Wikipedia:WikiProject Video games/Sources

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viewtalkeditchanges

Articles related to video games need reliable sources like any other Wikipedia article—content must be verifiable. Due to the nature of video game journalism, however, editors writing articles within the scope of this project may encounter problems finding or citing sources. This guideline aims to discuss some of the most common problem areas. None of the following directions apply in every single instance so always use reason and common sense when citing sources.

Because the fields of video game journalism, research, criticism, and commentary are relatively new compared to similar coverage of traditional media, traditional means of sourcing can be somewhat rare. In addition, the simultaneous development and expansion of Internet-based sources alongside the modern video-game scene has led to a much higher degree of exclusive online coverage than is the case with other media. These factors make the determination of reliable video-game sources a complex issue. To address this problem, this guideline provides a few general rules of thumb and presents the current consensus regarding the reliability and usability of specific video game-related sources. Any questions regarding specific sources not covered in this guideline may be directed to the talk page. Remember to search the talk page archives before starting a new topic. New sources should not be added to this page until the talk page discussion has been archived.

Locating reliable sources

  • WP:VG/LRS
  • The Internet. One of the first places that many editors look for video game sources is the internet. After using one of several search engines to locate information on a subject, the search results must be scrutinized for reliability. A list of sources that have been identified by the WP:VG community as reliable appears lower in this page at the Sources list. This list is neither complete nor can it be used as definitive proof regarding a listed source's reliability determination, but it provides a good rough guide on which to base the scrutiny of sources for reliability.
  • Custom Google search engine. Tools are available to filter search results to target reliable sources. Editors can use Reliable Sources for Video Games (list), a custom Google search engine focusing on the below-listed reliable sites and filtering out many bad or non-RS sites. A second custom Google search engine, Situational Sources for Video Games, is also available to search for reliable sources on a topic. There is no guarantee a specific source is reliable even if it is listed in the search engine. Forum posts, for example, are usually non-reliable. Also, be sure to take note of the conditions and limitations required for proper use of all sources (as listed in the tables below) before relying on them. The template {{find video game sources}} also includes a link to these custom search engines.
  • The WP:VG Reference Library. The WP:VG reference library can provide access to print-based video game reference material and include indices of covered video games. Editors listed as contacts at the Reference Library have volunteered to make information from these magazines available on request, which can be used to reference claims in articles as well as to verify references and to establish notability.

Promote broad coverage and reduce POV

For many of the articles under the aegis of WP:VG, sources are plentiful and easily located. Because not every source needs to be cited, editorial discretion will play a part in the exclusion of redundant and unnecessary sources. A few of the more important considerations when reviewing sources for inclusion are listed here.

  • Negative as well as positive reviews - It is exceptionally rare for a video game to receive universal critical praise or condemnation. For this reason, reasonable efforts should be made to reduce undue bias by presenting both perspectives on the game. For the few cases where reception is universally slanted in one direction (either positive or negative), remember that exceptional claims require exceptional sourcing.
  • Contemporary as well as modern coverage - As a general rule, reviewers of video games are inextricably tied to their temporal vantage point and because advancements in video game technology increase by leaps and bounds every few years, it is unfair to review a game in light of the game scene 20 years later. Likewise, hindsight can lead to revisionist reviews and nostalgia may lead to unduly positive scores. An effort should be made to include contemporary coverage of games if available in order to maintain a neutral point of view untainted by modern perceptions.
  • Domestic as well as foreign coverage - Because video games are cultural artifacts, when a game comes from X country, then reviews from X country can provide cultural insight that might escape foreign reviewers. Relatedly, when a game depicts Y country or aspects of it, then reviews from Y country can provide reliable, detailed, and direct reaction to the depiction. At the same time, however, when a game comes from Z country, reviews from X and Y countries will help to reduce POV and to provide an international response thereby eliminating systemic cultural biases.
  • Metareviews as well as individual reviews - Although metareviews tend to provide an average and roughly neutral review for games, the specific views of influential and/or well-respected individual reviewers may be of equal importance and should be presented with proper attribution despite the probability of containing a POV-heavy review. Care must be taken to avoid skewing the apparent reception by presenting disproportionate numbers of positive or negative individual reviews.
  • Reviews for multiple different platforms - When video games are released on more than one platform, reviews of all different versions allow readers to gain an insight on the differing perceptions of the game within different gaming subcultures. When games are rereleased or remade for later systems, reviews of all different versions allow readers to grasp the degree to which later ports and remakes were successful in evoking the original. Efforts to report reception in a due manner can often be enhanced by using a prose format to explain why scores on one platform are lower than those of another.

The above considerations should also be taken when seeking out sources to add content such as reception sections to video game articles.

Print sources

Print sources can improve coverage dramatically, but are often difficult to locate for video game topics—especially true when searching for sources covering the pre-Internet period (generally prior to 2000) before online sources became as established and reliable as they are in some cases today. Although it is incorrect to uncritically assume reliability for a source simply because it exists or existed in printed form, print sources cost money to produce and are therefore likely to make more of an effort at quality and accuracy than most low-cost fan sites. As the length of time a print source remains in continuous publication increases, the source gains in reputation, goodwill, and brand strength, which tends to indicate that longer-lasting and more-established print sources are more likely to be accurate than brief fly-by-night operations. Internationally registered periodicals (as identified by an ISSN number) are generally preferred over unregistered journals.

While there is no proscription against hard-to-access sources, the fact that print sources are more difficult to verify means that it is often a good idea to include additional web-based reliable sourcing if it is available. Editors adding print-based references should also make an effort to substantiate or at least double-check their claims if they are challenged.

Fansites

Many video games have sites devoted to them that are not affiliated with the developers or publishers. These fansites enable fans to read about and discuss the game. When checked against Wikipedia guidelines such as WP:Reliable sources#What is a reliable source?, these fansites usually do not qualify as a reliable source. They frequently have little or no editorial oversight, and may be self-published (i.e., the person hosting the website is also the one writing its content). Fact-checking is often of lesser importance than publishing the latest rumours. Quoting the rule of thumb: "...the greater the degree of scrutiny involved in checking facts, analyzing legal issues, and scrutinizing the evidence and arguments of a particular work, the more reliable it is."

Some fansites provide forum excerpts by developers from the game's forums. Favour citing the forum post itself over the fansite's article and commentary about it. When citing a forum post on a fansite's own forum, special scrutiny is advised. Make it clear that it is the post that is cited, not the thread or forum in general. Consider forum posts like journal articles, except that in this case the "journal" is unreliable (see WP:SPS), but the "article" may be, because of its author. Use real names over forum nicknames where the real name is available.

