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February 15

History of Adoption from South Korea

I am looking for information about the history of adoption from South Korea, particularly on children who were adopted by families in the United States. I am hoping to find books or scholarly articles rather than websites. (talk) 02:14, 15 February 2018 (UTC)

This search from Google Scholar (a hidden but VERY useful resource for things like this) seems to have a number of promising hits. --Jayron32 04:32, 15 February 2018 (UTC)

Doubting hand never yet struck firm blow

Lloyd George, speaking at Conway on 6th May 1916 on the subject of conscription, used the phrase "Doubting hand never yet struck firm blow". The phrase sounds awfully familiar, but I am unable to find any other use of it. Is it perhaps an adaptation of a Biblical phrase, or of another phrase or quotation? DuncanHill (talk) 02:26, 15 February 2018 (UTC)

It appears to have been he that coined the phrase. I can't find anything about it outside of that specific speech. --Jayron32 02:49, 15 February 2018 (UTC)
It's reminiscent of the proverb 'faint heart never won fair lady'. AndrewWTaylor (talk) 10:19, 15 February 2018 (UTC)

Boulogne gun conference, 1915

Do we know the name of the hotel in which the Boulogne gun conference (see here) was held? According to Lloyd George it was a second-rate hotel, and later in the war was "completely demolished down to the cellars by a bomb". As well as LlG, the conference was attended by General Du Cane, M. Albert Thomas (the French munitions minister), General Gossot (of the French War Office), and a Colonel Walch (French HQ staff). DuncanHill (talk) 13:52, 15 February 2018 (UTC)

I found this: "Le 21 juin, se tient à Boulogne l’importante conférence interalliée qui réunit à la villa « Belle », propriété du sénateur-maire Roger Farjon, Lloyd George et Alexandre Millerand, ainsi que les maréchaux Foch et Wilson" in this source [1]. It seems to have been held in a private residence (which the French called hôtel particulier at the time). And here's more on the location of the building itself, which was bombed to the ground during World War II [2]. Note that there is a small hôtel near Boulogne called "La villa belle" which exists today, but it seems to have no link to the historic location. --Xuxl (talk) 14:44, 15 February 2018 (UTC)
If this helps, a couple of pages later, his memoirs also note that the hotel was across from the English Episcopal Church and also close to the Scottish Presbyterian Church. "Merridew's Visitor's guide to Boulogne-sur-Mer and its environs" from 1864 say that this church was on Rue St-Martin. Google Maps does not seem to show any churches on Rue St-Martin at the moment, so maybe they were destroyed along with the hotel. Adam Bishop (talk) 14:49, 15 February 2018 (UTC)
The second link I added above does give the hotel's location; it is now a park. It seems to correspond to the crescent-shaped park on the west side of the Liane River on Boulevard Montesquieu, if you look up Boulogne sur Mer in Google maps or some equivalent site. Rue Saint-Martin is in the old city, on the other side of the river, however. --Xuxl (talk) 17:59, 15 February 2018 (UTC)
That was a different conference though - both pages mention that it was a post-war conference in 1920, not the "gun conference" in 1915. Adam Bishop (talk) 18:49, 15 February 2018 (UTC)
You're right. It's surprising how many high-level conferences took place in that small city during a short period! --Xuxl (talk) 20:16, 15 February 2018 (UTC)
Gotcha! "Three conferences took place at the Hotel Dervaux, Boulogne ; the first on the evening of the 19th June [1915] and the others in the morning and afternoon of the 20th June, all presided over by Mr. Lloyd George, then Minister of Munitions". Military Operations France And Belgium 1915: Vol. III (p. 115, Note 1) by Brig. Gen. Sir James Edward Edmonds, 1935. Alansplodge (talk) 20:35, 15 February 2018 (UTC)
Splendid work Alansplodge! And thanks also to Xux1 for an interesting sideline. I have now found this picture by Jean Cocteau, and this postcard confirming its destruction. DuncanHill (talk) 20:55, 15 February 2018 (UTC)
"Certes, le 1er août 1918, les bombes allemandes écrasent, dans la Grande Rue, l’hôtel Dervaux, où est installé l’état-major de la base anglaise, et causent au musée, situé en face, des pertes irréparables". HISTOIRE DE BOULOGNE-SUR-MER - Chapitre XIV. Boulogne face à la guerre et à la crise (1914-1939). According to Chapitre XIII. L’art monumental it was rebuilt in 1923 and still stands in Grand Rue in the Lower Town. Alansplodge (talk) 21:54, 15 February 2018 (UTC)

A knotty problem (legal cases involving Japanese knotweed)

A report in Saturday's Daily Telegraph says that a 74 year-old woman has to pay tens of thousands of pounds after Japanese knotweed spread to a neighbour's garden. The report says that the judgment in Truro County Court "set a legal precedent". The "legal precedent" in this case is Rylands v Fletcher, which decided:

the person who for his own purposes brings on his lands and collects and keeps there anything likely to do mischief if it escapes, must keep it in at his peril, and, if he does not do so, is prima facie answerable for all the damage which is the natural consequence of its escape.

