Wind power in India

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Wind power generation capacity in India has significantly increased in recent years. As of 31 March 2018 the total installed wind power capacity was 34.04 GW,[1][2] the fourth largest installed wind power capacity in the world. Wind power capacity is mainly spread across the South, West and North regions.[3] Wind power costs in India are decreasing rapidly.

The levelised tariff of wind power reached a record low of 2.43 (3.6¢ US) per kWh (without any direct or indirect subsidies) during auctions for wind projects in December 2017.[4][5] In December 2017, union government announced the applicable guidelines for tariff-based wind power auctions to bring more clarity and minimise the risk to the developers.[6]

Wind farms midst paddy fields in India.

Installed capacity

The table below shows the India's year on year installed wind power, annual wind power generation and annual growth in wind power generation since 2006.[7]

Installed wind power capacity and generation in India since 2007
Financial year 06-07 07-08 08-09 09-10 10-11 11-12 12-13 13-14 14-15 15-16 16-17 17-18
Installed capacity (MW) 7,850 9,587 10,925 13,064 16,084 18,421 20,150 22,465 23,447 26,777 32,280 34,046[8]
Generation (GWh) 28,214 28,604 46,011 52,666

History

Installed Wind Power Capacity
Fiscal Year End Cumulative Capacity (in MW)
2005
6,270
2006
7,850
2007
9,587
2008
10,925
2009
13,064
2010
16,084
2011
18,421
2012
20,149
2013
21,264
2014
23,354
2015
26,769
2016
32,280
2017
34,046

Development of wind power in India began in December 1952, when Maneklal Sankalchand Thacker, a distinguished power engineer, initiated a project with the Indian Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) to explore the possibilities of harnessing wind power in the country.[9] The CSIR established a Wind Power Sub-Committee under P. Nilakantan, which was assigned the task of investigating the available resources that could be practically utilized, along with researching the economic possibilities of wind energy.[10] With assistance from the Indian Meteorological Department, the Sub-Committee extensively reviewed available data on surface winds in India and their velocity duration, and began detailed surveys of promising sites for harnessing the optimum amount of wind energy; it also successfully developed and tested large wood-and-bamboo windmills.

In September 1954, a Symposium on Solar Energy and Wind Power organised by the CSIR and UNESCO was held in New Delhi; among the attendees was E. W. Golding, a British power engineer and authority on wind energy generation.[9] Convinced of the potential of wind power in India, he recommended continued and extensive wind velocity surveys in different regions of India, the full-time assignment of staff to experimental wind power studies, the establishment of a dedicated research laboratory and development of small to medium-sized wind-powered electrical generators. Golding's recommendations were adopted by the CSIR in 1957.[9] By this time, regions of Saurashtra and around Coimbatore had been identified as promising sites for generating electricity from wind power, and the Wind Power Sub-Committee had begun to erect 20 wind velocity survey stations across India, in addition to testing its indigenously designed windmills and obtaining a 6 kw. Allgaier wind turbine, which was presented to India by the West German government; experiments at Porbandar with the latter had commenced by 1961.[10][9] The Indian government also considered a proposal to erect over 20,000 small to medium-sized wind-powered electrical generators in rural districts, to be used for powering water pumps and supplying electricity for remotely situated structures such as lighthouses.[10]

In 1960, the CSIR established a Wind Power Division as part of the new National Aeronautical Laboratory (NAL) in Bangalore, which was founded that year.[9] From the 1960s into the 1980s, the NAL and other groups continued to carry out wind velocity surveys and develop improved estimates of India's wind energy capacity.[11] Large-scale development of wind power began in 1986 with the first wind farms being set up in coastal areas of Maharashtra (Ratnagiri), Gujarat (Okha) and Tamil Nadu (Tirunelveli) with 55 kW Vestas wind turbines. These demonstration projects were supported by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE).

