Wing Chun

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Wing Chun Kuen
WingChunSign.svg
Also known as Ving Tsun, Wing Tsun. Ving Chun
Focus Striking, Grappling, Trapping
Country of origin China
Creator Ng Mui of the Five Elders
Parenthood Fujian White Crane, Shequan
Descendant arts Jeet Kune Do
Olympic sport No
Wing Chun
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 詠春
Simplified Chinese
Hanyu Pinyin Yǒng Chūn
Cantonese Yale Wihng Cheūn
Literal meaning "beautiful springtime"
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese Vĩnh Xuân

Wing Chun Kuen (traditional Chinese: 詠春拳), usually called Wing Chun (詠春), is a concept-based traditional Southern Chinese Kung fu (wushu) style and a form of self-defence, also known as "beautiful springtime", that requires quick arm movements and strong legs to defeat opponents.[1] Softness (via relaxation) and performance of techniques in a relaxed manner is fundamental to Wing Chun. According to legend, it was created by Ng Mui, an abbess who taught it to her student Yim Wing-chun as a means to defend herself against unwanted advances. The martial art is named after her. According to Ip Man, "Chi Sau in Wing Chun is to maintain one's flexibility and softness, all the while keeping in the strength to fight back, much like the flexible nature of bamboo".[2][3] Notable practitioners of Wing Chun include Ip Man, Bruce Lee, Brandon Lee, Jackie Chan, Donnie Yen, and Robert Downey Jr.

Characteristics

Wing Chun favors a relatively high, narrow stance with the elbows close to the body. Within the stance, arms are generally positioned across the vitals of the centerline with hands in a vertical "wu sau" ("protecting hand" position).[4] This style positions the practitioner to make readily placed blocks and fast-moving blows to vital striking points down the center of the body; neck, chest, belly and groin. Shifting or turning within a stance is done on the heels, balls, or middle (K1 or Kidney 1 point) of the foot, depending on lineage. Some Wing Chun styles discourage the use of high kicks because this risks counter-attacks to the groin. The practice of "settling" one's opponent to brace them more effectively against the ground helps one deliver as much force as possible to them.[5][6]

Relaxation

Softness (via relaxation) and performance of techniques in a relaxed manner, and by training the physical, mental, breathing, energy and force in a relaxed manner to develop Chi "soft wholesome force",[7] is fundamental to Wing Chun. On "softness" in Wing Chun, Yip Man during an interview said:

Wing Chun is in some sense a "soft" school of martial arts. However, if one equates that work as weak or without strength, then they are dead wrong. Chi Sau in Wing Chun is to maintain one's flexibility and softness, all the while keeping in the strength to fight back, much like the flexible nature of bamboo".[2]

Forms

Most Common Forms

The most common system of forms in Wing Chun consists of three empty hand forms, two weapon forms, and a wooden dummy form.

Empty hand

See also Glossary of Wing Chun terms

小念頭 Siu Nim Tau (Little Idea) The first and most important form in Wing Chun, Siu Nim Tau ("The little idea for beginning"), is to be practiced throughout the practitioner’s lifetime.[8] It is the foundation or "seed" of the art, on which all succeeding forms and techniques depend.[9] Fundamental rules of balance and body structure are developed here. Using a car analogy; for some branches this would provide the chassis,[10] for others this is the engine.[11] It serves as the basic alphabet of the system. Some branches view the symmetrical stance as the fundamental fighting stance; others see it as a training stance used in developing technique.[12]
尋橋 Chum Kiu (Seeking Bridge) The second form, Chum Kiu, focuses on coordinated movement of bodymass and entry techniques to "bridge the gap" between practitioner and opponent, and move in to disrupt their structure and balance.[13][14] Close-range attacks using the elbows and knees are also developed here. It also teaches methods of recovering position and centerline when in a compromised position where Siu Nim Tau structure has been lost. For some branches, bodyweight in striking is a central theme, either from pivoting (rotational) or stepping (translational). Likewise for some branches, this form provides the engine to the car. For branches that use the "sinking bridge" interpretation, the form takes on more emphasis of an "uprooting" context, adding multi-dimensional movement and spiraling to the already developed engine.
標指 Biu Ji (Thrusting Fingers) The third form, and the last form Biu Ji, is composed of extreme short-range and extreme long-range techniques, low kicks and sweeps, and "emergency techniques" to counter-attack when structure and centerline have been seriously compromised, such as when the practitioner is seriously injured.[15] As well as pivoting and stepping developed in Chum Kiu, a third degree of freedom involves more upper body and stretching is developed for more power. Such movements include close-range elbow strikes and finger thrusts to the throat. For some branches this is the turbo-charger of the car; for others it can be seen as a "pit stop" kit that should never come into play, recovering your "engine" when it has been lost. Still other branches view this form as imparting deadly "killing" and maiming techniques that should never be used without good reason. A common Wing Chun saying is "Biu Ji doesn't go out the door". Some interpret this to mean the form should be kept secret; others interpret it as meaning it should never be used if you can help it.

