Wikipedia:WikiProject Mathematics
How to help – open tasks and things to do
Contributors – a list of project participants. Please introduce yourself.
Advice on using Wikipedia for mathematics selfstudy
Recent activity on mathematics articles
500 most popular articles
Mathematics reference resources
Manual of style for mathematics
Conventions – naming and terminology conventions
Guide to creating mathematical formulas and comparison of different encodings
WikiProject Mathematics Competitions
Proofs – essay on proofs and proof style
Foundations of mathematics – an essay
This project aims to enable Wikipedians to cooperate, make suggestions and share ideas on the organization and improvement of the mathematics coverage of Wikipedia. Everyone is welcome to join in this endeavor.
Many such suggestions and guidelines have been developed since the project began. A particularly useful collection can be found in the Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Mathematics, which contains a detailed discussion of issues related to writing mathematics articles on Wikipedia.
However, it is important for all of us to remember that these are only suggestions: they should help to give us focus, and inspire our contributions, but no one should feel obliged to follow (or even read) them. This WikiProject is not prescriptive. The suggestions are intended to be helpful for those who are not sure what to write, or how they can contribute, but they should not distract anyone wanting to contribute from our main purpose: to write and improve mathematics articles!
Contents
Project background and scope
This WikiProject began in 2002 to assist the creation, improvement and organization of articles in the area of mathematics. The initial goals of the project were to provide:
 a standard "bare bones" format for mathematical articles
 useful links for article writers
 a location to discuss issues relating to this section of Wikipedia
 standards for mathematical notation using wikified HTML and TeX.
In its broadest terms, mathematics includes its overlaps with physics, computer science, operations research, and other areas. However, there are now separate WikiProjects in many of these areas, and so the focus of WikiProject Mathematics has shifted towards articles which are primarily mathematical (although it still includes many aspects of theoretical physics, for example).
Much progress has been made. The overall organisation of the project is now pretty much in place, and a "house style" for mathematical articles is reasonably well established. The indices of mathematics articles now has over 30000 entries, and this list is automatically updated by a bot using the list of mathematics categories to identify relevant articles. There are also lists of articles by topic which organize articles by subdiscipline and other criteria.
When contributing new articles which are (even only remotely) related to mathematics (including biographies of mathematicians, and so on), please add at least an approximate mathematical category. This enables us to identify, and hence review and add to (or mercilessly savage!), each other's contributions.
The main issues for the project are now probably the following ones:
 Bringing stubs up to a reasonable standard. There are always plenty of pages that are definitiononly. We need to add motivation and examples.
 Developing important articles into good expositions. As anyone who teaches the subject knows, the gap between stating some true facts, and really putting over a topic, is quite large. Here we can consider also the need to add history and proper attributions.
 Expanding coverage to bring the subject uptodate. This is a huge task, so the main requirements are patience and determination. In particular, a lot of work is still needed to bring the more advanced material uptodate, so expert contributions are to be encouraged.
 Keeping track of all relevant articles, by listing, categorising, and assessing them. As mentioned above, it is important to add even an approximate category to each mathematical article. There is also a subproject whose aim is to assess the broad field, and the importance and quality of our articles. Anyone can contribute to this task by adding or updating {{maths rating}} templates on article talk pages.
 Identifying pseudomathematics, hoaxing, and other unattributable material. Most Wikipedians, naturally enough, don't feel qualified to pronounce on articles purporting to be mathematical, so it is up to us to identify crankery, hoaxes, and material with dubious or unverifiable sources. Anything suspect should be reported on the talk page of this page.
Things to do
Looking for something to do? The following table lists some of the places on Wikipedia where mathematicsrelated requests, suggestions, and tasks have been collected together.