The potential for wind farms in the country was first assessed in 2011 to be more than 2,000 GW by Prof. Jami Hossain of TERI University, New Delhi.[12] This was subsequently re-validated by Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, US (LBNL) in an independent study in 2012. As a result, the MNRE set up a committee to reassess the potential[13] and through the National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE, previously C-WET) has announced a revised estimation of the potential wind resource in India from 49,130 MW to 302,000 MW assessed at 100 m hub height.[14] Wind turbines are now being set up at even 120 m hub height and the wind resource at higher hub heights of around 120 m or more that are prevailing is possibly even more.

In 2015, the MNRE set the target for Wind Power generation capacity by the year 2022 at 60,000 MW.[3][15]

East and North east regions have no grid connected wind power plant as of December 2017.

No offshore wind farm is under implementation as of December 2017.[16] However, an Offshore Wind Policy was announced in 2015 and presently weather stations and LIDARs are being set up by NIWE at some locations.[17] The first offshore wind farm is planned near Dhanushkodi in Tamil Nadu.[18]

Electricity generation

Wind power accounts for nearly 10% of India's total installed power generation capacity and generated 52.67 TWh in the fiscal year 2017-18, which is nearly 3% of total electricity generation.[19] The capacity utilisation factor is nearly 16% in the fiscal year 2017-18 (19.62% in 2016-17 and 14% in 2015-16). 70% of wind generation is during the five months duration from May to September coinciding with Southwest monsoon duration. In India, solar power is complementary to wind power as it is generated mostly during the non monsoon period in daytime.[20]

Monthly Electricity Generation in India April, 2017 - March, 2018[21]
Month North West South East North East Total (GWh)[19]
April 2017 683.42 1,969.05 937.55 - - 3,590.03
May 2017 717.09 2,473.51 1,792.32 - - 4,982.92
June 2017 819.78 2,688.93 3,720.42 - - 7,229.12
July 2017 719.68 3,793.41 5,341.25 - - 9,858.30
August 2017 833.87 2,466.19 4,212.02 - - 7,512.16
September 2017 399.34 983.83 2,513.94 - - 3,897.08
October 2017 207.32 700.08 1,966.15 - - 2,873.55
November 2017 230.64 884.86 1,320.38 - - 2,435.91
December 2017 410.07 1,510.46 1,179.33 - - 3,099.86
January 2018 - - - - - 2,007.53
February 2018 279.42 778.29 1,211.62 - - 2,272.87
March 2018 357.52 1,303.87 1,245.37 - - 2,906.76
Total (GWh) - - - - - 52,666.09

Wind power by state

Muppandal Wind farm near NH44

There is a growing number of wind energy installations in states across India.

Installed wind capacity by state as of 31 March 2018[1]
State Total Capacity (MW)
Tamil Nadu 8,197
Gujarat 5,613
Maharashtra 4,784
Karnataka 4,509
Rajasthan 4,298
Andhra Pradesh 3,963
Madhya Pradesh 2,520
Telangana 101
Kerala 53
Others 4
Total 34,043

Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu's wind power capacity is around 29% of India's total.[when?] The Government of Tamil Nadu realized the importance and need for renewable energy, and set up a separate Agency, as registered society, called the Tamil Nadu Energy Development Agency (TEDA) as early as 1985. Now,[when?] Tamil Nadu has become a leader in Wind Power in India. In Muppandal windfarm the total capacity is 1500 MW, the largest wind power plant in India. The total wind installed capacity in Tamil Nadu is 7633 MW.[22] During the fiscal year 2014-15, the electricity generation is 9.521 GWh, with about a 15% capacity utilization factor.[23]

Maharashtra

Maharashtra is one of the prominent states that installed wind power projects second to Tamil Nadu in India. As of end of March 2016, installed wind power capacity is 4655.25 MW[citation needed]. As of now[when?] there are 50 developers registered with state nodal agency "Maharashtra energy Development Agency" for development of wind power projects. All the major manufacturers of wind turbines including Suzlon, Vestas, Gamesa, Regen, Leitner Shriram have presence in Maharashtra.

