Windham County, Vermont

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Windham County, Vermont
Windham County Court House - Newfane, Vermont - DSC08436.JPG
Windham County courthouse in Newfane
Map of Vermont highlighting Windham County
Location in the U.S. state of Vermont
Map of the United States highlighting Vermont
Vermont's location in the U.S.
Founded 1781
Shire Town Newfane
Largest town Brattleboro
Area
 • Total 798 sq mi (2,067 km2)
 • Land 785 sq mi (2,033 km2)
 • Water 13 sq mi (34 km2), 1.6%
Population (est.)
 • (2015) 43,386
 • Density 55.6/sq mi (21/km²)
Congressional district At-large
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4

Windham County is a county located in the state of Vermont, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 44,513.[1] The county's shire town (seat) is Newfane,[2] and the largest municipality is Brattleboro. The county is known for its counterculture.[citation needed]

History

Fort Bridgman, Vernon, was burned in 1755, a casualty of the French and Indian War.[3] The Court of Common Pleas (established 1768) of the County of Cumberland (established July 3, 1766) of the Province of New York was moved to the town of Westminster in 1772. On July 4, 1776 the Province of New York became an independent state.

On January 15, 1777 Vermont declared its independence from New York, and functioned as an independent republic until statehood in 1791. Cumberland County (N.Y.) and Gloucester County (N.Y.) were extinguished when Vermont declared its independence from New York; Albany County (N.Y.) and Charlotte County (now Washington County, N.Y.) were eliminated from Vermont.[4]

Unity County was formed March 17, 1778, the eastern of the two original Vermont Republic counties.[5] Unity County was renamed Cumberland County on March 21, 1778.[6] Cumberland County and Bennington County (the eastern original county) exchanged land, adjusting their early border.[7] On February 16, 1781 Rutland County was created from Bennington County, and Orange, Windham and Windsor Counties were created from Cumberland County.[8] Some authors assume Cumberland County was renamed Windham County in 1781. Yet there are several original sources that indicate Cumberland County was dissolved rather than renamed.[9] This was probably to make a clean legal break from any connection with Cumberland County, New York, as some authors indicate the Cumberland County, Vermont Republic, records remained in Windham County. Newfane became the Shire Town of Windham County before 1812.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 798 square miles (2,070 km2), of which 785 square miles (2,030 km2) is land and 13 square miles (34 km2) (1.6%) is water.[10] It is the third-largest county in Vermont by land area.

Adjacent counties

Reservoirs

National protected areas

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1790 17,572
1800 23,581 34.2%
1810 26,760 13.5%
1820 28,457 6.3%
1830 28,748 1.0%
1840 27,442 −4.5%
1850 29,062 5.9%
1860 26,982 −7.2%
1870 26,036 −3.5%
1880 26,763 2.8%
1890 26,547 −0.8%
1900 26,660 0.4%
1910 26,932 1.0%
1920 26,373 −2.1%
1930 26,015 −1.4%
1940 27,850 7.1%
1950 28,749 3.2%
1960 29,776 3.6%
1970 33,074 11.1%
1980 36,933 11.7%
1990 41,588 12.6%
2000 44,216 6.3%
2010 44,513 0.7%
Est. 2016 43,145 [11] −3.1%
U.S. Decennial Census[12]
1790–1960[13] 1900–1990[14]
1990–2000[15] 2010–2014[1]

2000 census

As of the census[16] of 2000, there were 44,216 people, 18,375 households, and 11,447 families residing in the county. The population density was 56 people per square mile (22/km²). There were 27,039 housing units at an average density of 34 per square mile (13/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 96.72% White, 0.50% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.79% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.32% from other races, and 1.42% from two or more races. 1.11% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.1% were of English, 13.3% Irish, 9.5% French, 8.9% American, 7.7% German, 6.0% Italian and 5.0% French Canadian ancestry according to Census 2000. 95.9% spoke English, 1.3% Spanish and 1.2% French as their first language.

There were 18,375 households out of which 29.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.20% were married couples living together, 9.60% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.70% were non-families. 29.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.20% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.91.