(my emphasis)

It's unlikely that this pensioner deliberately planted this weed in her garden. County Court judgments do not set "legal precedent" and I get the impression that their judges sometimes allow themselves to be bamboozled by smart lawyers acting for plaintiffs. In an earlier case [3] knotweed spread from the railway to a garden, Network Rail refused to pay and were taken to the county court where they were ordered to compensate the property owner. They appealed the judgment, and from the reference to setting a legal precedent in Saturday's report it looks as if they won. Can anyone confirm this? (talk) 16:28, 15 February 2018 (UTC)

Not sure if it answers your question, but I found Japanese Knotweed and Network Rail (Oct 2017) from the University of Reading. Alansplodge (talk) 18:02, 15 February 2018 (UTC)
To me it looks like the meat of that is "once an undesirable element establishes itself on land there is a clear duty to do something about it else one is deemed to have adopted the nuisance: see Leakey v National Trust [1980] QB 485. In this respect an element of fault is inserted into the equation and nuisance operates rather more like negligence than a tort of strict liability" [we have another redlink to that case in Green v Lord Somerleyton if anyone wants to start an article on it; I'm afraid I won't, sorry] Wnt (talk) 15:18, 17 February 2018 (UTC)
The appeal may not have been heard yet. "A lawyer ... said they hoped to have the case transferred to the Court of Appeal by early 2018", from the BBC in August 2017. (talk) 18:06, 15 February 2018 (UTC)
  • I grew up being told that it was illegal to let poison ivy grow on your land, which my father would repeat when he saw it. I haven't been able to find documentation of this in state law in New Jersey (perhaps he was remembering the law of another location) but google does show that this as well as other invasives like kudzu, bamboo and crabgrass as well as poison ivy and poison sumac are required to be removed by the landowner in various municipalities. It is also the law in NYC: Q. May I grow poison ivy in my yard? A. No. It is illegal to let poison ivy grow on a property in NYC. In NYC, you can report the offender, who will be given a summons. μηδείς (talk) 02:47, 19 February 2018 (UTC)
    • What does the law say about dandelions? ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 03:02, 19 February 2018 (UTC)
      • The New Jersey laws seemed to be based on physical (root) damage to property and health. Given Round-Up works well on most non-grasses like dandelions, and dandelions are not dangerous or destructive per se, they sem not to have been included. I only read the headlines on the Jersey articles, not the statutes. I do know that you can be fined in my Father's municipality for an unkempt yard (three-foot lawn, e.g.) that is an eyesore, and that the officials will fine you and bill you or have a lien placed against you if a judge orders the property to be maintained by a yard-service company. It's a matter of the property value effects on the neighbors, and seems to arise when either there is a divorce, mental illness, or delinquent children inherit from dead parents--at least in three anecdotal cases I know of over the last few decades. You do see poison ivy in NYC parks, but I can't recall seeing any on private property in Manhattan or The Bronx. μηδείς (talk) 16:22, 19 February 2018 (UTC)
Be careful. Round-Up is banned in many countries. It's a glyphosate. (talk) 11:32, 20 February 2018 (UTC)
How do they manage their weeds? ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 11:43, 20 February 2018 (UTC)
"Be careful. Round-Up is banned in many countries. It's a glyphosate." There is an ongoing political debate in the European Union on whether to ban glyphosates or not. Different "experts" have claimed both that they are carcinogens, and that they are not. Politicians are divided on whether they are health hazzards or not. Dimadick (talk) 15:35, 22 February 2018 (UTC)

February 17

Mundane moments in the lives of ordinary people in the new testament

Hi! I'm interested in a period of history which overlaps the time when the new testament was written. Most surviving contemporary accounts of that period are about Great Men and politics, which is all well and good, but I'd like to know more about ordinary people. The new testament has survived and has countless translations and been through more intense scholarship than anything else, so I'm wondering if there's anything to be found there. It's not written by Imperial Roman historians. That makes it interesting. I'm wondering if there's any particular passage I could flip to that would tell me a little story about a real citizen (subject, I suppose) of Rome and what their life felt like. I'm not interested in theological stuff for its own sake. Thank you! — Preceding unsigned comment added by 2601:1C1:8100:900:8CA:15B1:ADFB:DF14 (talk) 18:42, 17 February 2018 (UTC)