Weapons

八斬刀 Baat Jaam Dou (simplified Chinese: 八斩刀; traditional Chinese: 八斬刀; Cantonese Yale: Baat Jáam Dōu; pinyin: Bā Zhǎn Dāo; literally: 'Eight Slashing Knives'), also known as Yee Jee Seung Do (simplified Chinese: 二字双刀; traditional Chinese: 二字雙刀; Cantonese Yale: Yih Jih Sēung Dōu; pinyin: èr zì shuāng dāo; literally: 'Parallel Shape Double Knives'). A form involving a pair of large "Butterfly Knives", slightly smaller than short swords (Dao), as their blade is usually between 11-15 inches. Historically the knives were also referred to as Dit Ming Do ("Life-Taking Knives").[citation needed] The Baat Jaam Do form and training methods teach advanced footwork, and develop additional power and strength in both stance and technique. The Baat Jaam Do also help to cultivate a fighting spirit, as the techniques are designed to slaughter the enemy.
Modern Hybrid Blade Style Wing Chun Butterfly Swords
六點半棍 Luk Dim Bun Gwan (simplified Chinese: 六点半棍; traditional Chinese: 六點半棍; Cantonese Yale: Luhk Dím Bun Gwan; pinyin: Liù Diǎn Bàn Gùn; literally: 'Six and A Half Point Pole') "Long Pole"— a tapered wooden pole ranging anywhere from 8 to 13 feet in length. Also referred to as "Dragon Pole" by some branches. For some branches that use "Six and A Half Point Pole", their 7 principles of Luk Dim Boon Gwun (Tai-uprooting, lan-to expand, dim-shock, kit-deflect, got-cut down, wan-circle, lau-flowing) are used throughout the unarmed combat as well. The name six and a half point pole comes from these 7 principles, with the last principle: Lau, or Flowing counting as half a point.

Wooden Dummy

木人樁 Muk Yan Jong (Wooden Dummy) Muk Yan Jong is performed on a wooden dummy which serves as an intermediate tool that helps the student to use Wing Chun Kuen against another human opponent. [N/A 1] Muk Yan Jong is demonstrated by using a wooden Wing Chun dummy as an opponent. There are many versions of this form which come from a variety of Wing Chun Kung Fu lineages, however, the most common version of this form dates back to Yip (Ip) Man (October 14, 1893 to December 2, 1972) Wing Chun. Yip Man was the descendant of a wealthy family in Foshan, Southern China. He was one of (the iconic) Bruce Lee's teachers. [N/A 2]

Other Forms

Empty Hand

Both the Wai Yan (Weng Chun) and Nguyễn Tế-Công branches use different curricula of empty hand forms. The Tam Yeung and Fung Sang lineages both trace their origins to Leung Jan's retirement to his native village of Gu Lao, where he taught a curriculum of San Sik.

The Siu Lim Tau of Wing Chun is one long form that includes movements that are comparative to a combination of Siu Lim Tau, Chum Kiu, and Biu Ji of other families. The other major forms of the style are: Jeui Da (Chinese: 追打; literally: 'Chase Strike'), Fa Kyun (Chinese: 花拳; literally: 'Variegated Fist'), Jin Jeung (Chinese: 箭掌; literally: 'Arrow Palm'), Jin Kyun (Chinese: 箭拳; literally: 'Arrow Fist'), Jeui Kyun (Chinese: 醉拳; literally: 'Drunken Fist'), Sap Saam Sau (Chinese: 十三手; literally: 'Thirteen Hands'), and Chi Sau Lung (simplified Chinese: 黐手拢; traditional Chinese: 黐手攏; literally: 'Sticking Hands Set').