In the county, the population was spread out with 23.50% under the age of 18, 7.10% from 18 to 24, 28.10% from 25 to 44, 27.20% from 45 to 64, and 14.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 95.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.80 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $38,204, and the median income for a family was $46,989. Males had a median income of $31,094 versus $24,650 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,533. About 6.10% of families and 9.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.00% of those under age 18 and 7.90% of those age 65 or over.

2010 census

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 44,513 people, 19,290 households, and 11,453 families residing in the county.[17] The population density was 56.7 inhabitants per square mile (21.9/km2). There were 29,735 housing units at an average density of 37.9 per square mile (14.6/km2).[18] The racial makeup of the county was 95.3% white, 1.0% Asian, 0.9% black or African American, 0.3% American Indian, 0.5% from other races, and 2.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.8% of the population.[17] The largest ancestry groups were:

Republic of Ireland 21.8% Irish

England 21.7% English

France 12.3% French

Germany 11.7% German

Italy 8.6% Italian

United States 8.2% American

Poland 5.5% Polish

Quebec 4.9% French Canadian

Scotland 4.5% Scottish

Northern Ireland 3.2% Scotch-Irish

Sweden 3.0% Swedish

Wales 1.2% Welsh

Of the 19,290 households, 26.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.8% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.6% were non-families, and 31.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.79. The median age was 44.9 years.[17]

The median income for a household in the county was $46,714 and the median income for a family was $58,814. Males had a median income of $40,872 versus $33,278 for females. The per capita income for the county was $27,247. About 6.3% of families and 11.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.3% of those under age 18 and 7.7% of those age 65 or over.[19]

Politics and government

Presidential Elections Results[20]
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2016 24.1% 5,454 63.4% 14,340 12.6% 2,840
2012 24.4% 5,347 73.1% 16,026 2.6% 564
2008 24.9% 5,997 73.0% 17,585 2.1% 499
2004 31.2% 7,280 66.4% 15,489 2.4% 547
2000 34.2% 7,358 52.7% 11,319 13.1% 2,814
1996 27.8% 5,261 55.1% 10,426 17.1% 3,228
1992 27.2% 5,816 53.3% 11,414 19.5% 4,181
1988 46.0% 8,572 52.8% 9,839 1.3% 242
1984 54.1% 9,880 44.9% 8,206 1.1% 193
1980 42.6% 7,062 35.1% 5,830 22.3% 3,706
1976 52.1% 7,928 44.6% 6,794 3.4% 510
1972 60.0% 9,062 39.2% 5,925 0.8% 113
1968 54.4% 6,916 42.1% 5,353 3.6% 452
1964 33.3% 4,180 66.7% 8,371 0.0% 4
1960 67.7% 9,128 32.3% 4,358
1956 80.0% 9,979 19.8% 2,474 0.2% 22
1952 77.6% 9,774 22.2% 2,790 0.3% 31
1948 70.5% 7,148 27.3% 2,770 2.2% 222
1944 66.5% 6,708 33.5% 3,376 0.1% 5
1940 63.0% 7,031 36.8% 4,101 0.2% 27
1936 66.4% 7,369 33.3% 3,699 0.2% 27
1932 66.0% 7,347 32.9% 3,659 1.1% 123
1928 77.7% 8,410 22.2% 2,398 0.2% 16
1924 83.2% 7,638 11.9% 1,091 4.9% 454
1920 80.4% 5,551 18.9% 1,302 0.8% 55
1916 65.5% 3,375 33.0% 1,698 1.6% 80
1912 38.3% 2,143 23.7% 1,327 38.1% 2,132
1908 78.6% 3,738 19.0% 906 2.4% 114
1904 78.6% 3,735 17.0% 809 4.4% 208
1900 79.0% 3,948 20.3% 1,014 0.7% 34
1896 84.1% 4,829 11.7% 670 4.2% 240
1892 69.5% 3,656 28.5% 1,496 2.0% 107
1888 69.8% 4,344 24.4% 1,518 5.9% 366

In 2006, four towns in Windham County, Dummerston, Marlboro, Newfane, and Stratton, had their citizens pass resolutions supporting the proposed impeachment of President George W. Bush.[21]