Tools: {{cite web}} and {{citation}}

Video games

In articles about video games, citing the game itself is often attractive. Wikipedia favours secondary sources, and the use of primary sources should be minimised. Games are primary sources in articles about themselves. Whether it is good to use them as a source varies by perspective, subject and game. For a reader, it is usually very hard to use a video game to check facts. Provide transcripts wherever possible, and enable readers to check the facts themselves by noting which area, level or episode is cited. Using the later levels of games with a linear level progression as sources (without transcripts) should be avoided. The same applies to bonus levels or easter eggs.

It is very hard to find proper sources for sections about the plot or setting of a video game without using the game itself. In many of these sections, the game itself is used as a source, but make sure that it is not the only source. Furthermore, the kind of statements that can be backed up with a reference to the game itself is limited. For example, it is impossible to use the game itself to back up that it "... takes place in a high fantasy setting".

Statements of a technical or critical nature should never contain references to the game itself. Technical details (like the type of texture mapping used) are impossible to discern for the layperson. Using the game itself as a source for critical content is original research. Criticism should not be the editor's own, but for example a reviewer's.

However, instruction booklets, player's guides, and other game-related publications may be cited as normal.

Tools: {{cite video game}} and {{cite AV media}}

Review sites

The most important sources for most video game articles are the reviews of the game itself.

Aggregate review sites such as Metacritic and GameRankings are useful in the critical reception portion of a video game article, as these list numerous reviews for a game, more than can readily be included in Wikipedia. Aggregate review sites should be handled carefully. Individual reviews should cite their original publication, not the truncated aggregator summary. Because aggregators choose which publications to include in their score, they often include reviews from less reliable sites. Additionally, the score is averaged between reviewers without regard for the different rating systems used.

Aggregated user-submitted content (e.g. "user scores" and "user polls") available on Metacritic, GameRankings, and other aggregators is not considered reliable because it is susceptible to vote-stacking and demographic skew, and because the general public has no proven expertise or credibility in the field. Similarly, sites allowing users to submit content, like Wikipedia itself, are often not independent, and are not reliable because they have not been checked for factual accuracy by an editor. It is also important to make a distinction between review sites and directory listings. The latter often repeat information from press releases and the game's official website, and do not constitute a reliable source for establishing notability. Their use should generally be avoided as well.

The review table template allows for an organized presentation of all relevant review scores. Only include reviews in this table if they are cited within the text.

Retailers

Retailers are only considered reliable sources for games that have already been released, and even then, only for information regarding release dates and the existence of games on a particular platform. However other secondary or primary sources should be used if available. Retailers posting future dates for games not yet released raise a red flag as to the legitimacy of the statement, and should not be used unless confirmed by a more reliable source.

Official information

  • WP:VG/OFFICIAL

In video gaming communities, the adjective "official" is often used to describe information released by the game developer. It denotes that the information is definitive, reliable and sometimes important. This is without regard to whether said information is deemed canonical.

Merely being "official" does not guarantee that information is usable under Wikipedia's editorial standards. Information deriving from official sources but published in generally unreliable ones such as blogs, fansites, or forum posts is likely unusable. Much of what is called official often stems from primary sources such as the game itself, which should largely not be used (see above). Additionally, not all reliably sourced official information merits inclusion, and in fact the bulk of the article may be unofficial. An example of this is the release date: when the official date is at 1998 according to accurate but unreliable (by Wikipedia policy standards) information, but a reliable source writes that it is 1999, Wikipedia should include the latter. Even if one has the knowledge of memory or the word of a trustworthy individual, original research is off-limits.

The crux is that "official" is not relevant to Wikipedia standards. In fan communities, all information released by the game developers is official and important. In a Wikipedia article, information released by game developers is no different from any other reliable source; in fact, it may be less reliable under possible interpretations of the policy regarding self-published or primary sources.

  • WP:VGINT

Interviews from any source are typically allowed as a "self-published source about self". As long as the interview's authenticity can be reasonably ascertained, we allow the developer's own words as a primary source when the claims are (1) not exceptional, and (2) about the team or individual making the claim. Greater claims require a secondary source with a reputation for editorial quality. Whenever possible, prefer the editorial distance of a reliable, secondary source over a primary source interview.

Sourcing style

When citing a print magazine, the name of the magazine should be written in italics. Likewise for the video games themselves. The usage of italics for an online source depends on the nature of its content, and is detailed in the Manual of Style. When citing a particular article published by a magazine or website, or when citing a chapter within a video game, the title should be surrounded by quotes. The various citation sub-templates of {{cite}} handle this sort of thing for you automatically.

Reliable sources

The following is a list of sources that have been established as reliable in the field of video gaming per past consensus. If you know of a source that is not listed and you cannot find any previous discussion regarding a source's reliability, start a discussion on the talk page before adding them below. Remember to examine the limitations listed for each situational source in the tables below. "Media" refers to the publication's principal means of content delivery.

This list is not meant to be exhaustive and only covers works that regularly report on video games and the industry. Sources that otherwise are considered reliable sources in general, such as newspapers like The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, magazines like Time and Fortune, and news networks like BBC and CNN, are also reliable for coverage of topics related video games when they do report on these topics. Note that any source in § Reliable checklist is considered just as reliable as those on this list. Video games may also be discussed in peer-reviewed scientific papers; editors should review details of identifying appropriate journals for natural sciences and, if involving human health, accurate information for medical sciences.

Consensus can change, so any sources on this page may be upgraded or downgraded based on further discussion.