Gujarat

Gujarat government's focus on tapping renewable energy has led to sharp rise in the wind power capacity in the last few years. According to official data, wind power generations capacity in the state has increased a staggering ten times in just six years. ONGC Ltd. has installed a 51MW wind energy farm at Bhuj in Gujarat. Renewable energy projects worth a massive Rs 1 lakh crore of memorandums of understanding (MoUs) in the Vibrant Gujarat Summit in 2017.[24]

Rajasthan

4031.99 MW wind power installed as per 31.03.2016.[citation needed]

Madhya Pradesh

In consideration of unique concept, Govt. of Madhya Pradesh has sanctioned another 15 MW project to Madhya Pradesh Windfarms Ltd. MPWL, Bhopal at Nagda Hills near Dewas under consultation from Consolidated Energy Consultants Ltd. CECL Bhopal. All the 25 WEGs have been commissioned on 31.03.2008 and under successful operation.[25]

Kerala

55 MW production of wind power is installed in Kerala. The first wind farm of the state was set up 1997[when?] at Kanjikode in Palakkad district.[citation needed]

The agency has identified 16 sites for setting up wind farms through private developers.[citation needed]

Odisha

Odisha a coastal state has higher potential for wind energy. Current installation capacity stands at 2.0 MW. Odisha has a windpower potential of 1700MW. The Govt of Odisha is actively pursuing to boost Wind power generation in the state. however it has not progressed like other states primarily because Odisha having a huge coal reserve and number of existing and upcoming thermal power plants, is a power surplus state.[26]

West Bengal

The total installation in West Bengal is 2.10 MW till Dec 2009 at Fraserganj, Distt- South 24 Paraganas. More 0.5 MW (approx) at Ganga Sagar, Kakdwip, Distt - South 24 Paraganas. Both the project owned by West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency (WBREDA), Govt. of WB and project was executed on turnkey basis by Utility Powertech Limited (UPL).[citation needed]

Jammu and Kashmir

The Kargil, Ladakh, occupied Gilgit and China occupied Aksai Chin regions of Jammu and Kashmir state are potential wind energy areas, which are yet to be exploited.[14] Wind Speeds are higher during the winter months in the state, which is complimentary to the hydro power available during the summer months from the snow melt water. Being a Himalayan state located at higher altitude, the heating energy requirements are high which can be met by the renewable energy resources such as wind, solar and hydro power. The state is yet to open its account in grid connected wind power installations.

Projects

India's largest wind power production facilities (10MW and greater)[27]

Windmills on the Tirumala hills in Andhra Pradesh
A wind farm in Rajasthan
Wind turbines midst of India's agricultural farms.
Hybrid in Leh, J&K state
Rank Power plant Producer Location State MWe
1 Muppandal windfarm[28] Muppandal Wind Kanyakumari Tamil Nadu 1500
2 Jaisalmer Wind Park[29] Suzlon Energy Jaisalmer Rajasthan 1064
3 Brahmanvel windfarm[30] Parakh Agro Industries Dhule Maharashtra 528
4 Dhalgaon windfarm[31] Gadre Marine Exports Sangli Maharashtra 278
5 Vankusawade Wind Park Suzlon Energy Ltd. Satara District. Maharashtra 259
6 Vaspet ReNew Power Vaspet Maharashtra 144
7 Beluguppa Wind Park Orange Renewable Beluguppa Andhra Pradesh 100.8
8 Mamatkheda Wind Park Orange Renewable Mamatkheda Madhya Pradesh 100.5
9 Anantapur Wind Park Orange Renewable Nimbagallu Andhra Pradesh 100
10 Damanjodi Wind Power Plant Suzlon Energy Ltd. Damanjodi Odisha 99
11 Jath ReNew Power Jath Maharashtra 84
12 Welturi ReNew Power Welturi Maharashtra 75
13 Acciona Tuppadahalli Tuppadahalli Energy India Pvt Ltd Chitradurga District Karnataka 56.1
14 Dangiri Wind Farm Oil India Ltd. Jaiselmer Rajasthan 54
15 Bercha Wind Park Orange Renewable Ratlam Madhya Pradesh 50
16 Cape Comorin Aban Loyd Chiles Offshore Ltd. Kanyakumari Tamil Nadu 33
17 Kayathar Subhash Subhash Ltd. Kayathar Tamil Nadu 30
18 Jasdan ReNew Power Jasdan Gujarat 25.2
19 Ramakkalmedu Subhash Ltd. Ramakkalmedu Kerala 25
20 Gudimangalam Gudimangalam Wind Farm Gudimangalam Tamil Nadu 21
21 Shalivahana Wind Shalivahana Green Energy. Ltd. Tirupur Tamil Nadu 20.4[32]
22 Puthlur RCI Wescare (India) Ltd. Puthlur Andhra Pradesh 20
23 Lamda Danida Danida India Ltd. Lamba Gujarat 15
24 Chennai Mohan Mohan Breweries & Distilleries Chennai Tamil Nadu 15
25 Shah Gajendragarh MMTCL Gadag Karnataka 15
26 Jamgudrani MP MP Windfarms Ltd. Dewas Madhya Pradesh 14
27 Jogmatti BSES BSES Ltd. Chitradurga District Karnataka 14
28 Perungudi Newam Newam Power Company Ltd. Perungudi Tamil Nadu 12
29 Kethanur Wind Farm Kethanur Wind Farm Kethanur Tamil Nadu 11
30 Shah Gajendragarh Sanjay D. Ghodawat Gadag Karnataka 10.8
31 Hyderabad TSRTC Telangana SRTC Hyderabad Telangana 10
32 Muppandal Madras Madras Cements Ltd. Muppandal Tamil Nadu 10
34 Poolavadi Chettinad Chettinad Cement Corp. Ltd. Poolavadi Tamil Nadu 10