Also, a few family styles of Wing-Chun (especially those coming from the Hung Syun Hei Baan (Chinese: 紅船戲班; Chinese: 红船戏班; literally: 'Red Boat Theatrical Troupe') have an advanced combination form called Saam Baai Fat (Chinese: 三拜佛; literally: 'Three Bows to Buddha') which includes many flow/leak techniques from all of the first 'standard' 7 forms. Old phonetics in Cantonese; Hung Sun Hay Ban Tong Red Boat Opera Organization/Troop has a branch in Girard,Ohio ran by Si-Fu Mark Lee Pringle. They are one of the few schools that teach the full 8-form curriculum including Yoo-Choy( old phonetics ) family-style of 'Saam Baai Fut' 3 Bows to Buddha.

Wooden Dummy

The Star Dummy consists of three poles that are embedded into the ground in a triangle with each pole an arms span apart. The associated form consists of kicking the poles using the various kicks found in Wing Chun: front kick, front kick with foot pointed out using broad area of foot and knee rotation to outside, and side kick.

Weapons

The Yuen Kay Shan / Sum Nung branch also historically trained throwing darts (Biu). According to Sum Nung, his skill with them was not comparable enough to Yuen Kay Shan's for him to include them in the current curriculum.[citation needed]

San Sik

San Sik (Chinese: 散式; Cantonese Yale: Sáan Sīk; pinyin: Sǎn Shì; literally: 'Casual Style') are compact in structure. They can be loosely grouped into three broad categories:

1. Focus on building body structure through basic punching, standing, turning, and stepping drills. 2. Fundamental arm cycles and changes, firmly ingraining the cardinal tools for interception and adaptation. 3. Sensitivity training and combination techniques.

Sensitivity Training

Wing Chun includes several sensitivity drills designed to train and obtain specific responses. Although they can be practiced or expressed in a combat form, they should not be confused with actual sparring or fighting.

Chi Sau

Chi Sau (Chinese: 黐手; Cantonese Yale: Chī Sáu; pinyin: Chī Shǒu; literally: 'sticking hands') is a term for the principle and drills used for the development of automatic reflexes upon contact and the idea of "sticking" to the opponent (also known as "sensitivity training"). In reality, the intention is not to "stick" to your opponent at all costs, but rather to protect your centerline while simultaneously attacking your opponent's centerline.[16] In Wing Chun, this is practiced by two practitioners maintaining contact with each other's forearms while executing techniques, thereby training each other to sense changes in body mechanics, pressure, momentum and "feel". The increased sensitivity gained from this drill helps a practitioner attack and counter an opponent's movements precisely, quickly, and with appropriate techniques.

Chi Sau additionally refers to methods of rolling hands drills (Chinese: 碌手; Cantonese Yale: Lūk Sáu; literally: 'rolling hands'). Luk Sau participants push and "roll" their forearms against each other in a single circle while trying to remain in relaxed form. The aim is to feel force, test resistance, and find defensive gaps. Other branches have a version of this practice where each arm rolls in small, separate circles. Luk Sau is most notably taught within the Pan Nam branch of Wing Chun where both the larger rolling drills as well as the smaller, separate-hand circle drills are taught.

Some lineages, such as Ip Man and Jiu Wan, begin Chi Sau drills with one-armed sets called Daan Chi Sau (Chinese: 单黐手; Cantonese Yale: Dāan Chī Sáu; literally: 'Single Sticking Hand') which help the novice student to get the feel of the exercise. In Daan Chi Sau each practitioner uses one hand from the same side as they face each other.

Chi Geuk

Chi Geuk (simplified Chinese: 黐脚; traditional Chinese: 黐腳; Cantonese Yale: Chī Geuk; pinyin: Chī Jiǎo; literally: 'sticking legs') is the lower-body equivalent of the upper body's Chi Sau training, aimed on developing awareness in the lower body and obtaining relaxation of the legs.

In popular culture

Donnie Yen played the role of Wing Chun Grandmaster Ip Man in the 2008 movie Ip Man, which was a box office success, and in its sequels Ip Man 2, Ip Man 3, and Ip Man 4.[17][18] Max Zhang (Zhang Jin) who played the role of Cheung Tin Chi in Ip Man 3 starred in a spin-off and direct sequel movie called Master Z: The Ip Man Legacy, which follows the events after the end of Ip Man 3.[19]

Stephen Amell on the CW show Arrow has incorporated Wing Chun into his fighting style; his character practices on a Muk Yan Jong (wooden dummy).[20]