General gaming

Name Media Dates Type Notes and limitations Owner Quick links &
discussions
Ars Technica online 1998– news, reviews Condé Nast G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2
Blue's News online 1996– UGO Networks G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Digitally Downloaded online 2010– news, reviews Features other forms of entertainment as well, such as anime, manga, literature, film, and gadgets Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
Easy Allies online 2016– features, news, reviews Formed by the previous crew of Game Trailers Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2
Edge (UK) print, online 1993– features, news, reviews Future Publishing G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Electronic Gaming Monthly (US) print, online 1989– console gaming (1989–2009). Returned to publication starting in 2010. Ziff Davis; part of 1UP.com Network (1989-2009); EGM Media, LLC (2010-) G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1, 2, 3, 4
Eurogamer online 1999– features, news, reviews Includes their American branch, USgamer Gamer Network G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
Game Informer print, online 1991– features, news, reviews GameStop G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Gameplanet online 2000– features, news, reviews G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2
Game Revolution online 1996– features, news, reviews Site has been cited by numerous scholarly works. AtomicOnline G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
GameSpot online 1996– news, features, reviews Ensure that the content is staff authored, not user generated. Older reviews and reviews by freelancers may look as though they are by "members" and not "staff" - this is misleading, all their main reviews are by staff, user generated content are marked in the URL as "user-reviews". Their database is shared by GameFAQs which is unreliable. Belgium, China, Netherlands, UK, USA. CBS Corporation > CBS Interactive G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
GameZone (US, DE) online 1994– features, news, reviews Recommended as an objective and reliable gaming site in books, and referenced for several of its articles in various books and scholarly works. G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
GamesRadar+ online 2005– features, news, reviews This became Future Publishing's main web portal in 2015, succeeding http://computerandvideogames.com, http://edge-online.com & http://totalxbox.com Future Publishing G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2
Gematsu online 2011– news Specializes in Japanese game news. Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3
Hardcore Gamer print, online 2005– DoubleJump Publishing G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Hardcore Gaming 101 online 2004– Video game articles Head editor is Gamasutra author Kurt Kalata. Content written by him or writers like Retro Gamer's John Szczepaniak are reliable. Scrutiny should be considered with other authors, but all content is edited by Kalata before publishing, and should be considered acceptable. HCG101 has been cited by many other reliable sources. Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2 3, 4, 5, 6
IGN online 1996– features, news, reviews Shared database with GameSpy. Make sure news items are not user-submitted info or blog postings; blog postings from site staff are most likely acceptable. Articles submitted by N-Sider (such as [1]) should be avoided per this discussion. J2 Global > Ziff Davis G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14
Kotaku online 2004– features, news, reviews, blog News posts after 2010 are considered reliable. Editors are cautioned of blog/geeky posts that have little news or reporting significance (such as [2]). Univision Communications
Allure Media (AU)
Future Publishing (UK)
G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Metabomb online 2013– features, news, reviews Specific to esports Gamer Network G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
2
Polygon online 2012– news, features, reviews Includes The Verge Vox Media G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3
Siliconera online 2003– news Specializes in Japanese game news. Curse, Inc. G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Shacknews online 1996– features, news, reviews Full-time staff and editorial processes. about Gamerhub G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4
VentureBeat online 2006– features, news, reviews Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2
Video Games Chronicle online 2019– features, news From former editors of Computer and Video Games 1981 Media Ltd. (editor-owned), in collaboration with Gamer Network G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2
VG247 online 2008– features, news Operated by industry veteran Patrick Garratt in collaboration with Gamer Network. Won best gaming blog at the Games Media Awards 2009. Videogaming247 Ltd. (owned by Garratt), in collaboration with Gamer Network G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
VideoGamer.com online 2004– Full-time staff includes industry veterans.[3] [4] Resero Network G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Variety print and online 1998- features, news General entertainment industry magazine. Video game-specific coverage has editorial oversight by Brian Crecente, formally of Kotaku and Rolling Stone's Glixel Penske Media Corporation G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
Wired online 1993– features, news Condé Nast Publications G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Foreign language

Wikipedia makes no restriction on the use of foreign-language sources (see WP:NOENG), but editors should take care to verify any translation into English and not simply rely on something like Google Translate, particularly for potentially contentious information.

Name Media Dates Type Language Notes and limitations Owner Quick links &
discussions
4Gamer.net online 2000– Japanese Aetas G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Comptiq / MeadiaMixx Gaming Magazine print, online 1983– Japanese Older issues deal with computers in general as the magazine transitioned to computer/video gaming. As of September 2003 the print magazine is known as MeadiaMixx Gaming Magazine. Kadokawa Shoten G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Dengeki print, online 2008– Japanese ASCII Media Works G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Famitsu print, online 1986– news, reviews, etc. Japanese Includes several spin-off publications dealing with specific platforms. Enterbrain G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Gamekult online 2000– news, reviews, etc. French CUP Interactive G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
GamesWirtschaft online 2016– industry news German Operated by veteran journalist Petra Fröhlich Funfair Media (owned by Fröhlich) G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Gamer.nl online 1999– news, reviews, etc. Dutch Reshift Media G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
The Games Machine print, online 1988– news, esports, etc. Italian Formed as an Italian version of the British magazine The Games Machine, which ended production in 1990 Aktia srl G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Hobby Consolas print, online 1991– news, esports, features Spanish Axel Springer SE G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Impress Watch online Japanese Impress Group G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
ITmedia online Japanese ITmedia G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Jeuxvideo.com online 1997– news, reviews, etc. French Webedia [fr] G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2
Media Create print, online rankings, analysis, trends, etc. Japanese When citing their ranking page use Webcitation or another instant archiving resource as their pages change weekly and are not archived.
Some of their older English and Japanese pages are archived.
Media Create Co. G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Power Unlimited print, online 1993– Dutch Reshift Digital G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
SKOAR! print, online 2003– Hindi Spinoff from technology magazine, Digit. 9.9 Mediaworx G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1

Games industry-related/academic/other

Name Media Dates Type Notes and limitations Owner Quick links &
discussions
Chart-Track online 1996– Monitors sales of software for the UK, Ireland and Denmark. Controlled by research institute GfK.[5] [6] G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
ELSPA online Sales and ratings organization for Europe. Includes Famitsu (Japan) sales, ranging from 2005 to 2008.[7] Full name Entertainment and Leisure Software Publishers Association G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Gamasutra online 1997– Focus on video game development, for video game developers. United Business Media; sister publication to Game Developer magazine G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
GamesIndustry.biz online News, features, market and industry info Sister site of Eurogamer Gamer Network G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3
Game Studies online peer-reviewed, scholarly journal Has a board of reviewers from academic institutes, a team of editors, and is listed on the Directory of Open Access Journals. G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2
MCV print, online 1998– Industry news, for industry insiders Better known as MCV. Partnership with Famitsu.[8] NewBay Media G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
The MagicBox online Translates industry news and sales figures, notably Famitsu and Media Create Also combines sales figures from sources for yearly figures (nothing we can't do per WP:CALC) WP:RS/N Independent 1, 2, 3, 4