I am not going to indicate particular passages, except to say that right through the four gospels and the book of Acts there are many stories involving ordinary people - mostly Jews, but some Greeks and Romans as well. Some describe an event, while others are parables using the lives of ordinary people to make a theological point. One example: the Roman soldier who was so concerned for his servant that he went to ask Jesus to heal him: that tells you a lot about the relationship between masters and servants, as well as between Jews and Romans. Wymspen (talk) 19:17, 17 February 2018 (UTC)
Zacchaeus is another good example. Alansplodge (talk) 20:38, 17 February 2018 (UTC)
Saul of Tarsus (St. Paul) was described as being a Roman Citizen at several points; that status accorded him certain rights which are key in several biblical narratives. We also have examples of Roman soldiers or centurions, for example Cornelius the Centurion or Claudius Lysias, as well as Roman officials such as Pontius Pilate or the Roman Proconsul in Cyprus, Sergius Paulus, mentioned in connection with the sorcerer Elymas (Bar-Jesus). Those are just a few examples I can remember of Romans and their households which are mentioned in the bible. --Jayron32 13:36, 19 February 2018 (UTC)
There are several narratives about Romans in the New Testament (generally brief), but the average Roman citizen in Judea during the New Testament period was not an average inhabitant of Judea, since a Roman citizen was very likely to be part of or closely connected to the Roman imperial government, or to be a merchant etc. Also, by their nature, most ancient texts do not describe in very much detail customs or objects which were taken for granted as part of ordinary everyday life then, no matter how exotic they may seem to us now. Ancient tombstones sometimes give a brief summary of the lives of ordinary people without much of a literary filter. You might also look at books such as "Handbook to Life in Ancient Greece" by Lesley Adkins and Roy A. Adkins... AnonMoos (talk) 23:51, 17 February 2018 (UTC)
IIRC, Josephus has some passages about life in Judea, focused to some extent on movements that common people would've joined. These movements were as much about theology as politics, though (but then again, the boundaries were a bit more blurry then). Ian.thomson (talk) 00:26, 18 February 2018 (UTC)
We have Ancient Roman cuisine and Food and dining in the Roman Empire. Bus stop (talk) 13:54, 19 February 2018 (UTC)
You can learn an awful lot about ordinary people through archaeology [4], [5], [6]. (talk) 14:48, 19 February 2018 (UTC)

It depends what you mean by "ordinary people". There are terrific written records that reveal much about the lives of ordinary people (some of the letters of Pliny the younger (check out what he has to say about Regulus) in particular come to mind, some of the works of Cicero, even the wicked pen of Catullus and there's a ton of other stuff you can find in places like Augustan literature (ancient Rome). But mostly the written sources will tell you about the lives of nobles and wealthy people. Cicero himself struggled for being only from a 'lesser' family, albeit still fabulously wealthy and powerful compared to most.

But those people are not really very ordinary. If you want to know about the lives of the masses, the poor and slaves, you'll struggle from written sources. Even the accounts of the military, made up of ordinary freemen, that I've read (eg Tacitus, Julius Caesar) don't really tell you too much about their lives, focusing mainly on tactics and propaganda. You might actually learn more about the lives of their enemies, told disparagingly, than the citizens fighting them.

So it is here that 86's comment really comes into its own. Archaeology tells us quite a bit... and Mary Beard's TV documentaries are pretty good on this if you want an easy accessible way in. --Dweller (talk) Become old fashioned! 11:23, 21 February 2018 (UTC)

Btw, I presume you're aware of Pliny the Younger on Christians? Absolutely fascinating. As usual with any kind of historical document, bear in mind the biases... Love him as I do, I'm still of the opinion that Pliny is a grade A arse-licker, social climber and snob, sp do read between the lines whenever you read him. --Dweller (talk) Become old fashioned! 11:28, 21 February 2018 (UTC)

"Cicero himself struggled for being only from a 'lesser' family, albeit still fabulously wealthy and powerful compared to most."

This is something of a misconception. Marcus Tullius Cicero was born into a family of Equites status, and his father was a relatively wealthy resident of Arpinum (a provincial city, whose residents received Roman citizenship in 188 BC). Cicero's main obstacles was that he was not himself from Rome and that he lacked prominent ancestors and familial connections to the Roman aristocracy. He was a novus homo (the first in his family to serve in the Roman Senate, and the first to serve as a consul).

Cicero in part solved his problem by acquiring a reputation as the best lawyer and orator available (he managed to outperform Quintus Hortensius, the previous best lawyer around) and by securing for himself an advantageous marriage. He married Terentia, daughter of an old and powerful family. The marriage came with a dowry of 400,000 sesterces, which allowed him to finance political campaigns. Terentia was apparently a member of the politically prominent gens Terentia, and probably a member of the Terentii Varrones (the wealthiest and most prominent family in the entire gens).