What  Where 

Suggest or edit a mathematics article needing attention  Pages needing attention: Mathematics 
Apply your expert knowledge to improve an article  Mathematics articles needing expert attention 
Request or write a mathematics article  Requested articles: Mathematics 
Request or provide an image  Requested images: Mathematics 
Expand a mathematics "stub"  Mathematics stubs 
Suggest or edit a redirect which could have its own article  Redirects with possibilities: Mathematics 
Help move PlanetMath content onto Wikipedia  PlanetMath Exchange 
Improve an article that has been tagged as needing attention  Wikipedia:Pages needing attention/Mathematics/Lists 
Add or improve references in a mathematics article  Wikipedia:Pages needing attention/Mathematics/Lists 
Turn a "red link" blue  Mathematical redlinks 
Maintain the mathematics portal  Portal:Mathematics 
Review or contribute to current mathematics activity  Current activity 
Help to resolve a dispute  Requests for comment: Mathematics 
Ask or answer a question about mathematics  Reference desk: Mathematics 
Assess an article's importance and quality  Assessment section 
Add biographical details to the missing mathematicians page or create an article for someone on the list.  Wikipedia:WikiProject Mathematics/missing mathematicians 
Articles up for deletion  Wikipedia:WikiProject Deletion sorting/Mathematics 
Work on drafts  Wikipedia:WikiProject Mathematics/List of math draft pages 
 Start missing articles from List of Italian mathematicians.
Some issues to think about
Probably the hardest part of writing a mathematical article (actually, any article) is the difficulty of addressing the level of mathematical knowledge on the part of the reader. For example, when writing about a field, do we assume that the reader already knows group theory? A general approach is to start simple, then move toward more abstract and general statements as the article proceeds. The suggestions below are intended to help us achieve this.
When describing a concept in terms of some other concept (for example, explaining rational numbers in terms of integers), be sure to:
 add a (prominent) link to the relevant article (in this case, integer) — as with other Wikipedia articles, avoid duplicate links;
 if it makes sense, add a very quick (and naive) explanation/description (in this case, "positive or negative whole numbers" might work).
If the relevant article has not been written yet, then create a good stub, and add a mathematical category. This will list the article in several places (for instance on the list of mathematics articles) and there is a reasonable chance that someone will expand on it.
Some terminology varies from author to author in the literature. It is therefore a good idea to check any preexisting articles related to a topic to see if there is already an established usage. Proposals for changes in usage are always welcome: the talk page of this page is one forum where issues such as this can be raised.
New contributors may find it helpful to spend a bit of time perusing some of the existing content; this should provide some idea of what type of information is already available, and how much detail is appropriate in a Wikipedia mathematics article.
The project Wikipedia:WikiProject General Audience, whose goal is to help make articles more accessible, is also worth consulting.
Wikipedia:Scientific citation guidelines provides guidance for writing readable and wellreferenced scientific and mathematical articles.
Conventions
The following pages attempt to describe certain conventions for articles with mathematical content. Please read, comment on, improve, criticize, and if appropriate, follow these standards.
 Wikipedia:WikiProject Mathematics/Conventions (a working list of terminology conventions)
 Wikipedia:Naming conventions (theorems)
 Wikipedia:Manual of Style (mathematics)
 Wikipedia:Algorithms on Wikipedia (proposed)
 Wikipedia:Scientific citation guidelines
Also see:
Classification
There is no one single, prescribed method for classifying mathematics articles. Both the lists and the categories have grown organically, rather than being imported. See also areas of mathematics.
List of publications in mathematics
There is an effort to organize a list of important publications in many areas of science. Such a list captures the major achievements in each field and might be a valuable asset for one trying to learn a new field. The List of important publications in computer science is the oldest and most mature list and might show the goal of the lists. The rest of the list needs many more contributions. Please help improve the mathematics related lists:
 List of important publications in mathematics
 List of important publications in statistics
 List of important publications in computer science.
There is also a list of mathematics journals.
Assessment of mathematics articles
Mathematics article ratings  

Priority  Quality  
FA  FL  A  B+  GA  B  C  Start  Stub  List  Unassessed  Total  
Top  9  1  17  17  178  11  1  6  240  
High  2  26  6  234  557  19  2  11  857  
Mid  12  2  3  20  26  472  696  2,272  94  68  1  3,666 
Low  2  3  27  365  850  5,123  5,233  201  5  11,809  
NA  58  58  
None  8  44  28  3  136  219  
Total  25  2  4  66  76  1,249  2,122  7,458  5,358  289  200  16,849 
The subproject Wikipedia:WikiProject Mathematics/Wikipedia 1.0 provides a system to assess mathematics articles for their quality and importance, and to classify them broadly by field. This system was originally developed as part of Wikipedia 1.0, and these assessments will be used to help us to determine which articles will appear in the Wikipedia 1.0 CD.