Platform-specific

Name Media Dates Type Notes and limitations Owner Quick links &
discussions
AMIGA Magazine RACK print, online Amiga gaming Use {{Cite magazine}} when citing anything from a magazine page and do not directly link the site with the url parameter. Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3
GameStar (DE, HU, CZ, IT, CN, PL, US) print 1997– PC gaming Sister magazine of GamePro IDG Entertainment G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1
Killer List of Videogames online 1991– Arcade games Has been cited and mentioned in several publications: magazines, websites, and books International Arcade Museum G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
NF Magazine online 2013– Nintendo news, features, reviews. AKA Nintendo Force NF Publishing, LLC G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Nintendo Life online 2006– Nintendo Factual information (especially release dates); for editorial content, author reliability is needed. Director Damien McFerran has also written for Eurogamer, Retro Gamer, Games TM and others. NLife Media, part of Gamer Network G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Nintendo World Report online 1999– Nintendo news, features, reviews Formerly known as PlanetN2000 and Planet GameCube Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3
Official U.S. PlayStation Magazine print 1997–2007 PlayStation Ziff Davis Media G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
Official PlayStation Magazine (OPM)/Playstation Magazine (PSM)/PlayStation: The Official Magazine (PTOM) (Norway, UK, USA) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Official Xbox Magazine (US, UK) print 2001– Xbox Future Publishing G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1
PC Gamer (UK, US) print 1993– PC gaming Future Publishing G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
PCGamesN online 2012– PC gaming Network N G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1, 2
PC PowerPlay (AU) print 1996– PC gaming Next Media Pty Ltd G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1, 2
PlayStation Official Magazine – UK print 2006– PlayStation Future Publishing G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
Official PlayStation Magazine (OPM)/Playstation Magazine (PSM)/PlayStation: The Official Magazine (PTOM) (Norway, UK, USA) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Push Square online 2009– PlayStation NLife Media, a part of Gamer Network G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2
Rock, Paper, Shotgun online 2007– PC gaming Acquired by Gamer Network in 2017 Gamer Network G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2
Sega Saturn Magazine print 1994–1998 Sega Saturn Successor to Sega Magazine, 1 EMAP G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1
TouchArcade online 2008- mobile game news G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3

Genre-specific

Name Media Dates Type Notes and limitations Owner Quick links &
discussions
Adventure Gamers online 1998– Adventure games Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2
Just Adventure online 1997– Adventure games (mostly) The site and its staff have been cited in numerous publications and have been the subject of multiple interviews by online gaming news sites with several of its members receiving prestigious awards for their work. (See 1) Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
RPGamer online 1995– Role-playing games CraveOnline Gaming G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
RPGFan online 1999– Role-playing games Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3
RPG Site online 2006– Role-playing games MIST Network G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Wargamer.com online 1995– Wargames (strategy and tactics) Staffed by experts on war-related and editorial fields,[9] [10] and received several accolades from established sites.[11] [12] Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1

General computing/technology

Name Media Dates Type Notes and limitations Owner Quick links &
discussions
Abacus online 2018– features, news, reviews English-language website that focuses on gaming, technology, and other general consumer news from China South China Morning Post G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
CNET online 1994– features, news, reviews Includes CNET Gamecenter CBS Corporation/CBS Interactive G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Engadget online 2004– features, news All former Joystiq content is located here. Oath Inc. G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
MacLife / MacAddict (US) print 1996– Macintosh Formerly a part of CD-ROM Today, along with boot (now Maximum PC). Future US G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1
Macworld (US, CA, AU) print 1984–2014 Macintosh International Data Group; formerly in partnership with Ziff-Davis G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1, 2
Maximum PC / boot (US) print 1996– Windows Formerly a part of CD-ROM Today, along with MacAddict (now Mac|Life). Future US G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1
PC Format (UK) print 1991– Windows Future Publishing G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1
TechRadar online Multi-platform Future plc 1, 2

Esports

Name Media Dates Notes and limitations Owner Quick links &
discussions
Dot Esports online 2013– Was previously part of The Daily Dot before being sold off to Gamurs. Gamurs G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
The Esports Observer online 2015– In addition to general esports reporting, they also produce and organize conferences, as well as publish analytics and data. Advance Publications G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Heroes Never Die online 2017– Overwatch esport news, written and published by Polygon staff Vox Media G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
4
Metabomb online 2015– Gamer Network G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
RedBull online Formerly just Redbull Games, former features of the subsite began being published under the main site in 2018 RedBull G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2
The Rift Herald online 2017– League of Legends esport news, written and published by Polygon staff Vox Media G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
4
VPEsports online G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1

Aggregate sites

Aggregate sites take scores from various publications and provide an aggregated value, which may be weighted based on various internal criteria. Only use aggregators for aggregate scores; scores from individual reliable publications should be retrieved directly from the publication.

Name Media Dates Type Notes and limitations Owner Quick links &
discussions
GameRankings online 1999– Aggregate review scores Only counts sites which produce a stipulated minimum volume of output ([13]). Do not use their release dates as they take them from GameFAQs. CBS Corporation > CBS Interactive G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Metacritic online 1999– Aggregate review scores Weights the scores of publications "based on their quality and overall stature." ([14]). CBS Corporation > CBS Interactive G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11

Primary/affiliate sources

Sources are often direct from gaming companies or have close ties to them. Generally very reliable for the facts but should be avoided for opinions.

Name Media Dates Type Notes and limitations Owner Quick links &
discussions
Major Nelson's Blog online blog, news Xbox-centric news, announcements, videos, and podcasts Self-published by Larry Hryb in a semi-professional manner. G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2
PlayStation Blog online (US/EU) 2007– blog Official PlayStation blog featuring announcement, interviews and preview posts from first- and third-party developers Sony Interactive Entertainment G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3

Defunct

While these sites are defunct, with content either merged into other sites or otherwise lost, they can still appear in web searches, and if you can find a link, you can use Archive.org's Wayback Machine to see if a copy exists there. The content of these are still considered reliable.

