Wikipedia:Today's featured article/May 2017

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May 1
Clathrus ruber

Clathrus ruber, the red cage fungus, is a species in the stinkhorn family. The pink, orange or red fruit bodies form interlaced branches in the shape of a round or oval hollow sphere. The fungus is saprobic, feeding off decaying woody plant material, and is usually found in leaf litter on garden soil, grassy places, or woodchip garden mulches. Primarily a European species, C. ruber has been introduced to northern Africa, Asia, Australia, and North and South America. The fruit body is initially white and egg-shaped, attached to the ground by mycelial cords. It has a delicate, leathery outer membrane enclosing the compressed lattice that surrounds a layer of olive-green spore-bearing slime called the gleba. As the egg ruptures and the fruit body expands, the gleba is carried upward on the inner surfaces of the spongy lattice, and the egg membrane remains as a volva at the base. The gleba smells like rotting meat, which attracts flies and other insects that carry off its spores. The fungus's edibility is unknown, but its odor would deter most from consuming it. (Full article...)


May 2

James Moore (c. 1737 – 1777) was a Continental Army general during the American Revolutionary War. Born into a prominent political family in the lower Cape Fear River area of North Carolina, he was one of only five Continental Army generals from the state. He served in the colonial militia during the French and Indian War, and commanded the colonial governor's artillery at the Battle of Alamance, which ended the War of the Regulation. In the independence movement, Moore played a prominent role in the local Sons of Liberty organizations, and assisted in organizing the colony-wide Provincial Congress. In 1775, he was elected the first commander of a Continental Line regiment in North Carolina, which had been raised pursuant to instructions of the Continental Congress. After distinguishing himself in the campaign that led to the Patriot victory at the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge in February 1776, Moore was promoted to brigadier general in the Continental Army. He held de facto command of the Southern Department before his death due to illness. (Full article...)


May 3

Temperatures Rising is an American television sitcom that aired on the ABC network with 46 episodes from September 1972 to August 1974. It was developed by William Asher and Harry Ackerman. The first season, set in a fictional Washington, D.C. hospital, featured James Whitmore as a no-nonsense chief-of-staff who endures the antics of a young intern (Cleavon Little) and three nurses (Joan Van Ark, Reva Rose, and Nancy Fox). In the 13-episode second season, produced by Duke Vincent and Bruce Johnson, everyone except Little was replaced, and the show was retitled The New Temperatures Rising Show. Comedian Paul Lynde played a penny-pinching chief-of-staff, accompanied by Sudie Bond, Barbara Cason, Jennifer Darling, Jeff Morrow, and John Dehner. Critics preferred the second-season cast, but the black comedy approach led to lower ratings. In an unsuccessful seven-episode summer revival of the series, Asher returned as producer and restored the series to its original format and title, retaining Paul Lynde in the lead, with a cast of Little, Fox, Alice Ghostley and Barbara Rucker. (Full article...)


May 4
Large explosion aboard USS Lexington (CV-2), 8 may 1942.jpg

The Battle of the Coral Sea (4–8 May 1942) was the first battle of World War II in which the Allies were able to stop a major advance of the Imperial Japanese Navy. Japanese forces, including two fleet carriers and a light carrier, had orders to invade and occupy Port Moresby in New Guinea and Tulagi in the southeastern Solomon Islands. The US intercepted their communications, and sent two carrier task forces and a joint AustralianAmerican cruiser force to stop them. On 3–4 May Japanese forces took Tulagi, although several of their supporting warships were sunk or damaged by aircraft from the US carrier Yorktown. On 7–8 May the opposing carrier forces exchanged airstrikes in the Coral Sea. Yorktown was damaged, and the USS Lexington was scuttled. After the loss of the Japanese carrier Shōhō and heavy damage to Shōkaku, the Port Moresby invasion was scrapped, and never reattempted. The Japanese losses led to a greater loss a month later at the Battle of Midway, where all four of their large aircraft carriers were sunk. Two months later, the Allies launched the Guadalcanal Campaign, hastening Japan's ejection from the South Pacific. (Full article...)