However, article assessments are useful more generally to track the project's progress, identify weak spots in its coverage, and highlight articles which could become Good Articles or Featured Articles. Articles are assessed by placing (or updating) a {{maths rating}} template on the talk page of the article. Furthermore, the template provides an opportunity to add a brief comment on the article suggesting improvements that could be made.
The table above summarizes the current stateofplay. The links in this table point to assessment pages on which articles are listed by field and quality, complete with any comments that editors have made.
Any article can be assessed for its mathematical content, and anyone can rate an article. The only exceptions are the Good Article and Featured Article quality grades. These should only be added to articles which have been through the standard Wikipedia Good Article Nomination and Featured Article Candidacy procedures. Editors are also encouraged to use the Aclass assessment process to assign Aclass quality to an article.
Recognized content
Good articles
As of 30 November 2016 the mathematics Good Articles are:
Mathematicians
Cauer, Wilhelm – Gleason, Andrew M. – Holmboe, Bernt Michael – Hypatia – Ramanujan, Srinivasa – Ross, Arnold – Steinhaus, Hugo – Størmer, Carl – Turing, Alan – Ulam, Stanislaw – (10 articles)
Mathematics and mathematical problems
Addition – Alexandrov's uniqueness theorem – Ars Conjectandi – Binary logarithm – Book embedding – Commutative property – Curveshortening flow – Derivative – Dirac delta function – Directed acyclic graph – Dual graph – e (mathematical constant) – Exponentiation – Fast inverse square root – Field (mathematics) – Final stellation of the icosahedron – Finite subdivision rule – Fleiss' kappa – Graph homomorphism – Group testing – Hidden Markov model – Hilbert space – Homotopy groups of spheres – International Mathematical Olympiad – Kawasaki's theorem – Malfatti circles – Matrix (mathematics) – Maximum spacing estimation – Mayer–Vietoris sequence – Nearestneighbor chain algorithm – Paterson's worms – Patterns in nature – Penrose tiling – Prime number – Pseudoforest – Pythagorean theorem – Pythagorean tiling – Representation theory of the Lorentz group – Reuleaux triangle – Reversible cellular automaton – Rule 90 – Rule 184 – Shapley–Folkman lemma – Sylvester's sequence – Taylor series – Tessellation – Turán's brick factory problem – Vector space – Wieferich prime – Znám's problem – (50 articles)
Mathematical physics
Quantum electrodynamics – (1 article)
Aclass articles
The Aclass assessment process used to select Aclass articles. One article was promoted by this process:
 Peano axioms (10 April 2007)
Featured content
As of 9 October 2014, 25 mathematics articles are featured articles:
Featured articles  
Article  Featured^{[1]}  Main Page 
Marian Rejewski  Discussion 19 January 2006  10 March 2006 
Actuary  Discussion 30 July 2006  10 September 2006 
Leonhard Euler  Discussion 8 October 2006  11 November 2006 
0.999...  Discussion 10 October 2006  25 October 2006 
Laplace–Runge–Lenz vector  Discussion 17 January 2007  30 December 2010 
Polar coordinate system  Discussion 31 January 2007  17 February 2007 
1 − 2 + 3 − 4 + · · ·  Discussion 17 March 2007  15 April 2007 
Johannes Kepler  Discussion 20 March 2007  15 July 2007 
Introduction to general relativity  Discussion 24 July 2007  18 April 2010 
Georg Cantor  Discussion 31 July 2007  15 September 2007 
Archimedes  Discussion 23 October 2007  29 January 2008 
Emery Molyneux  Discussion 18 April 2008  DYN 9 February 2008 
Émile Lemoine  Discussion 24 April 2008  5 June 2008 
Edward Wright (mathematician)  Discussion 19 June 2008  24 August 2009 
Emmy Noether  Discussion 22 June 2008  4 September 2008 
General relativity  Discussion 27 June 2008  19 April 2012 
Group (mathematics)  Discussion 17 September 2008  5 November 2008 