Name Media Dates Type Notes and limitations Owner Quick links &
discussions
1UP.com online 2003–2013 features, news, reviews Formerly EGM online site, merged with UGO in 2009.[15] UGO Networks G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2
Absolute Games (RU) online RU G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
AllGame online 1998–2014 credits, summaries, synopses An extension of AllMusic by the same company for video games. Provides IMDb-like details for game credits and useful as a source for those within articles. Aka All Game Guide All Media Network (formerly Macrovision) G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
Andriasang online 2008–2012 features, news Focused on the Japanese video games industry, contains weekly updates from Famitsu, Dengeki, Jump and other Japanese Magazines. Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
CVG Presents / Computer and Video Games (UK) print 1981–2004 / 2008–2009 Multi-platform The print version of this magazine was suspended for a while and reappeared in a bi-monthly form (CVG Presents) focusing each issue on the life history of a single games franchise. Ceased publication sometime during 2009. Website is a separate entity and unaffected by changes.
CVG (1981–2004), CVG Presents (2008–2009)
EMAP, Dennis Publishing, Future Publishing G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1, 2, 3, 4
ComputerAndVideoGames.com (UK) online 1999–2015 Multi-platform Website version of Computer and Video Games that lasted for several years after the magazine. EMAP, Dennis Publishing, Future Publishing G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4
Computer Games Magazine / Computer Games Strategy Plus / Strategy Plus (US) print 1988–2007 Multi-platform Currently in hiatus. May make a reappearance at some time in the future. theGlobe.com G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1, 2
Computer Gaming World / Games for Windows (US, CA) print 1981–2006 / 2006–2008 PC games, later Windows games Ziff-Davis, later in partnership with Microsoft. Staff integrated into 1UP.com. G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1
Cybersport online 2017–2018 esports Closed in November 2018. ESforce Holding G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Develop (UK) online ?–2018 Developer news, opinions, analysis, etc. Merged into MCV in January 2018. NewBay Media G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
EGM2 / Expert Gamer / GameNOW (US) print 1994–1998 / 1998–2001 / 2001–2004 Tips, tricks, and guides Affiliated with Electronic Gaming Monthly. Sendai Publishing, Ziff-Davis G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1
FiringSquad online 1998–2013 Started by Dennis Fong aka "Thresh". The site's various articles has been cited in many publications and scholarly works. Passed FAC for Giants: Citizen Kabuto, Midtown Madness. FS Media Inc. G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
The Flying Courier online 2017–2018 news Dota 2 esport news, written and published by Polygon staff Vox Media G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
4
GameDaily online 1995–2011 features, news, reviews AOL G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3
GameFan / Diehard GameFan Magazine (US, CA) print 1992–2000 Imports and anime. DieHard Gamers Club, Metropolis Media, Shinno Media G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1, 2
GamePro (US) print, online 1989–2011 console gaming Sister magazine to GameStar. IDG Entertainment G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
GameTrailers online 2002–2016 hosting, reviews, video news Make sure that you are not sourcing fanmade material. Previously owned by Viacom. Content is now hosted on an official "GameTrailers" Youtube channel. Defy Media, archives hosted by IGN from May 2016 onward. G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4
GamerBytes online 2006–2011 Gaming commentary for online marketplace games Covers online marketplace games such as WiiWare, Xbox Live Arcade, and PlayStation Network. Merged into Gamasutra. (See 1) Gamasutra G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2
GamesMaster (UK, PH) print 1993–2018 features, news, reviews Future Publishing G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1
GameSetWatch online ?–2011 Gaming commentary Material is generally stuff that has already been published at Gamasutra but will often contain features that are published on its site before it reaches Gamasutra. (See 1) Sister site of Gamasutra, Think Services G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
GameSpy online 1996–2013 features, news, reviews Shared database with IGN. IGN G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
GamesTM print 2002–2018 news, reviews, features UK print magazine. USA, DE, NL and BE versions available. Future Publishing G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1, 2
Good Game online 2006–2016 Australian TV show which reviews video games, and has informative out-of-universe retrospective segments. Website comprehensive Australian Broadcasting Corporation G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
HookShot Inc. online ?–2013 Downloadable games under $15 Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1
IndustryGamers online 2010–2012 features, news, reviews Acquired by Gamesindustry.biz Independently owned G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Inside Mac Games online 1993– macintosh gaming site Now a forum site Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Joystiq online 2004–2015 multi-author blog AOL property with salaried staff. GameDaily was merged with Joystiq following the former's closure. Closed in 2015, a cut down version was merged into Engadget. AOL > Weblogs, Inc. G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Kill Screen print, online 2009–2017 features, news, reviews Scores from reviews not recommended to use. Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2
MMO Games Magazine / Massive Magazine (US) print 2006–2007 MMO gaming Sister publication to Computer Games Magazine. Theglobe.com G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1
Music4Games online 1999–2009 Focus on video game music, music industry, etc. Established editorial policies, major supporter/media partner of GDC and trade shows. Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Next Generation Magazine (UK) print 1995–2002 Games, games industry. Affiliated with Edge. Future Publishing G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1, 2, 3, 4
NGC Magazine / N64 Magazine (UK) print 1997–2001 / 2001–2006 Nintendo 64, GameCube Successor to Super Play. Future Publishing G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1, 2
NGamer / Nintendo Gamer (UK) print 2006–2012 Nintendo Successor to NGC Magazine. Formally known as NGamer. Future Publishing G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1
Nintendo Power (US) print 1988–2012 Nintendo Published by Nintendo before 2007. Future US G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
Official Dreamcast Magazine (UK) print 1999–2001 Sega Dreamcast Dennis Publishing G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1
Official Dreamcast Magazine (US) print 1999–2001 Sega Dreamcast Imagine Media G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1
PALGN online 2003–2014 news and reviews Aka PAL Gaming Network Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2
PC Zone (UK) print 1993–2010 PC gaming Charlie Brooker and Stuart Campbell have previously written for the magazine. Originally published by Dennis Publishing. Future Publishing G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1
Penny Arcade Report online 2012–2013 news, features, reviews Full-time staff and editorial processes. about Penny Arcade G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Play (US magazine) print, online 2001–2010 Multi-format games magazine founded and edited by Dave Halverson, formerly of GameFan. Not to be confused with Play (UK magazine), a PlayStation magazine. Fusion Publishing G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
Pocket Gamer (US, CA) print 2000–? Handheld games Imagine Media G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1, 2
RPG Vault online 1996–2009 Role-playing games J2 Global > Ziff Davis G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Slide to Play online –2017 iOS gaming site Targets iOS games Independent 1
Sports Gaming Network online ?–2006 Sports games. The site has been cited in several publications and scholarly works. (See 1) G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Strategy Gaming Online online ?–2011 Strategy games Defunct UGO Network G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Stratos Group online ?–2017 Acknowledged industry experts. (See 1) Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Technology Tell online features, news, reviews Formerly Gamer Tell. Hasn't updated since 2016. NAPCO Media G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3
UGO Networks online 1997–2013 features, news Operate a host of related networked gaming sites. Hearst Corporation G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Voodoo Extreme online ?–2003 Aka VE3D J2 Global > Ziff Davis G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2
WorldsInMotion online (archived) 2007–2012 Merged with Gamasutra as of 2012. G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1
X-Play (US) television, online 1998–2013 features, news, reviews G4 G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3
Amiga Power (UK) print 1991–1996 Amiga Future Publishing G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1
Amstrad Action (UK) print 1985–1995 Amstrad CPC Future Publishing G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1
CRASH (UK) print 1984–1992 ZX Spectrum Newsfield Publications Ltd G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1
Dragon (US) print 1976–1997 ZX Spectrum (See 1) TSR / WotC / Paizo G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1, 2, 3
Game Developer (US) print 1994–2013 Focus on video game development CMP Media G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1
Gamest (JP) print 1983-1999 news, interviews, awards Japanese arcade game magazine. Went defunct in 1999 after the sudden bankruptcy of its publisher. Shinseisha G·N·B·S·RS·Talk1
Mean Machines (UK) print 1990–1992 Multi-platform Offshoot of Computer and Video Games EMAP G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1, 2, 3
MEGA (UK) print 1992–1995 Sega Mega Drive Future Publishing, Maverick Magazines G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1
Official Nintendo Magazine (UK) print, limited online 1992–2014 Nintendo Also known as Nintendo Official Magazine (NOM) and Nintendo Magazine System (NMS). The magazine was relaunched with a new first issue after Future plc obtained the publishing rights in 2006. EMAP, Future plc G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4
Play Time (DE) print 1991–1995 Multi-platform G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1
Sinclair User (UK) print 1982–1993 ZX Spectrum EMAP G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1
Super Play (UK) print 1992–1996 Super Nintendo Future Publishing G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1
TeamXbox online (archived) 2000–2012 Xbox, Xbox 360 J2 Global > Ziff Davis G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2
Your Sinclair (UK) print 1984–1993 ZX Spectrum Dennis Publishing, Future Publishing G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1