May 5
Lead programmer and id co-founder John Carmack

Wolfenstein 3D is a first-person shooter video game developed by id Software, published by Apogee Software and FormGen, and originally released on May 5, 1992, for MS-DOS. Its innovative game engine was designed by John Carmack (pictured). The player assumes the role of Allied spy William "B.J." Blazkowicz during World War II as he escapes from the Nazi German prison Castle Wolfenstein and carries out a series of crucial missions against the Nazis. Wolfenstein 3D was the second major release by id Software, and was released through Apogee in two sets of three episodes as shareware; the first episode was available free of charge, to drive interest in purchasing the rest. An additional episode, Spear of Destiny, was released as a standalone retail title through FormGen. Wolfenstein 3D was a critical and commercial success, garnering numerous awards and selling over 200,000 copies by the end of 1993. The game popularized the first-person shooter genre, established standards of fast-paced action and technical prowess for subsequent games in the genre, and showcased the viability of the shareware publishing model. (Full article...)


May 6
Saint Luke Drawing the Virgin, Boston Museum of Fine Arts

Saint Luke Drawing the Virgin is a large 15th-century panel painting, oil and tempera on oak, attributed to the Early Netherlandish painter Rogier van der Weyden and usually dated between 1435 and 1440. Housed in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, it shows Luke the Evangelist, patron saint of artists, sketching the Virgin Mary as she nurses the Child Jesus. The figures are positioned in a bourgeois interior which leads out towards a courtyard, river, town and landscape. The enclosed garden, illusionistic carvings of Adam and Eve on the arms of Mary's throne, and attributes of St Luke are amongst the painting's iconographic symbols. The face of Luke is accepted as van der Weyden's self-portrait. The painting's historical significance rests on both the skill behind the design and its merging of earthly and divine realms. By positioning himself in the same space as the Madonna, and showing a painter in the act of portrayal, Van der Weyden brings to the fore the role of artistic creativity in 15th-century society. The panel became widely influential with near copies by the Master of the Legend of Saint Ursula and Hugo van der Goes. (Full article...)


May 7
Before storm classification

Subtropical Storm Andrea was the first named storm and first subtropical cyclone of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season. Six people drowned as a result of the storm. It developed three weeks before the official start of the season out of a non-tropical low on May 9 about 150 miles (240 km) northeast of Daytona Beach, Florida. It weakened to a subtropical depression on May 10 while remaining nearly stationary, and the National Hurricane Center discontinued advisories early on May 11. Andrea was the first pre-season storm to develop since Tropical Storm Ana in April 2003 and was the first Atlantic named storm in May since Tropical Storm Arlene in 1981. The storm produced rough surf along the coastline from Florida to North Carolina, causing beach erosion and some damage. In some areas, the waves eroded up to 20 feet (6 m) of beach, leaving 70 homes in danger of collapse. Off North Carolina, high waves of 34 feet (10 m) and tropical-storm-force winds damaged three boats; their combined nine passengers sustained injuries before being rescued by the Coast Guard. (Full article...)

Part of the Off-season Atlantic hurricanes series, one of Wikipedia's featured topics.


May 8
White-rumped swallow

The white-rumped swallow (Tachycineta leucorrhoa) is a species of bird, the only one in its genus, in the family Hirundinidae. First described and given its scientific name by French ornithologist Louis Vieillot in 1817, it has no known population variations. It is black from the eyes to the nostrils, with a white streak just above. The ear coverts, tail, and wings are black, with white tips on the wings. The rest of the upperparts are a glossy blue. Its underparts and underwing-coverts are white, in addition to the rump, as the name suggests. It usually builds its nest in holes in trees or dead snags, and sometimes under eaves or in holes in fence posts. This swallow is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay. Its natural habitats are dry savanna, pastureland, the edge of forests, and subtropical or tropical seasonally wet or flooded lowland grassland. It is classified as a species of least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Its population is increasing, partly because of the increase in availability of man-made structures suitable for nest sites. (Full article...)