By some accounts, Windham County is now the 'bluest' county in the 'bluest' state in the USA. It was Vermont's bluest county in the 2000, 2004, 2008 and 2012 U.S. Presidential elections. Then-Vice President Al Gore won the county by an 18.4% margin over then-Texas Governor George W. Bush, with 53% of the vote to Bush's 34%. In 2004, John Kerry carried the county by a 35.2% margin over President Bush, with Kerry carrying the state by 20.1% over Bush.[22] In 2008, Barack Obama won Windham by 48.1% margin over John McCain, with Obama winning by 37% over McCain statewide.[23] In 2012, Obama won Windham County by a 48.7% margin over Mitt Romney.[24] Ronald Reagan was the last Republican candidate for president to carry the county, winning it with 54% of the vote to 45% for Walter Mondale in 1984.[25]

County law enforcement

The Windham County Sheriff's Department is one source of law enforcement in this county especially in areas that have no local police departments. Where no coverage exists, the Vermont State Police are the de facto law enforcement agency.

Transportation

Roads and highways

Windham County is crossed by:

Bus

Local bus service, particularly in and around Brattleboro and Bellows Falls, is provided by Connecticut River Transit's "The Current". The Current includes the entire Brattleboro BeeLine bus system, composed of the Red, Blue and White Lines, which also go to West Brattleboro and Hinsdale, New Hampshire. The Deerfield Valley Transit Association's fare-free MOOver serves mostly the southwestern portion of the county, especially the town of Wilmington and nearby ski areas. The MOOver also has bus connections to Bennington (in a partnership with the Green Mountain Express) to the west and Brattleboro, connecting to other local and intercity buses in both towns.

The national intercity bus service Greyhound serves Windham County with stops in Brattleboro and Bellows Falls daily.

Rail

Amtrak, the national intercity rail network, operates its Vermonter, running daily from St. Albans, Vermont to Washington, DC through Bellows Falls and Brattleboro with one daily northbound and southbound stop.

Communities

Towns

In Vermont, towns are contiguous named places, subdivisions of counties, where there is permanent, year-round human population. They are usually formally incorporated, governing themselves in open town meetings (with very few exceptions), and their usual elected administrative body is called a selectboard. Though Brattleboro is by far the most populous town in the county, the historic "shire town" (county seat) is Newfane, and Windham County Superior Court is still located there, as are the offices of the County Sheriff and the County Clerk.

Villages

Villages are named places and sometimes formal census divisions, but may or may not be incorporated separately within a town's borders.

Census-designated places

Other villages

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  3. ^ [1] Archived February 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ Slade, 70-73; Van Zandt, 64; Williamson, C., 82-84, map facing 95, 100-102, 112-113.
  5. ^ Vermont State Papers, 12:43-44.
  6. ^ Vermont State Papers, 3:13.
  7. ^ Vermont State Papers, 12:43-44
  8. ^ Vermont State Papers, 13:5-6
  9. ^ "Vermont: Individual County Chronologies". Vermont Atlas of Historical County Boundaries. The Newberry Library. 2008. Retrieved June 30, 2015. 
  10. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  11. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017. 
  12. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  13. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  14. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  15. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  16. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-14. 
  17. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2016-01-20. 
  18. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2016-01-20. 
  19. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2016-01-20. 
  20. ^ http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS
  21. ^ Four Vermont Towns Vote to Impeach Bush Associated Press. Published on 2006-03-08. Retrieved on 2008-09-20.
  22. ^ 2004 Presidential General Election Results - Vermont
  23. ^ U.S. Election Atlas
  24. ^ http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/state.php?year=2012&fips=50&f=1&off=0&elect=0
  25. ^ http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/state.php?year=1984&fips=50&f=1&off=0&elect=0

External links

  • The Windham Regional Commission
  • Windham County Sheriff's Department
  • The Mount Snow Valley Chamber of Commerce
  • The Historical Society of Windham County
  • Windham County history and genealogy

Coordinates: 42°59′N 72°43′W / 42.99°N 72.72°W / 42.99; -72.72

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