Other reliable

  • Animetric 1, 2
  • App Spy (AppSpy.com) 1, 2
  • Atari Gaming Headquarters (Atari HQ) 1, 2, 3, 4
  • AV Club, The 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
  • BEEP! (Japan) 1
  • Bit-Tech 1
  • CD-Action (Poland) 1, 2
  • Click! 1, 2
  • Complex 1, 2, 3
  • Computer Entertainer 1
  • Daily Dot 1
  • Digital Spy 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
  • Digital Trends - 1, 2
  • Electric Playground 1, 2
  • Entertainment Weekly 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
  • ESPN 1
  • Gambler (Poland) 1, 2
  • GameDevResearch 1, 2
  • Game.EXE (Russia) 1
  • Gameological Society, The 1
  • GameStats 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
  • GameTab 1, 2, 3
  • GameZebo 1, 2, 3, 4
  • Gamezilla 1, 2
  • Gry OnLine (Poland) 1, 2
  • Igromania (Игромания, Russia) 1
  • Imperium Gier (Poland) 1, 2
  • IndieGames.com 1, 2
  • Komputer Świat GRY (Poland) 1, 2
  • Legends of Localization 1
  • Lost Garden 1
  • Massively 1, 2, 3
  • Maxim 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
  • Megami (Magazine) (Japan) 1
  • Miasto Gier 1, 2
  • Monthly Arcadia (Japan) 1
  • New York Times, The 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21
  • Nightmare Mode 1
  • Nintendojo 1, 2
  • Official PlayStation 2 Magazine (Australia, Poland, UK) 1
  • Original Sound Version 1, 2
  • Paste 1
  • PC Gameplay (DE) 1
  • PC Games (Germany, USA) 1
  • PC Magazine (PCMag.com) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
  • Pelit (Finland) 1, 2, 3
  • Play (UK) 1, 2
  • Reset (Poland) 1, 2
  • Retro Gamer (UK, Italy) 1, 2
  • SBNation 1
  • Secret Service / New S Service (Poland) 1, 2
  • Świat Gier Komputerowych (Poland) 1, 2
  • Time (Magazine) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
  • Top Secret (Poland) 1, 2
  • USA Today 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
  • Velikij Drakon (Великий Дракон, Russia) 1
  • Vice Games (formerly Waypoint) 1, 2

Situational sources

These sources have been deemed "situational". See individual notes for use circumstances; use them with caution, generally.

Name Media Dates Type Notes and limitations Owner Quick links &
discussions
Destructoid online 2006– Multi-author blog site, "community blogging" Like other blog sites, some content may be reliable, but only if the author can be established as such. Community user-blogs fail WP:USERG. Enthusiast Gaming G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Escapist Magazine online 2005– Features, news, reviews Between October 2017 and July 2018, most content (except for Zero Punctuation) was written by volunteers without staff oversight and should be handled with care Enthusiast Gaming G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Forbes online, print 1917– News magazine, "contributor" content Forbes publishes content from salaried Forbes staff, and a vetted community of non-salaried Forbes contributors (indicated by "Contributor" in the author's by-line). Articles written by Forbes staff are reliable. Articles written by Forbes contributors do not have the same editorial oversight and may not be reliable. Editors are encouraged to find alternatives to contributor pieces. Forbes G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
Giant Bomb online 2008– news, features, reviews, wiki Reliable for reviews and news content submitted in the site's blog by the site's own editorial staff. Do not use the user-contributed content from the site's wikis for citations. CBS Corporation > CBS Interactive G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
The Jimquisition online 2014– blog Use should be restricted to opinions only. Editorial policy/team not present. One man operation by Jim Sterling. This site cannot be used to demonstrate notability. Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Major League Gaming (MLG) online 2002– Primary site for Major League Gaming, an esports organizer As a primary source this can be used to verify contest results and other information directly related to MLG, but cannot be used to establish notability. Activision Blizzard G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2
The Mary Sue online 2011– news, features, reviews Blog and original reporting focusing on women in "geek culture". Original reporting is reliable and original blogging may be appropriate for editorial/opinions, but reblogged content is not. Abrams Media G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3
Sega-16 online 2003– Sega "historical research center" Articles by Ken Horowitz and developer interviews are considered reliable. The rest of the content is volunteer-contributed and should be avoided. Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Shmuplations online 2012– Interview translations Shmuplations is a website containing translations of old interviews with Japanese game developers. It is particularly useful for finding interviews that cannot be found anywhere on the internet, and the translations are accurate. However, if the original source can be located, it is preferred to cite that instead of Shmuplations. Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4
Video Game Music Online (VGMO) online 2014– Video game music news, composer interviews, game music soundtrack and concert reviews All content by the site staff (except for composer biographies) is considered reliable. Previously operated as Square Enix Music (2007–2014). Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Twin Galaxies online 1981– news TG is one of the first authorities on video game record-setting (mainly score attack), having endured a hiatus and change of ownership with a new site. For modern records and for speed runs, consider Speed Demos Archive and Guinness. Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Xbox.com online 2000– Xbox official site May not be appropriate for opinionated content, such as reviews, since it is owned and operated by Microsoft. Microsoft G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1