May 9
Richard Mansfield as Jekyll and Hyde

Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is a four-act play written by Thomas Russell Sullivan in collaboration with the actor Richard Mansfield. It is an adaptation of Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, an 1886 novella by Robert Louis Stevenson. The story focuses on the respected London doctor Henry Jekyll, who uses a potion to transform into Edward Hyde, a loathsome criminal. Intrigued by the opportunity to play a dual role, Mansfield secured the stage rights and asked Sullivan to write the adaptation. The play debuted in Boston on May 9, 1887, then opened on Broadway in September of that year. Mansfield's performance as the dual character was acclaimed by critics. The play opened in London in August 1888, just before the first Jack the Ripper murders. Some press reports compared the murderer to the Jekyll-Hyde character, and Mansfield was suggested as a possible suspect. Mansfield's company continued to perform the play in the US until shortly before his death in 1907. Sullivan made changes from Stevenson's story that have been adopted by many subsequent adaptations, including several film versions that were derived from the play. (Full article...)


May 10
John Sherman

John Sherman (May 10, 1823 – October 22, 1900) was a Republican representative and senator from Ohio during the American Civil War and into the late nineteenth century. He was the principal author of the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, which was signed into law by President Benjamin Harrison. His brothers included General William Tecumseh Sherman, Judge Charles Taylor Sherman, and Hoyt Sherman, an Iowa banker. As a senator, he worked on legislation to restore the nation's credit abroad and produce a stable, gold-backed currency at home. Serving as Secretary of the Treasury in the administration of Rutherford B. Hayes, Sherman helped to end wartime inflationary measures and to oversee the law allowing dollars to be redeemed for gold. He returned to the Senate after his term expired, continuing his work on financial legislation, as well as writing and debating laws on immigration, business competition law, and interstate commerce. In 1897, President William McKinley appointed him Secretary of State, but due to failing health, he retired in 1898 at the start of the Spanish–American War. (Full article...)

Part of the United States presidential election, 1880 series, one of Wikipedia's featured topics.


May 11
Algeria v Belgium, 2014 World Cup

The Belgian national football team has represented Belgium in association football since their maiden match in 1904. The squad is supervised by the Royal Belgian Football Association, stands under the global jurisdiction of FIFA and is governed in Europe by UEFA. Most of their home games are played at the King Baudouin Stadium in Brussels. The squad has been known as the Red Devils since 1906; its fan club is named "1895". Belgium has long-standing football rivalries with its Dutch and French counterparts, having played both teams nearly every year from 1905 to 1967. Periods of regular Belgian representation at the highest international level, from 1920 to 1938, and 1970 to 2002, have alternated with mostly unsuccessful qualification rounds. The national team played in three Olympic football tournaments, including the one in 1920, which they won. They achieved victories over four reigning world champions—West Germany, Brazil, Argentina and France—between 1954 and 2002. Belgium topped the FIFA World Rankings for the first time in November 2015. They are competing in the European qualifiers for the 2018 World Cup, which will run until October 2017. (Full article...)


May 12
Known objects in the Kuiper belt

The Kuiper belt is a circumstellar disc in the Solar System extending beyond the orbit of Neptune, at 30 to 50 astronomical units from the Sun. It is similar to the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, but far larger—20 times as wide and 20 to 200 times as massive. Like the asteroid belt, it consists mainly of small bodies that are remnants from the Solar System's formation. Although many asteroids are composed primarily of rock and metal, most Kuiper belt objects are composed largely of frozen volatiles such as methane, ammonia and water. The disc was named after Dutch-American astronomer Gerard Kuiper, though he did not actually predict its existence. Some of the Solar System's moons, such as Neptune's Triton and Saturn's Phoebe, are thought to have originated in the region. It is home to three officially recognized dwarf planets: Haumea, Makemake, and Pluto, the largest and most massive member of the Kuiper belt. Originally considered a planet, Pluto was reclassified as a dwarf planet in 2006. (Full article...)

Part of the Solar System series, one of Wikipedia's featured topics.


