People v2.svg Lak Khanate
Khunz Wolf 3b.svg Avar Khanate
Lezgis
Afsharid Imperial Standard (3 Stripes).svg Persian Empire
Commanders and leaders
Flag of the Lak People v2.svg Murtazali-Khan
Khunz Wolf 3b.svg Qadi Pir Muhammad Haji Dawood Myushkyurskogo
Nader Shah
Lutf Ali Khan
Haydar Bek
Strength
Unknown, presumably numerically inferior Unknown
Casualties and losses
Unknown Heavy[3]

The Withdrawal through Andalal by the Persian army under Nader Shah took place after he broke off the siege of the last Lezgian fortress in order to return to Derbent for winter quarters. His withdrawal came under heavy raids by the Lezgians. However, there is no mention of any pitched battle around Andalal, or anywhere else during the withdrawal, in any of the primary or secondary material in the established historiography of Nader's Campaigns.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]

The Withdrawal

The withdrawal took place in Andalal; the mountainous part of Avaria. The previous years and months during Nader's Dagestan campaign had been bloody years with firm resistance offered by the Lezgins, Tabasarans, Avars, and others, as well as the relentless counter-attacks by Nader Shah due to this, whose campaigning in Dagestan was a devastating one to everyone. However, by September 1741, all of Dagestan - except several Avar territories - had fallen under Persian hegemony.[15] Nader decided to attack from two flanks; at Andalal and Avaria, through the Aimakin Gorge.[16] As commented by English historian L. Lockhart;[17]

"With the Avars remaining unconquered, the key to all of Dagestan remains out of reach of Nader Shah."

The terrible danger looming over Avaria, rallied Avar society. An important Avar leader, Qadi Pir Muhammad (ru), sent a message of support to all societies. Religious leader Ibrahim Haji Andalan Gidatlinsky twice before turned to the Shah of Persia, trying to persuade him not to conduct an unnecessary war with the Avar Muslims. Moreover, by Nadir Shah, according to legend, they were sent letters and legates from Andalal. Following the rejection by Nader, Qadi Pir Muhammad replied: "Now, between us can not be peace. As long as our mind is not going blur, we will fight and destroy the invading enemy."

Avars threw rocks from above the mountain on the troops who were passing by. In September 1741 there was an ambush in Aymakinskom gorge. Here the contingents under Lutf Ali Khan and Haydar-Bek were utterly defeated. From the 4,000 large detachment Haidar Bek led only 500 people survived. And from the 6,000 large detachment survived only 600 people. The winners got a lot of trophies: 19 guns, lots of ammo and all the baggage.[citation needed] Following the retreat,[18][better source needed] the Persian army extricated through Kumukh, Khorsekh, Tchyrag, Richa, Kurakh, and eventually to the Iranian town of Derbent.[19]

Historiography of the conflict

There is no mention of a set-piece battle fought in the vicinity of Andalal in any of the primary sources,[20][21][22][23][24][25] nor is there any reference to such an engagement in any of the secondary source material focusing on the subject of Nader's Campaigns.[26][27][28][29][30]

There are however well established accounts of the withdrawing Persian columns coming under constant harrying by the Lezgis and their allies. The Lezgis who refused to commit to any set piece battles,[31] repeatedly harassed the withdrawing Persian army, making Andalal a "calamitous region"[32] for Nader Shah's forces as they suffered from a combination of terrible weather conditions, strained logistics, outbreaks of disease and ceaseless harassment by Lezgi skirmishers.[33]

Nader Shah's ultimately failed attempts at annexing Dagestan became a source for legends, myths and folk-tales amongst the people of the north Caucasus. The Avar epic Srazhenie s Nadir Shakhom, (The battle with Nāder Shah), and the Lak Pesnya o geroe Murtazaali, (Epic of the hero Mortażā ʿAlī), provide a vivid and colourful picture of the triumph over "the scourge of the universe." These works represent the pinnacle of the Dāḡestānī epic genre; their significance to the mountain peoples "can be compared to that of Slovo o polku Igoreve (The lay of the army of Igor) in Russian epic poetry".[34]