Defunct

Name Media Dates Type Notes and limitations Owner Quick links &
discussions
About.com online 1997–2017 encyclopedia The website became Dotdash. When using archived versions of about.com: This site should generally be used for its sources rather than for its content. Use of this site's content is restricted to signed post-2005 content depending on the reliability of the individual author, and specifically barring its use for fringe theories and BLPs. Articles sourced to Wikipedia are also to be excluded. IAC G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14
Yahoo! Voices / Associated Content online (blacklisted) 2005–2014 While content by reliable authors could be published there, it is highly unlikely. (See 1) G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
G·N·B·S·RS·Talk
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Bitmob online Multi-author blog Content from the site's staff are approved sources given their collective industry experience. Articles where the author is listed as "Community Writer" are not to be used. Bitmob Media G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Crispy Gamer online 2008–2010 Multi-author blog Authorship was composed of several independent games journalist, some with a strong history in gaming journalism, working together as a "Game Trust". Reliability should be based on author. (defunct) Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Deaf Gamers online Video game reviews for the hearing imparied Reliable with regard to accessibility issues related to video games. Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3
Jay Is Games online 2003–2016 blog Use of this site should be restricted to casual games and only if the review is written by Jay Bibby. This site cannot be used to demonstrate notability. Independent G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
MTV Multiplayer online news, features, reviews Blog-style game reporting from MTV editors. May need to demonstrate reliability of individual authors. MTV Networks G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2
Offworld online –2016 Blog Original incarnation (2008-2009) primarily by Brandon Boyer.
Relaunched in 2015 by Leigh Alexander (Gamasutra, Kotaku) and Laura Hudson (Wired).
Boing Boing, Happy Mutants LLC G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1
Steam Spy online 2015–2018 video game sales estimates (Steam only) Uses published stats and game ownership information to make educated guesses as to sales numbers on Steam. Should never be used directly to support sales numbers, but may be used if sales estimated by Steam Spy are noted by a third-party. Should never be used if there have been actual sales numbers published by another source (publisher directly, NPD Group, etc.) at some point. Prose analysis of overall purchasing trends in the market based on estimated sales may be usable on case-by-case. Sergey Galyonkin G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2
WomenGamers.com online A blog; use of this site should be carefully considered. Often, it is best to demonstrate the reliability of the individual authors sourced. G·N·B·S·RS·Talk·LS
1, 2

Other situational

  • 148Apps 1, 2, 3
  • Cubed3 1, 2, 3, 4
  • GameCrate 1
  • Gaming Age 1, 2, 3
  • HonestGamers 1
  • Softpedia 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
  • Wccftech 1

Unreliable sources

These sources are considered unreliable. If found in existing articles, try to replace them with a reliable source from the list above.

  • Abandonia Reloaded 1, 2
  • AceGamez 1, 2
  • ActionTrip 1, 2
  • Adrenaline Vault, The (AVault) 1, 2, 3
  • Adrenaline Zone (PCM&E) 1
  • All In 1
  • AllRPG 1, 2
  • Altered Gamer 1
  • Android Headlines 1
  • Android Police 1
  • Angry Video Game Nerd (AVGN, cinemassacre.com) 1, 2, 3
  • AntKids.com 1
  • Arcade History (arcade-history.com) 1, 2
  • Armchair Empire, The 1, 2, 3, 4
  • Armed Gamer 1
  • Attack of the Fanboy 1
  • BBGSite.com 1
  • Brash Games 1
  • Blistered Thumbs 1
  • browser1.de 1
  • CG Magazine 1
  • Cheat Code Central 1, 2, 3, 4
  • Cinema Blend (CinemaBlend) 1, 2, 3
  • Console Obsession 1
  • CPU Gamer (2404.org PC Gaming) 1
  • TheCuttingRoomFloor (TCRF) 1
  • CVGames 1
  • Darkstation 1
  • DarkZero 1
  • Defunct Games 1, 2, 3
  • DevMaster.net 1
  • Digital Chumps 1
  • Digital Something 1
  • Dorkly 1
  • Droid Gamers 1
  • Dsogaming.com 1
  • DualShockers.com 1, 2, 3
  • Esports Earnings 1, 2
  • Esports Heaven 1
  • EventHubs 1
  • Everything2.com 1
  • Examiner.com 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
  • Frontline Gaming Japan 1
  • galaxy-news.net 1
  • GameBreaker 1
  • Game Boyz 1
  • Game Chronicles 1
  • Game Classification 1, 2
  • Gamecorner.pl 1, 2
  • GameFAQs 1, 2, 3
  • Game Interface 1
  • GamePlasma 1
  • Gameplay (Russia, Poland) 1, 2
  • GamePolitics.com 1, 2, 3, 4
  • Game Rant (Gamerant) 1, 2, 3
  • Gameranx 1, 2, 3
  • GamersHell 1
  • Gamervision 1
  • Gamers' Temple, The 1, 2, 3
  • Games Asylum 1, 2
  • GamesFirst! 1, 2, 3, 4
  • GameSkinny 1
  • Game Zero 1
  • Gaminator (Poland) 1, 2
  • Gaming Nexus 1, 2
  • Gaming on Linux 1
  • Gaming Target 1
  • Gamnesia 1, 2
  • Gaygamer.net 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
  • Gery Gry 1, 2
  • Gildia Gier Komputerowych (Poland) 1, 2
  • God Is a Geek 1
  • GoNintendo 1
  • Google 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
  • Gosu Gamers 1, 2
  • Gry Mocny (Poland) 1, 2
  • Gry Onet (Poland) 1, 2
  • Gry PC (Poland) 1, 2
  • Hard Drive 1
  • HLTV 1
  • Home of the Underdogs 1, 2
  • Impulse Gamer 1
  • Internet Games Archive 1
  • Internet Movie Database (IMDB) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25
  • Just RPG 1, 2, 3
  • Lazygamer 1
  • LoL Esports 1
  • KeenGamer 1
  • Mana Pool 1
  • Media Cows, The 1
  • Melee It on Me 1
  • Metro Gaming 1
  • MMOGChart.com 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
  • MMO Hub 1, 2
  • MMOHut 1, 2, 3
  • MMORPG.com 1
  • MMOs.com 1
  • MMOsite.com 1, 2
  • Mobile Mode Gaming 1
  • MobyGames 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
  • Mod DB 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
  • Multi-Player Online Gaming Directory (MPOGD.com) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
  • TheMushroomKingdom 1, 2
  • My Nintendo News 1, 2
  • N4G 1, 2, 3
  • NeoGAF 1
  • Neoseeker 1, 2, 3
  • Netjak 1, 2
  • Niche Gamer 1, 2, 3
  • NinDB 1
  • Nintendo Enthusiast 1
  • Nintendo Prime 1
  • N-Sider 1, 2
  • NTSC-uk/Bordersdown 1, 2, 3, 4
  • OnRPG 1
  • One Angry Gamer 1
  • Overpowered Noobs 1
  • OuyaCentral.TV 1
  • Persona Central 1
  • Play This Thing 1, 2
  • Przygodówki (Poland) 1, 2
  • PSPSex.Net 1
  • Quandary 1
  • Rakrent/RTSC 1
  • Screwattack 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
  • SegaNerds 1
  • SelectButton 1
  • Shoryuken 1, 2
  • TheSixthAxis 1, 2, 3
  • Smashboards 1
  • Suikosource.com 1
  • Tacticular Cancer 1
  • Tapscape 1
  • TechRaptor 1
  • That Guy with the Glasses (TGWTG) 1
  • TopTenReviews 1, 2, 3, 4
  • Twinfinite 1, 2, 3, 4
  • TwoDashStash 1
  • TV.com 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
  • TVTropes 1
  • Valhalla 1, 2
  • Valkiria - Arena Gier (Poland) 1, 2
  • VGChartz 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
  • VGMdb (user-generated game music database)
  • VGReleases.com 1
  • VGrevolution 1
  • Vicio Juegos 1
  • Video Game Critic, The 1, 2, 3, 4
  • Video Game PriceCharts.com 1
  • Video Games Blogger (videogamesblogger.com) 1
  • WatchMojo.com 1, 2, 3
  • WhatCulture 1
  • Wikia 1, 2, 3
  • Wikipedia 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
  • Worth Playing 1, 2
  • XBLA Fans 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
  • YouTube 1
  • Zelda Informer 1, 2
  • ZTGameDomain (ZTGD) 1, 2, 3