Offshore wind power plants

India started planning in 2010 to enter into offshore wind power,[33] and a 100 MW demonstration plant located off the Gujarat coast began planning in 2014.[34] In 2013, a consortium (instead of group of organizations), led by Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) started project FOWIND (Facilitating Offshore Wind in India) to identify potential zones for development of off-shore wind power in India and to stimulate R & D activities in this area.[35] The other consortium partners include the Centre for Study of Science, Technology and Policy (CSTEP), DNV GL, the Gujarat Power Corporation Limited (GPCL) and the World Institute of Sustainable Energy (WISE). The consortium was awarded the grant of €4.0 million by the delegation of the European Union to India in 2013 besides co-funding support from GPCL. The project action will be implemented from December 2013 to March 2018.

The project focuses on the States of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu for identification of potential zones for development through techno-commercial analysis and preliminary resource assessment. It will also establish a platform for structural collaboration and knowledge sharing between stakeholders from European Union and India, on offshore wind technology, policy, regulation, industry and human resource development. FOWIND activities will also help facilitate a platform to stimulate offshore wind related R&D activities in the country. The consortium published initial pre-feasibility assessment reports for offshore wind farm development in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu on 16 June 2015.[36][37] In September 2015, the India's cabinet has approved the National Offshore Wind Energy Policy. With this, the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy (MNRE) has been authorized as the Nodal Ministry for use of offshore areas within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)[38]