May 13
c. 1865, aged about 61

Manuel Marques de Sousa, Count of Porto Alegre (1804–1875), nicknamed "the Gloved Centaur", was an army officer, politician, abolitionist and monarchist of the Empire of Brazil. Born into a wealthy family of military background, Porto Alegre joined the army in 1817 when he was little more than a child. His military initiation occurred in the conquest of the Banda Oriental (Eastern Bank), which was annexed and became the southernmost Brazilian province of Cisplatina in 1821. For most of the 1820s, he was embroiled in the Brazilian effort to keep Cisplatina as part of its territory: first during the struggle for Brazilian independence and then in the Cisplatine War. It would ultimately prove a futile attempt, as Cisplatina successfully separated from Brazil to become the independent nation of Uruguay in 1828. A few years later, in 1835, his native province of Rio Grande do Sul was engulfed in a secessionist rebellion, the Ragamuffin War. The conflict lasted for almost ten years, and the Count was leading military engagements for most of that time. He played a decisive role in saving the provincial capital from the Ragamuffin rebels, allowing forces loyal to the legitimate government to secure a key foothold. In 1852, he led a Brazilian division during the Platine War in an invasion of the Argentine Confederation that overthrew its dictator. He was awarded a noble title, eventually raised from baron to viscount and finally to count. In the postwar years, Porto Alegre turned his attention to politics, retiring from his military career as a lieutenant general, the second-highest rank in the Imperial army. He was an affiliate of the Liberal Party at the national level and was elected to the legislature of Rio Grande do Sul. He also founded a provincial party, the Progressive-Liberal Party—a coalition of Liberals like him and some members of the Conservative Party. Porto Alegre later entered the lower house of the Brazilian parliament and was briefly Minister of War. When the Paraguayan War erupted in 1864, he returned to active duty. One of the main Brazilian commanders during the conflict, his participation was marked by important battlefield victories, as well as constant quarrels with his Argentine and Uruguayan allies. Upon his return from the war, Porto Alegre resumed his political career. He became an active advocate for the abolition of slavery and a patron in the fields of literature and science. His death came on 18 July 1875 while again serving in Parliament. He was highly esteemed until the downfall of the monarchy in 1889. Regarded as too closely associated with the fallen regime, Porto Alegre slipped into obscurity. His reputation was eventually rehabilitated to a certain degree by historians, some of whom consider him to be among Brazil's greatest military figures. (Full article...)


May 14
In the 1959 Broadway production of Much Ado About Nothing

John Gielgud (1904–2000) was an English actor and theatre director who, along with Ralph Richardson and Laurence Olivier, dominated the British stage for much of the 20th century. A member of the Terry family theatrical dynasty, he became a star in the West End and on Broadway by the 1930s, appearing in new works and classics. He began a parallel career as a director, and set up his own company at the Queen's Theatre, London. Though he made his first film in 1924 and had successes with The Good Companions (1933) and Julius Caesar (1953), he did not begin a regular film career until his sixties. He appeared in more than 60 films between Becket (1964), which gave him his first Academy Award nomination, and Elizabeth (1998). As the acid-tongued Hobson in Arthur (1981) he won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. He earned a Golden Globe Award and two BAFTAs, and had the rare distinction of winning an Oscar, an Emmy, a Grammy, and a Tony. He broadcast more than 100 radio and television dramas and made commercial recordings of many plays, including ten of Shakespeare's. He was knighted in 1953 and was president of the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art from 1977 to 1989. (Full article...)


May 15
Lawrence Spivak, the magazine's publisher

The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction is a US fantasy and science fiction magazine initially published by Lawrence E. Spivak (pictured), with regular issues from 1949 to the present. Under editors Anthony Boucher and J. Francis McComas, it became a leader in the science fiction and fantasy field, publishing literary material and including more diverse stories than its competitors. Well-known stories from its early years include Richard Matheson's "Born of Man and Woman" and Ward Moore's Bring the Jubilee. McComas left in 1954 and Boucher continued as sole editor until 1958, winning the Hugo Award for Best Magazine that year, a feat his successor, Robert Mills, repeated in the next two years. Mills was responsible for publishing "Flowers for Algernon" by Daniel Keyes, Rogue Moon by Algis Budrys, Starship Troopers by Robert Heinlein, and the first of Brian Aldiss's "Hothouse" stories. At the start of 1966, after short stints by Avram Davidson and Joseph Ferman, Edward Ferman began a 25-year career as editor. He published many well-received stories, including Fritz Leiber's "Ill Met in Lankhmar", Robert Silverberg's "Born with the Dead", and Stephen King's The Dark Tower series. (Full article...)