Cicero found himself connected to several prominent politicians, and his services as an orator were in much demand. Politically he was primarily connected to the Optimates faction. They were snobby aristocrats who were opposed to "the ascension of novi homines into Roman politics", but needed Cicero's political services. Unfortunately for Cicero, the Optimates were powerful in the Senate but often lacked sufficient support in the military and the wider populace. He ended in the losing side of several conflicts, and was eventually executed.

We know a lot about Cicero, more than almost any Roman of his era, thanks to his slave (and later freedman) Marcus Tullius Tiro. In an attempt to take dictation for his master, Tiro reportedly invented the Tironian notes (an early form of shorthand, that was in use for 18 centuries.) Tiro both collected vast records of his master's speeches, but he published his former master's collected works. Tiro pretty much ensured that Cicero will never be forgotten. Dimadick (talk) 16:25, 22 February 2018 (UTC)

One of these Roman orators was executed by having his tongue nailed to the lectern in the Senate from which he gave his speeches. Which one was it? (talk) 17:19, 22 February 2018 (UTC)

February 18


Why were the Yemen Arab Republic and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen known as "North" and "South" Yemen, rather than "West" and "East" respectively? I see from the North Yemen article that people used "North" with it because the other state was legally the "People's Republic of Southern Yemen". However, I'm not clear why it was Southern, rather than Eastern. Was Aden (indeed at the southern tip of Yemen) really that significant, that the whole rest of the country could be forgotten about? Nyttend (talk) 01:41, 18 February 2018 (UTC)

Under British rule, the "south" was known as the Aden Protectorate, but I'm not sure to what degree Yemenis themselves saw things that way. Much of the area of South Yemen which is geographically north of Sana'a (the capital of North Yemen) is actually barren desert... AnonMoos (talk) 02:32, 18 February 2018 (UTC)
It may help to think of the modern country of Yemen as being composed of three parts... North Yemen (the area around San'a), South Yemen (the area around Aden), and Hadhramaut (the eastern half of the modern country). During the colonial era, North Yemen (San'a) went back and forth between being either independent or under Ottoman Rule. Meanwhile, South Yemen (Aden) was taken over by the British... who (slightly later) also took over Hadhramaut. Aden and Hadhramut were administered as (mostly separate) protectorates under British rule. With decolonization, Hadhramaut and South Yemen (Aden) were joined together, and eventually formed the PDRY. In short... the nomenclature split of dividing Yemen into "north" and "south" goes back to the days before Hadhramut was considered part of Yemen. Blueboar (talk) 11:58, 18 February 2018 (UTC)
Before the British protectorates were established, it is unclear how much of the present territory would have been thought of as Yemeni. While there was a distinct region of Yemen, centred on Sana'a and ruled by Shia imams, there were also many Sunni areas with their own rulers, often having stronger ties to Muscat and the Gulf sultanates than to the imams of Yemen. Britain, during the decolonisation process, sought to bring the various areas together as the Federation of South Arabia. After independence, neither of the two states used the north/south concept: they were known as the Yemen Arab Republic - until 1962 the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen - and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. Wymspen (talk) 12:11, 18 February 2018 (UTC)
Blueboar and Wymspen, thank you. I didn't realise that the Hadhramaut hadn't always (or hadn't for centuries) always been thought of as part of Yemen. I'm familiar with the stamps of Qu'aiti, but as they're typically inscribed Aden [line break] Qu'aiti State in Hadhramaut (example), I figured that it was an example of the once common practice of issuing separate stamps for different regions of a colony (cf. Postage stamps and postal history of Mozambique, which had several different postal jurisdictions until c. 1920), and didn't realise that the area was conceived of as fundamentally distinct from Yemen. Nyttend (talk) 12:04, 19 February 2018 (UTC)
I'm not sure that the word "South" (جنوبي) was never used, having worked on File:Coat of arms of South Yemen (1967-1970).svg... -- AnonMoos (talk) 13:23, 18 February 2018 (UTC)
South Yemen is the common English name for the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (Arabic: جمهورية اليمن الديمقراطية الشعبية‎ Jumhūrīyat al-Yaman ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah ash-Sha‘bīyah). Presumably western interest in the country was focused on Aden, which actually is in the south of the country. Alansplodge (talk) 15:04, 18 February 2018 (UTC)
If the word "south" wasn't used for a few years in the late 1960s, then the previously-linked image has big problems... AnonMoos (talk) 22:41, 18 February 2018 (UTC)
  • This map from 1909 is instructive here. What we later called "South Yemen" was labeled as "Aden" on this map, and what we later called "North Yemen" is simply labeled "Yemen" on this map; you'll also note the inland borders in the area are rather sloppy and indeterminate; which is probably indicative of what was actually happening on the ground. You'll also note that there's a much clearer north/south distinction here. As borders changed or became clarified, the north/south relationship became obscured, but the continuities of the states involved led to the odd naming, whereby "North Yemen" was actually west and slightly south of the bulk of "South Yemen". --Jayron32 12:09, 19 February 2018 (UTC)
It is occasionally remarked that North Parade in north Oxford is actually south of South Parade. More examples are at Wikipedia:Reference desk/Archives/Miscellaneous/2016 April 4#non-opposed directional dichotomy. (talk) 13:54, 19 February 2018 (UTC)