Notable practitioners

Branches

See also

References

  1. ^ Concepts, Steve Creel, Wing Chun. "About Wing Chun Kung Fu". Wing Chun Concepts. Retrieved 2018-11-26.
  2. ^ a b "An Interview With Grandmaster Yip Man from 1972". My Way of Wing Chun. 2013-07-11. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
  3. ^ "Wing Chun and Bruce Lee". Post Magazine. Retrieved 2019-02-17.
  4. ^ "How to Wu Sau Correctly - Technique is Everything | Sifu Och Wing Chun". Sifu Och Wing Chun. 2016-09-07. Retrieved 2017-03-08.
  5. ^ "Rediscovering the Roots of Wing Chun". Kung Fu Magazine. Retrieved 2010-02-06.
  6. ^ McKnight, David; Kwok Chow, Sifu Chung. "Integrative Wing Chun". Kung Fu Magazine. Retrieved 2010-02-06.
  7. ^ Roselando, Jim (2011-01-28). "One Wing Chun Kung Fu Family – W1NG : » Coaching From The Ancestors". web.archive.org. Retrieved 2019-01-19.
  8. ^ "WING CHUN CONCEPTS: Siu Nim Tao". Wing Chun Concepts. 2017-09-23. Archived from the original on 2017-09-23. Retrieved 2017-10-24.
  9. ^ Michel Boulet. "The Simple Basics of a Complex Art". the Wing Chun Archive. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
  10. ^ Jim Fung (2009-02-23). "Wing Chun Stance". International wing Chun academy. Wingchun.com.au. Archived from the original on 2014-03-19. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
  11. ^ "The Hidden Power of Siu Nim Tau by Tsui Sheung Tin". 2017-05-22. Retrieved 2018-11-23.
  12. ^ Sifu Cogar. "An Overview of Wing Chun". richhealthandwellness.com. Archived from the original on 2010-02-03. Retrieved 2007-05-04.
  13. ^ "The Forms of Wing Chun Kuen Kung Fu | Reading Academy Wing Chun & Kali". Teamwingchun.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2012-05-01. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
  14. ^ "Ving Tsun Martial Arts Studio – Training". Tstvingtsun.bc.ca. Archived from the original on 2013-06-28. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
  15. ^ City Wing Chun – Training Notes Archived April 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ "Chi Sau: What's Behind Sticky Hand Training". Wingchunlife.com. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
  17. ^ "2008 Chinese Box Office records". Boxofficemojo.com. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
  18. ^ "IP Man 4 Teaser Trailer Pits Donnie Yen Against Scott Adkins". Movies. Retrieved 2019-03-20.
  19. ^ Shaw Theatres, Master Z: The Ip Man Legacy Official Trailer, retrieved 2019-01-19
  20. ^ "Arrow's stunt coordinator teaches us how to fight like Oliver Queen". Youtube. December 19, 2014.
  21. ^ "BRUCE LEE AND HIS FRIENDSHIP WITH WONG SHUN LEUNG".
  22. ^ "Who Taught Bruce Lee?".
  23. ^ "Wong meet Bruce Lee".
  24. ^ "Wong Shun Leung – The Logic Behind Wing Chun".
  25. ^ "Sifu Li Heng Chang Official Website (Chinese: 李恆昌)". Archived from the original on 2011-11-13.
  26. ^ "重温《功夫》看星爷打咏春拳".
  27. ^ "Jackie Chan Wing Chun Practitioner".
  28. ^ "壹盤生意叛逆詠春派搶攻上位 - 明星八掛大分享".
  29. ^ Sarah Kurchak (February 8, 2016). "How Wing Chun Helped Robert Downey Jr. Battle Addiction". Fightland.
  30. ^ "Victor Wooten Age, Hometown, Biography". Last.fm. December 15, 2010.

Further reading

  • Chu, Robert; Ritchie, Rene; & Wu, Muthu Veeran (India). (1998). Complete Wing Chun: The Definitive Guide to Wing Chun's History and Traditions. Boston: Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3141-6.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Leung Ting (1978). Wing Tsun Kuen. Hong Kong: Leung's Publications. ISBN 962-7284-01-7.
  • Ritchie, René. "Wing Chun Concepts". Yuen Kay-San Wing Chun Kuen: History & Practice. Archived from the original on 24 August 2016.
  • Williams, Randy. Wing Chun Gung Fu: The Explosive Art of Close Range Combat.

External links

  • Media related to Wing Chun at Wikimedia Commons
  • "Best Wing Chun Videos". chisao.com. Retrieved 2019-02-13.
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