References

  1. ^ Axworthy, Michael(2009). The Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from tribal warrior to conquering tyrant, I. B. Tauris
  2. ^ "History of Nadir Shah's Wars" (Taarikhe Jahangoshaaye Naaderi), 1759, Mirza Mehdi Khan Esterabadi, (Court Historian)
  3. ^ Axworthy, Michael(2009). The Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from tribal warrior to conquering tyrant, I. B. Tauris
  4. ^ Kashmiri, Abdol-Karim, Bayān-e Vāghe, Edited by K. B. Nasim Lahur, 1970
  5. ^ Vatazes, Basile, Persica; Histoire de Chah-Nader, ed. N Iorga, Bucharest 1939
  6. ^ Mohsen, Mohammad, Zobdat-ol-Tavarikh, edited by Behruz Gudarzi, Tehran 1375
  7. ^ History of Nadir Shah's Wars (Taarikhe Jahangoshaaye Naaderi), 1759, Mirza Mehdi Khan Esterabadi, (Court Historian)
  8. ^ Mohammad Kazem Marvi Yazdi, Rare views of the world 3 vols., Ed Amin Riahi, Tehran, Third Edition, 1374
  9. ^ Hanway, Jonas, An Historical Account of the British Trade, 1: 251–3
  10. ^ Floor, Wiilem(2009). The rise & fall of Nader Shah: Dutch East India Company Reports 1730-1747, Mage Publishers
  11. ^ Axworthy, Michael(2009). The Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from tribal warrior to conquering tyrant, I. B. Tauris
  12. ^ Malcom, History of Persia
  13. ^ Ghafouri, Ali (2008). History of Iran's wars: from the Medes to now. Etela'at Publishing
  14. ^ Lockhart, Laurence, Nadir Shah: A Critical Study Based Mainly upon Contemporary Sources, London, 1938
  15. ^ АВПР, ф. «Сношения России с Персией», 1741 г.
  16. ^ Ramazan Gadzhimuradovich Abdulatipov. ["Russia and the Caucasus". 29 October 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2015.  Russia and the Caucasus: On the Arduous Path to Unity] Edwin Mellen Press, 2000 ISBN 978-0773431942 p 15
  17. ^ Lawrence Lockhart, 1938. Р. 202.
  18. ^ Ramazan Gadzhimuradovich Abdulatipov. Russia and the Caucasus: On the Arduous Path to Unity Edwin Mellen Press, 2000 ISBN 978-0773431942 p 15
  19. ^ G., I. "HEROIC RESISTANCE OF THE AGULS AGAINST IRANIAN CONQUEROR NADER SHAH IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE 18TH CENTURY". ВЕСТНИК САРАТОВСКОГО ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОГО СОЦИАЛЬНО-ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОГО УНИВЕРСИТЕТА (in Russian) (3). ISSN 1994-5094. Retrieved 19 November 2015. 
  20. ^ Kashmiri, Abdol-Karim, Bayān-e Vāghe, Edited by K. B. Nasim Lahur, 1970
  21. ^ Vatazes, Basile, Persica; Histoire de Chah-Nader, ed. N Iorga, Bucharest 1939
  22. ^ Mohsen, Mohammad, Zobdat-ol-Tavarikh, edited by Behruz Gudarzi, Tehran 1375
  23. ^ History of Nadir Shah's Wars (Taarikhe Jahangoshaaye Naaderi), 1759, Mirza Mehdi Khan Esterabadi, (Court Historian)
  24. ^ Mohammad Kazem Marvi Yazdi, Rare views of the world 3 vols., Ed Amin Riahi, Tehran, Third Edition, 1374
  25. ^ Hanway, Jonas, An Historical Account of the British Trade, 1: 251–3
  26. ^ Floor, Wiilem(2009). The rise & fall of Nader Shah: Dutch East India Company Reports 1730-1747, Mage Publishers
  27. ^ Axworthy, Michael(2009). The Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from tribal warrior to conquering tyrant, I. B. Tauris
  28. ^ Malcom, History of Persia
  29. ^ Ghafouri, Ali (2008). History of Iran's wars: from the Medes to now. Etela'at Publishing
  30. ^ Lockhart, Laurence, Nadir Shah: A Critical Study Based Mainly upon Contemporary Sources, London, 1938
  31. ^ Axworthy, Michael(2009). The Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from tribal warrior to conquering tyrant, I. B. Tauris
  32. ^ "History of Nadir Shah's Wars" (Taarikhe Jahangoshaaye Naaderi), 1759, Mirza Mehdi Khan Esterabadi, (Court Historian)
  33. ^ Ghafouri, Ali (2008). History of Iran's wars: from the Medes to now. Etela'at Publishing
  34. ^ N. V. Kapieva, Pesni narodov Dagestana (Songs of the peoples of Dāḡestān), Leningrad, 1970. page 19.

See also

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