Translation: German to English

Hi, Can somebody translate this please:

Ein dazu von dem Hessischen Generalstaatsanwalt Fritz Bauer in Frankfurt begonnenes Ermittlungsverfahren gegen Globke[29] wurde im Mai 1961 nach Intervention des Kanzlers Konrad Adenauer an die Staatsanwaltschaft Bonn abgegeben und dort mangels hinreichenden Tatverdachts eingestellt

Thanks. It is proving difficult at the automated store, perhaps due to use of male and female verbs. scope_creep (talk) 14:11, 18 February 2018 (UTC)

"Criminal proceedings initiated against Globke in this matter by the chief public prosecutor of the state of Hesse, Fritz Bauer, were transferred to the public prosecutor's office in Bonn in May 1961 after an intervention by chancellor Konrad Adenauer, where they were closed for lack of evidence." Fut.Perf. 14:22, 18 February 2018 (UTC)

Thanks.Fut.Perf., scope_creep (talk) 14:27, 18 February 2018 (UTC)

Scope creep, the word order may have been challenging for the computer program. German verbs do not show any differences of gender. Moonraker (talk) 18:40, 18 February 2018 (UTC)

I think that should be "Fritz Bauer in Frankfurt". 2A02:C7D:503F:6300:12B:9432:CA92:6CCA (talk) 00:16, 19 February 2018 (UTC)
Better "initiated in Frankfurt". PiusImpavidus (talk) 09:13, 19 February 2018 (UTC)

Military district (Germany)

Hello. I've been dealing with this article for quite a while now, and, unfortunately, I was unable to find any relevant sources for the information provided here. Chiefly, I was wondering whether the supposed German terminology used here (especially the terms Wehrersatzbezirk Hauptquartier, Bereich Hauptsitze and Unterregion Hauptsitze) is really correct. To stick to these examples: one would usually make use of a hyphen here (in German). Could anybody look into this issue?--Boczi (talk) 17:25, 18 February 2018 (UTC)

A Google search for each of those terms only brings up English language websites and no books or anything in German, which seems suspicious. Alansplodge (talk) 23:36, 18 February 2018 (UTC)
@Alansplodge: Thank you for commenting! What would you recommend doing in this case? Shall I take it to WP:Cleanup or similar?--Boczi (talk) 20:55, 20 February 2018 (UTC)
Boczi, try a note at Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Military history - if they don't know, nobody does. I should have thought of that earlier. Alansplodge (talk) 08:37, 22 February 2018 (UTC)

German to English translate

Can somebody please translate this:

Als ein Gericht dann zwei unwesentliche Fehler entdeckte (einen hatte der Verlag durch Kürzung verursacht) und eine Einstweilige Verfügung verhängte, gab Bertelsmann klein bei. Der Konzern unterschrieb, auf eine Neuauflage des Buches zu verzichten. Bonn soll gedroht haben, andernfalls werde keine amtliche Stelle mehr ein Buch dieses Verlages erwerben.

Thanks. scope_creep (talk) 18:25, 18 February 2018 (UTC)

"When a court then discovered two minor mistakes (the publisher had caused one of them by abbreviation) and imposed a restraining order, Bertelsmann caved in. The company undertook to renounce a new edition of the book. Bonn is thought to have made threats, or else no official agency would have acquired a book from this publisher again." Moonraker (talk) 18:53, 18 February 2018 (UTC)

Thanks Moonraker. scope_creep (talk) 18:56, 18 February 2018 (UTC)

February 19

Foot fetishism semiotics articles journals

Is there a website or any good websites that feature articles about foot fetishism as semiotics and allows you to download the articles for free without registration? Donmust90 (talk) 01:33, 19 February 2018 (UTC)Donmust90Donmust90 (talk) 01:33, 19 February 2018 (UTC)

By the way, in the early 20th century, there was a minor tradition of a man drinking champagne from a woman's shoe in public as an extravagant compliment and outrageous flirting maneuver (we even have a Wikipedia article Drinking from shoes). I kind of wonder what semiotic scholars would make of that... SFriendly.gif Most other foot fetishism seems to be quite furtive and secretive... AnonMoos (talk) 08:19, 19 February 2018 (UTC)
If only. μηδείς (talk) 16:05, 19 February 2018 (UTC)
One of Tom Lehrer's songs, "The Wienerschnitzel Waltz", included this line referring to the size of his girlfriend: "I drank some Champagne from your shoe / I was drunk by the time I got through / For I didn't know as I raised that cup / It had taken two bottles to fill the thing up." ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 16:22, 19 February 2018 (UTC)
Thanks for that, Baseball_Bugs -- I very vaguely remembered it, but didn't feel like trying to search for it... AnonMoos (talk) 18:28, 19 February 2018 (UTC)