Problem of Apollonius  Discussion 13 October 2008  22 November 2008 
Euclidean algorithm  Discussion 19 May 2009  18 June 2009 
Robert Hues  Discussion 6 June 2009  16 June 2010 
Numerical weather prediction  Discussion 26 March 2011  10 August 2011 
Logarithm  Discussion 1 June 2011  5 June 2011 
Pi  Discussion 4 June 2012  22 July 2012 
Parity of zero  Discussion 21 August 2013  29 August 2013 
Josiah Willard Gibbs  Discussion 17 February 2014  n/a 
Featured images
There are also seventeen featured mathematical images:
 File:Lyapunovfractal.png
 File:BML 144 89 38.ogv
 File:BML 144 89 39.ogv
 File:FieldsMedalBack.jpg
 File:FieldsMedalFront.jpg
 File:NURBS 3D surface.gif
 File:Anscombe's quartet 3.svg
 File:Desargues theorem alt.svg
 File:Mandel zoom 00 mandelbrot set.jpg
 File:Gospers glider gun.gif
 File:Lorenz attractor yb.svg
 File:Piunrolled720.gif
 File:Tetrahedral group 2.svg
 File:Villarceau circles.gif
 File:8cellsimple.gif
 File:Knot table.svg
 File:Pythagoras2a.gif
There is one former featured image:
Featured lists
There is a featured list:
Former featured articles
As of 9 October 2014 there are at least 25 mathematics articles which are former featured articles:
Former featured articles  
Article  Featured^{[1]}  Defeatured^{[1]}  Main Page 
Ordinal  26 January 2002  19 January 2004  
Statistics  26 January 2002  19 January 2004  
Pythagorean theorem  26 January 2002  Discussion 21 March 2004  
Illegal prime  28 August 2003  Discussion 13 July 2004  
Computational complexity theory  26 January 2002  Discussion 23 August 2004  
Vacuous truth  Discussion 6 January 2004  Discussion 20 September 2004  
Triangle  Discussion 10 May 2004  Discussion 3 March 2005  
Fractal  Discussion 12 July 2004  Discussion 15 September 2005  
Algorithm  24 July 2002  Discussion 28 May 2006  20 July 2004 
Eigenvalue, eigenvector and eigenspace  16 October 2005  Discussion 19 September 2006  1 November 2005 
Ackermann function  18 December 2003  Discussion 21 October 2006  24 September 2004 
Regular polytope  Discussion 9 October 2004  Discussion 23 January 2007  18 November 2004 
Margin of error  Discussion 12 October 2004  Discussion 3 March 2007  19 October 2004 
Galileo Galilei  4 November 2003  Discussion 12 September 2007  24 July 2004 
Lists of mathematics topics  Discussion 27 October 2005  Discussion 31 December 2007  
Carl Friedrich Gauss  Discussion 10 July 2005  Discussion 4 January 2008  August 4, 2005 
Game theory  Discussion 4 December 2005  Discussion 18 March 2008  13 January 2006 
Prisoner's dilemma  19 January 2004  Discussion 16 April 2008  16 March 2004 
Trigonometric functions  Discussion 20 December 2003  Discussion 19 July 2008  6 March 2004 
Isaac Newton  Discussion 19 October 2005  Discussion 14 March 2009  13 December 2005 
Cryptography  Discussion 2 July 2006  Discussion 26 May 2011  22 July 2006 
Monty Hall problem  Discussion 25 June 2005  Discussion 13 June 2011  23 July 2005 
Blaise Pascal  Discussion 4 August 2005  Discussion 12 September 2011  19 August 2005 
Infinite monkey theorem  Discussion 29 September 2004  Discussion 4 October 2012  31 October 2004 
Stephen Hawking  Discussion 3 September 2012  Discussion 23 February 2014  5 June 2011 

^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} The discussion links (where they exist) point to the featured article candidate discussion or the featured article removal candidate discussion — prior to June, 2003, there was no formal FA nomination process, and there was no formal FA removal process, prior to March, 2004. Dates for pages listed before Phase II conversion are given as 26 January 2002.
The symbol: , indicates an article that has an audio recording of the article text (see the article for a link to its recording).
Featured article candidates
There are no other mathematics Featured Article candidates at present.
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