India seems pacing up rapidly towards offshore wind energy development as the Nodal Ministry (MNRE) & Nodal Agency (NIWE) calls with the Expression of Interest (EoI) [39] inviting the bidders for development of first 1000MW commercial scale offshore windfarm in India, near the coast of Gujarat. The EoI published on 16th Apr 2018, specifies the proposed area identified under the FOWIND & FOWPI study funded by European Union. The proposed location of the offshore windfarm could be 23-40km off the coast from the Pipavav port, Gulf of Khambhat. The proposed area covers about 400sq km. The wind measurements & other data collection are under progress under the supervision of NIWE.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Installed capacity of wind power projects in India". Retrieved 7 April 2018. 
  2. ^ "Global Wind Statistics 2017" (PDF). 
  3. ^ a b "Physical Progress (Achievements)". Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Govt. of India. 31 July 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2016. 
  4. ^ "Wind power tariffs in Gujarat auctions fall to Rs 2.43 per unit". The Economic Times. Retrieved 22 December 2017. 
  5. ^ "Wind energy tariffs do not fall further in latest auction for 2,000 Mw". The Economic Times. Retrieved 15 February 2018. 
  6. ^ "Govt issues guidelines for tariff-based wind power auction". Retrieved 12 December 2017. 
  7. ^ "Monthly wind generation" (PDF). Retrieved 16 September 2017. 
  8. ^ "All India installed capacity of power stations" (PDF). March 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  9. ^ a b c d e "Wind as a Source of Energy in India" (PDF). Current Science. 30.3: 95. January 1961. 
  10. ^ a b c "Utilization of Wind Power In India" (PDF). Current Science. 25.6: 180–181. June 1956. 
  11. ^ Mani, Anna (1995). Wind Energy Resource Survey in India - I. New Delhi: Allied Publishers Limited. p. 185. ISBN 81-7023-297-X. 
  12. ^ "A GIS based assessment of potential for windfarms in India". 
  13. ^ "India Wind Power Potential". 
  14. ^ a b "Estimation of Installable Wind Power Potential at 80 m level in India". Retrieved 16 May 2015. 
  15. ^ "Tentative State-wise break-up of Renewable Power target to be achieved by the year 2022 So that cumulative achievement is 1,75,000 MW" (PDF). mnre.gov.in. Retrieved 7 May 2015. 
  16. ^ "Offshore Wind Costs Fall Below New Nuclear Plants in U.K." Retrieved 17 September 2017. 
  17. ^ "Offshore Wind Costs Fall Below New Nuclear Plants in U.K." Retrieved 7 January 2018. 
  18. ^ "Arichamunai to get India's first offshore wind turbines". Retrieved 20 March 2018. 
  19. ^ a b "CEA monthly overview reports: Renewable energy" (PDF). Retrieved 23 April 2018. 
  20. ^ "ReGen enters solar power with hybrid solution". Retrieved 16 October 2015. 
  21. ^ "Monthly Renewable Energy Generation Reports, CEA" (PDF). Retrieved 23 April 2018. 
  22. ^ [1], Tamil Nadu Energy Development Agency - Site.
  23. ^ "SRLDC monthly report, March 2015" (PDF). Retrieved 8 May 2015. 
  24. ^ "Vibrant Gujarat Summit: Rs 1 lakh crore fuel to fire up renewable energy - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2017-01-17. 
  25. ^ "Developer of Wind Power Estate". Wind Power India. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  26. ^ "Wind power and solar energy in Odisha". REVE. Retrieved 2012-04-04. 
  27. ^ "Indian Wind Energy - Projects, Companies, Research, Data, Statistics - Energy Alternatives India". EAI.in. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  28. ^ "Muppandal windfarm". Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  29. ^ "Jaisalmer windfarm". Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  30. ^ "Brahmanvel windfarm (India)". Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  31. ^ "Dhalgaon windfarm". Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  32. ^ "Shalivahana Green Energy | Bio Mass | Municipal Solid Waste | Wind Energy | Hydel Energy". Shalivahanagroup.com. Retrieved 2012-09-17. 
  33. ^ Chadha, Mridul (15 November 2010). "Offshore Wind Energy Coming to India Soon?". cleantechnica.com. Retrieved 25 December 2017. 
  34. ^ "MOU Signed for First Ever Offshore Wind Power Project in India". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 1 October 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  35. ^ "FOWIND Project". Retrieved 13 August 2015. 
  36. ^ pre-feasibility assessment reports "FOWIND Project" Check |url= value (help). Retrieved 13 August 2015. 
  37. ^ R. Srikanth; Sangeetha Kandavel (29 January 2015). "Tapping the offshore wind". The Hindu. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  38. ^ "National Offshore Wind Power Policy 2015". GKToday. 2015-11-03. Retrieved 2015-11-03. 
  39. ^ "EoI- First 1000MW commercial scale Offshore Wind farm in India" (PDF). Retrieved 19 April 2018. 

External links

  • Indian Wind Power - Magazine
  • How winds of change could be an alternative to coal
  • Energy-hungry India eyes role as "wind superpower"
  • Consolidated Energy Consultants Ltd. India
  • Wind power in Kerala
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