Articles on aversive racism, modern racism, symbolic racism and ambivalent racism

Are there any journal articles on aversive racism, modern racism, symbolic racism and ambivalent racism? Donmust90 (talk) 01:41, 19 February 2018 (UTC)Donmust90Donmust90 (talk) 01:41, 19 February 2018 (UTC)

Or better yet, an article on racists with foot fetishes. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 02:34, 19 February 2018 (UTC)
See Witzelsucht for an explanation of that comment. --jpgordon𝄢𝄆 𝄐𝄇 17:53, 19 February 2018 (UTC)
The German word for genius. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 19:23, 19 February 2018 (UTC)
Just look at the articles for aversive racism, symbolic racism (modern racism redirects here), or ambivalent prejudice. Then scroll to the bottom and you'll see a list of articles.--Hofhof (talk) 19:01, 20 February 2018 (UTC)


I read somewhere that most humans have more female ancestors than male ancestors (can't remmeber where). This is because some men were left out of the whole mating/courtship/marriage ritual. Thereby some men would inseminate multiple women. Is there a credible source somewhere confirming this? (talk) 14:35, 19 February 2018 (UTC)

Here is an overview that itself links to the original research. --Jayron32 14:51, 19 February 2018 (UTC)

February 21

Why are the North African nations even in the African Union?

Culturally and historically, it looks like they adhere more to the Pan-Arabism thing than to the Pan-Africanism thing. If they identify with Sub-Saharan nations more than their fellow Arabs nations in Western Asia do, that's probably only slightly so. So why are they there? --Qnowledge (talk) 00:30, 21 February 2018 (UTC)

Just a couple of thinking points:
  • The late Muammar Gaddafi was a strong defender of uniting Africa, but not orienting his country toward other Arab countries.
  • Morocco was not a member until last year.
  • They have common problems with the Sub-Saharan countries like terrorism, immigration, instable governments. It's reasonable to deal with them together.
  • Many of them, Arab and non-Arab nations, are ex-colonies. --Hofhof (talk) 01:29, 21 February 2018 (UTC)
Qnowledge -- Some Africans were probably wondering the same thing in the 1970s, when the Organisation of African Unity (as it was then called) seemed to be a lot more consumed by Arab-motivated politics than delivering any concrete practical benefits to its member nations (the absolute low point was of course the 1976 Entebbe raid). However, it would be extremely difficult to draw any geographical line cleanly separating Arabs from "Africans" (impossible if Berbers are included among "Africans" and/or if the line must follow national boundaries only), and the (O)AU seems to have preferred not to try... AnonMoos (talk) 01:46, 21 February 2018 (UTC)

"Morocco was not a member until last year." That was due to a territorial dispute, over the Political status of Western Sahara. Morocco has formally annexed Western Sahara (though it does not actually control the entire area), but the African Union and most of its member states have refused to recognize or support its claim. Instead the Union accepted Morocco's opponent, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, as a full member in 1982. In 1984, Morocco withdrew from the Union in protest. For a few decades (1994-2017) it was the only African state that was not a Union member. The political isolation seemingly cost more to Morocco than it cost the Union. Dimadick (talk) 16:45, 22 February 2018 (UTC)

The OAU seems to nominate African candidates for Secretary General of the UN, when it's that continent's "turn" to have a SG, and Boutros Boutros-Ghali of Egypt was among the OAU's nominees in 1991. See here. So they may consider it worth it to be in the running for that and for Security Council seats.--Wehwalt (talk) 17:15, 22 February 2018 (UTC)

Etiquette: why shouldn't you tip the owner?

It seems to be a rule that you should tip employees in, but not the owner of, a bar. Why? And does it still work like that? Wild guess: maybe the owner used to be a "peer" to the guest, who should be imbursed for his costs but not for being friendly? Joepnl (talk) 00:49, 21 February 2018 (UTC)