May 16
At Carnegie Museum

Apatosaurus ("deceptive lizard") is a genus of extinct sauropod dinosaurs that lived in North America during the Late Jurassic period. Fossils from the Morrison Formation of Colorado, Oklahoma, and Utah indicate an average length of 21–22.8 m (69–75 ft) and an average mass of 16.4–22.4 t (18.1–24.7 short tons), but a few specimens are 11% to 30% longer and 32.7–72.6 t (36.0–80.0 short tons). The cervical vertebrae are less elongated and more heavily constructed than those of Diplodocus, and the bones of the leg are much stockier despite being longer, implying that Apatosaurus was a more robust animal.The tail was held above the ground during normal locomotion. It had a single claw on each forelimb and three on each hindlimb. The skull is similar to that of Diplodocus. It browsed foliage and likely held its head elevated. To lighten its vertebrae, Apatosaurus had air sacs in its bones. In North America during the late Jurassic, Apatosaurus would have lived alongside dinosaurs such as Diplodocus, Allosaurus, Camarasaurus, and Stegosaurus. (Full article...)


May 17
drawing

Edward III (1312–1377), King of England from 1327 until his death, restored royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II. Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His reign of fifty years, the second longest in medieval England, saw vital developments in legislation and government—in particular the evolution of the English parliament—as well as the ravages of the Black Death. Edward was crowned at age fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother, Isabella of France, and her lover Roger Mortimer. At age seventeen he led a successful coup against Mortimer, the de facto ruler of the country, and began his personal reign. After a successful campaign in Scotland he declared himself the rightful heir to the French throne in 1337, but his claim was denied, starting the Hundred Years' War. Following some initial setbacks the war went well for England; victories at Crécy and Poitiers led to the favourable Treaty of Brétigny. Edward's later years were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health. (Full article...)


May 18
Sketch of Bury from The Dundee Courier

William Henry Bury (1859–1889) was suspected of being the notorious serial killer "Jack the Ripper". Hanged for the murder of his wife Ellen, he was the last person executed in Dundee, Scotland. Orphaned at an early age, he was dismissed from a clerk job for theft, and became a street peddler. In 1887, he was married in London; in January 1889, they moved to Dundee. The following month, he strangled his wife with a rope, stabbed her dead body with a penknife, and hid the corpse in a box in their room. A few days later, he presented himself to the local police and was arrested for her murder. This was shortly after the height of the London Whitechapel murders, which were attributed to the unidentified serial killer "Jack the Ripper". Bury's previous abode near Whitechapel and the similarities between the Ripper's crimes and Bury's led the press and executioner James Berry to suggest that Bury was the Ripper. Bury protested his innocence in the Ripper crimes, and the police discounted him as a suspect. Later authors have built on the earlier accusations, but the idea that Bury was the Ripper is not widely accepted. (Full article...)


May 19
A Brill Tramway train in operation

Wood Siding railway station was a halt in Bernwood Forest, Buckinghamshire, England, opened in 1871 as a terminus of a horse-drawn tramway serving the Duke of Buckingham's estates and connecting them to the railway at Quainton Road. After a campaign by residents of Brill, the tramway was adapted for passengers and extended beyond Wood Siding in 1872, becoming known as the Brill Tramway. The operation of the line was taken over by the Metropolitan Railway in 1899. Between 1908 and 1910 Wood Siding was rebuilt on a bridge over the Chiltern Main Line. In 1933 the Metropolitan Railway was taken into public ownership, becoming the Metropolitan line of London Transport. As a result, Wood Siding became part of the London Underground network, despite being over 45 miles (72 km) from the City of London. London Transport aimed to move away from goods services, and as the line served a sparsely populated rural area the new management felt it would never be a viable passenger route. The station was closed, along with the rest of the line, in November 1935, and demolished in 1936. The remains of the bridge which supported it are still in place. (Full article...)


May 20
The featured article for this day has not yet been chosen. The final selection is made by the TFA coordinators (Dank, Jimfbleak, and Mike Christie).
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May 21
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May 22
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May 23
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May 24
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May 25
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May 26
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May 27
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May 28
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May 29
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May 30
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May 31
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