Inconclusive discussions

These sources have been discussed but no resolution for their reliability is available. They have not been discussed at sufficient length to achieve consensus.

  • 3D Juegos (Spain) 1, 2
  • 576 Konzol (Hungary) 1, 2
  • Adventure Classic Gaming 1
  • Armchair General 1
  • AtariAge.com (website) 1, 2
  • Atari User 1, 2
  • AudioGames.net 1
  • Big Download 1
  • Cincinnati Enquirer 1, 2
  • CinnamonPirate.com 1
  • Collective, The (BBC) 1
  • Coming Soon (Magazine) 1, 2
  • Commodore User 1
  • contactmusic.com 1
  • Da Gameboyz 1
  • Deeko 1
  • Detroit Free Press (Freep) 1
  • Digital Press - Classic Video Games 1
  • DreamStation.cc 1
  • ElectronicTheatere 1
  • Eludamos 1, 2
  • ESC Magazine 1, 2
  • ESRB 1, 2
  • Extra Credits 1
  • FHM (Magazine) 1, 2
  • FileFactory Games / Gameworld Network 1, 2, 3, 4
  • FOK!games (Netherlands) 1
  • Fragland.net 1
  • G4mers 1
  • G4 TV: The Electric Playground 1
  • GameAlmighty.com 1
  • Game Arena 1
  • GameBanshee 1, 2
  • GameCenter 1
  • GameGirl.com 1
  • GameHall 1, 2
  • Game industry News (GiN) 1
  • Gameplay Monthly 1
  • Game Power 1
  • GameProFamily.com 1
  • Game Over Online 1
  • GamerDad 1
  • Game Reactor (Denmark, Finland, Sweden) 1, 2
  • GamerHelp.com 1
  • Gamernode 1
  • GamersInfo 1, 2
  • GamersReports 1
  • Games.net 1
  • Games32 1
  • GamesAreFun.com (GAF) 1
  • GameShark 1, 2
  • GameSnob 1
  • GameSlant 1
  • Gamestyle (Germany, USA) 1, 2
  • Game Tap 1, 2
  • Game Tunnel 1, 2
  • Game World Navigator (Навигатор игрового мира, Russia) 1
  • Gaming.Moe 1
  • GamingUnion.net 1, 2
  • GamingXP 1
  • GotGame 1
  • Great Games Experiment 1, 2
  • Green Pixels 1, 2
  • Happy Puppy 1
  • HarryBalls.com 1
  • Hyperactive 1
  • Indie Game Magazine 1
  • Insert Credit 1, 2, 3, 4
  • Inside Gaming Daily 1
  • Inside Gaming Source, The (TIGSource) 1
  • JoyStik 1, 2
  • Kikizo Games 1
  • Kombo.com 1, 2
  • Let's Play Video Games 1
  • LGBTQ Video Game Archive 1
  • LudoScience 1, 2
  • MAN!AC 1
  • Mania/AnimeOnDVD.com 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
  • Matt Chat Blog, The 1
  • Meristation (Spain) 1, 2, 3, 4 5
  • Millenium Portail 1
  • MMOABC 1
  • Multiplayer.it 1, 2
  • neXGam (Germany) 1
  • Nintendo Magazine System (Australia, UK) 1, 2
  • Nintendo Wire 1
  • NZGamer 1
  • Official Xbox 360 Magazine/Xbox 360 - Das offiziele Xbox-Magazin (Germany)
  • OMGN.com 1, 2
  • OpenCritic 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
  • PC Accelerator 1
  • PC Arena - Game Arena 1
  • PC Player (Brazil, Denmark, Germany) 1
  • PC World 1, 2, 3, 4
  • PiQ 1
  • Playr (UK) 1
  • Playstation 2 Magazine (PSM2) (UK) 1
  • Playstation 3 Magazine (PSM3) (UK) 1, 2
  • PlayStation Lifestyle 1, 2
  • play.tm (Ferrago Ltd.) 1
  • Pocket Tactics 1
  • Practical Webdesign 1
  • Pregaming 1
  • PSX Extreme 1
  • Remeshed 1
  • Retro Magazine
  • Rev3Games 1, 2
  • Reviews on the Run 1, 2
  • RPG Codex 1
  • RPGDOT 1
  • RPG Land 1
  • RPGnet/RPG.net 1
  • RPGWatch 1, 2
  • SciFi.com 1
  • Screen Rant 1
  • Softonic 1
  • Speedrun.com 1
  • SPOnG 1, 2
  • StrategyCore 1
  • Strategy Informer 1, 2
  • Subsim 1
  • SucksOrRules.com 1
  • Tales of the Rampant Coyote 1
  • Tea Leaves 1, 2
  • Tech Crunch 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
  • That Video Game Blog 1
  • TheScore 1
  • Thunderbolt Games 1, 2
  • Times Online 1, 2
  • Tiny Cartridge 1
  • Tom's Games 1
  • TotalVideoGames (TVG) 1
  • UOL Jogos (Brazil) 1, 2
  • Vandal Online 1
  • Video Game Rebirth 1
  • VideoGames & Computer Entertainment 1
  • Virtual Console Reviews 1
  • V Jump (Japan) 1
  • Warcry 1
  • Yahoo! Games (Spain, USA) 1, 2
  • Zzap! 64 1

See also

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