If the tip is for services rendered, then it makes sense that the tip is made to the server (who is the one who deals directly with the customer, in any case). Also, in the United States in some cases, tipped employees can be paid less than minimum wage, so that expected tips are pretty much part of their base wage. For the boss to appropriate tips can be against the law, in such a situation. AnonMoos (talk) 01:24, 21 February 2018 (UTC)
If the worker is not getting decent wages, it's the owner's fault. If the owner is not getting decent wages, it's the owner's fault. Ian.thomson (talk) 01:28, 21 February 2018 (UTC)
Well put. Tipping the owner would be absurd. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 01:55, 21 February 2018 (UTC)
  • One tips the owner by asking him to the table for a drink, although this is usually in reverse; an owner who knows his good customers personally will often send them drinks or a bottle compliments of the house. μηδείς (talk) 03:31, 21 February 2018 (UTC)
If there's a tip jar, put something in it even if the owner serves you; the contents are shared among the staff. --jpgordon𝄢𝄆 𝄐𝄇 04:57, 21 February 2018 (UTC)
  • Tipping bar employees is only a 'rule' in some countries to start with. In many countries staff is actually already paid a living wage. (talk) 08:16, 21 February 2018 (UTC)
  • If you're worrying at that level, you're overthinking it. In the U.S., you get the tab, add 15-20%, and pay that. If the owner is also the bartender or waiter who served your drinks (possible), it doesn't matter much from you're point of view as a customer; you don't really involve yourself with dispersement of funds, you just add the 15-20% and say "thank you". I go to a barber shop where there are 4 barbers; the one who owns the shop and three others who rent chairs from him. I usually get my hair cut by the owner. I still tip him, because it's customary to tip your barber. I know he's the owner because I've known him for almost 20 years; but most customers wouldn't know and it doesn't really matter. You just do it. --Jayron32 12:00, 21 February 2018 (UTC)
In Japan for example "no tipping" is even general consensus in any situation. There is a good chance its refused by waiters, waitresses or barman etc. when you try to tip them as foreigner. --Kharon (talk) 12:03, 21 February 2018 (UTC)
  • Apart from what Medeis stated above, you "tip" the owner by your continued patronage to the establishment in the future. If you had a bad experience at a restaurant, you would likely not return there.--WaltCip (talk) 12:45, 21 February 2018 (UTC)
    I guess, but the point is the level of thinking is just not there when you pay a tab. You don't carefully ask "So, who is getting this money" and then distribute funds to those people directly as you see fit. You get a tab, you look at the number, you add the tip in your head, and you leave that much money. I've never been to a restaurant or bar situation where it was ever more complicated than that. --Jayron32 13:34, 21 February 2018 (UTC)

Marcus H. MacWillie

Marcus H. MacWillie represented the Arizona Territory in the Confederate Congress. I had no idea that the territory sent a representative to Richmond, and I'm not sure where to look; Confederate Congress#Apportionment and representation only mentions state representatives.

Question — was MacWillie a full voting member, similar to a representative from a state? Or was his position more similar to a Delegate (United States Congress), comparable to the positions of individuals in Category:Delegates to the United States House of Representatives from Arizona Territory? Nyttend (talk) 13:00, 21 February 2018 (UTC)

1st Confederate States Congress and 2nd Confederate States Congress both list him as a non-voting delegate. The articles are referenced to a book; if you can find a copy you might be able to get more information. --Jayron32 13:31, 21 February 2018 (UTC)

Chinese education system in Singapore and Malaysia

I always get these two countries confused. So, Singapore gets the name from a Malay word. There are ethnic Han people in both Singapore and Malaysia. People in Singapore speak English, Singlish, Mandarin, Tamil, and Malay. People in Malaysia speak Malay, Tamil, varieties of Chinese, English, and Manglish. Singapore has the Speak Mandarin campaign, but to my knowledge, Malaysia does not. In Singapore, the Speak Mandarin campaign has greatly decreased the number of regional Chinese speakers, and now people largely speak English. Most people there are also Han, so Mandarin is common there as well. But the education system is just like a foreign language department. In Malaysia, people send their kids to “Chinese-medium primary schools”, or maybe that’s in Singapore? But these schools teach every subject in Mandarin. In Malaysia (or Singapore?), people who are of Han descent but only speak English or Malay are derided as the “bananas”. Though, some people of Han descent in Malaysia seem to only speak Malay, while some people of Han descent in Singapore seem to speak only English. But anyway, has anybody written anything about the differences between the Singaporean and Malaysian Chinese language education system? (talk) 15:02, 21 February 2018 (UTC)

