Wikipedia:Requests for comment/History and geography

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Cite error: There are <ref group=n> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=n}} template (see the help page).

  1. ^ Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition. Many earlier (primarily non-Islamic) traditions refer to him as still alive at the time of the invasion of Palestine. See Stephen J. Shoemaker,The Death of a Prophet: The End of Muhammad's Life and the Beginnings of Islam,[page needed] University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.
  2. ^ Buhl, F., Welch, A.T., Schimmel, Annemarie, Noth, A. and Ehlert, Trude (2012). "Muḥammad". In P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.). Brill. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0780. (subscription required (help)). Muḥammad, the Prophet of Islam. 
  3. ^ a b Alford T. Welch, Ahmad S. Moussalli, Gordon D. Newby (2009). "Muḥammad". In John L. Esposito. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The Prophet of Islam was a religious, political, and social reformer who gave rise to one of the great civilizations of the world. From a modern, historical perspective, Muḥammad was the founder of Islam. From the perspective of the Islamic faith, he was God 's Messenger (rasūl Allāh), called to be a “warner,” first to the Arabs and then to all humankind.  hair space character in |quote= at position 259 (help)
  4. ^ Esposito (2002b), pp. 4–5.
  5. ^ Peters, F.E. (2003). Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians. Princeton University Press. p. 9. ISBN 0-691-11553-2. 
  6. ^ Esposito, John (1998). Islam: The Straight Path (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 9, 12. ISBN 978-0-19-511234-4. 
  7. ^ Eleanor Abdella Doumato (2009). "Seclusion". In John L. Esposito. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (subscription required (help)). The practice of women's seclusion is grounded in both religion and social custom. Numerous verses in the Qurʿān enjoin separation and modesty in dress and behavior on women. Sūrah 33:32–33, for example, states: "O ye wives of the Prophet! Ye are not like other women. If ye keep your duty [to Allāh] then be not soft of speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease aspire [to you], but utter customary speech, and stay in your houses. Bedizen not yourselves with the bedizenment of the times of ignorance." Qurʿānic commentators were later to hold up the modesty and confinement enjoined on the Prophet 's wives as a model of decorum for all women.[...]The ultimate expression of female seclusion is the ḥarīm (harem) system  hair space character in |quote= at position 602 (help)
  8. ^ Schi̇ck, İrvi̇n Cemi̇l (2009). "Space: Harem: Overview". In Suad Joseph. Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures. Brill. (subscription required (help)). Though “harem” does not denote women or women’s quarters in the Qur±àn, there is a verse that has been taken as laying the foundation for the separation of men and women. It reads, in part: “And when you ask them [feminine] for something, ask from behind a veil (hijàb); that makes for greater purity for your hearts and for theirs” (33:53). Although commentators agree that “them” in this verse refers specifically to the Prophet’s wives, they have usually generalized it to include all Muslim women, and have taken this verse as ordaining that men and women must be spatially separated 
  9. ^ Siddiqui, Mona (2006). "Veil". In Jane Dammen McAuliffe. Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān. Brill. (subscription required (help)). Conversely, the verse ordering the believers to speak to the wives of the Prophet from behind a curtain also prohibits them from marrying the Prophet’s widows after his death (q 33:53; see veil; widow), a limitation unique to the Prophet’s wives. In this case, separating women from male visitors by a curtain, a hijāb, would logically apply only to the Prophet’s wives. [...] In qurānic exegesis (see exegesis of the qurAn: classical and medieval), the circumstances upon which the verse was revealed (asbāb al-nuzūl) indicated that some visitors bothered the Prophet’s wives to the point of sexual harassment. These accretions would dictate a more stringent approach to the separation of the women of the household from men who are not their kin, both for the Prophet’s wives and, by extension, for other Muslim women as well 
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