The name "Singapore" comes from the Sanskrit for "lion city" (Sanskrit makes a number of modern appearances in the region, such as in "Sukarnoputri", where "putri" is Sanskrit for "daughter"). I don't know the fine details of the various educational systems, but the basic difference between the two countries is that ethnic groups are considered equal in Singapore, and the government there encourages the use of English as an inter-ethnic lingua franca, while Malaysia has an official blood-and-soil racist ideology and constitution according to which only ethnic Malays can be full citizens or "sons of the the soil" (bhumiputra, another Sanskrit word), while all members of other ethnic groups are officially foreigners in a sense, no matter how long their ancestors have lived in the territory of current-day Malaysia... AnonMoos (talk) 18:57, 21 February 2018 (UTC)
Not entirely correct. Although bumiputera is often taken as a synonym for Malay, bumiputera in Sabah and Sarawak has included anyone considered native since the founding of Malaysia. In peninsular Malaysia, the definition has often excluded orang asli, it sounds like things may be changing now although this has not yet included a constitutional change. The definition of Malay requires that they are Muslim, regardless of any other factors. It also theoretically allows someone to become Malay, although how this happens is poorly defined. It is not generally possible to become one of the other Bumiputera, and there is great controversy about government encouraged Malayisation of non-Malay bumiputera. Nil Einne (talk) 23:09, 21 February 2018 (UTC)
Hi. You might be interested in Education in Singapore and Education in Malaysia; we’ve also got Language education in Singapore though not yet Language education in Malaysia. For your specific question in bold, you’d probably like to look through google scholar: for academic studies of the two systems (examples 1 2 3) or google books (example:]). (talk) 21:06, 21 February 2018 (UTC)
You're right that in Malaysia, parents are able to send their children to government funded Chinese-medium primary schools (simplified Chinese and Mandarin), assuming they are any in their area. There are also Tamil-medium primary schools although there are a lot less common. There tends to be great controversy about whether the government is funding them sufficiently and opening enough of these schools, and also about excessive government interference or suggestions the government plans to close them. However they are fairly popular, and especially with the rising importance of China, it isn't unheard of for students not of Chinese descent to attend them. For a somewhat extreme example see e.g. [7]. In Malay-medium primary schools, Chinese or Tamil language classes may be offered if there is enough demand although the standards vary. E.g. in my school it was semi-compulsory (if you were of that ethnicity) additional classes on a Saturday. But I believe in some schools it is taught during the normal school day. You do not sit the subject in the Primary School Evaluation Test (Malaysia) (UPSR). After primary school there are only private Chinese-medium secondary schools. Again, if there is enough demand, Chinese language classes should be offered and you could choose to take a an exam for Chinese language at the Penilaian Menengah Rendah and you can still choose to sit one for the Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia. That said, in my school although I think over 50% of the students came from Chinese-medium schools, very few continued with Chinese to PMR, and even fewer to the SPM. English is a compulsory subject in all government involved schools in Malaysia, which includes all exams. However the standard of teaching varies and there is often no requirement for any level of performance, unlike there is with Malay. (Although there is now for public universities.) In KL at least, I think it's very rare for someone of Chinese descent to only speak Malay. Most will at least speak English in addition, often in preference to Malay, or perhaps Manglish, and well enough that they can generally be understood by most Malaysians who speak English. At least 20 years ago, it was still very common for people of Chinese descent to converse mostly in the dominant dialect of the area. Or their own dialect if it was among family and friends who speak that dialect. While there was some very minor 'speak Mandarin' push from some teachers, and more generally a 'speak Malay' from the government, at least in my school it was very common for a lot of conversation between friends to be in Cantonese. I think things are changing slightly with the rising importance of Chinese, still Malaysia never had the push to 'speak Mandarin' that Singapore (or China) had that has pushed out dialects to a reasonable degree. Nil Einne (talk) 22:57, 21 February 2018 (UTC)

Italian antarctic claims

Were there any Italian antarctic claims? Both official and not official (like from some important historical figure). Thanks! -- (talk) 17:51, 21 February 2018 (UTC)

According to Territorial claims in Antarctica, no. --Jayron32 18:30, 21 February 2018 (UTC) -- Any such claims would have seemed rather abstract and theoretical (not to mention slightly silly) if there was no corresponding Italian antarctic exploratory expedition. Italy already had its hands full with various ventures in Africa north of the equator... AnonMoos (talk) 18:37, 21 February 2018 (UTC)

Only 7 current states have territorial claims in Antarctica: Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom. The article mentions former interest in the area by Brazil, Nazi Germany, Russia, the Soviet Union, the United States, and Uruguay (most of them never launched a formal claim, but considered it at various points), but not Italy.

In 1981, Italy became a signatory state of the Antarctic Treaty System, but it is limited to having consultative status and participating in decision-making. See: Dimadick (talk) 17:23, 22 February 2018 (UTC)

February 22

Psychology experiment similar to Stanford prison experiment

I'm trying to remember/find clues about a psychology experiment that was not the Stanford prison experiment. In it, people were divided into two groups, which spontaneously developed a conflict. The difference here was that they were not assigned different roles (like prisoners and guards). They were just two groups.--Hofhof (talk) 02:10, 22 February 2018 (UTC)

There's Jane Elliott (and some variants on what she did), though not a formal scientific experiment... AnonMoos (talk) 05:37, 22 February 2018 (UTC)
Muzafer Sherif did some experiments that sound a bit like what you are looking for, maybe that will lead you somewhere? --Jayron32 11:57, 22 February 2018 (UTC)
For interest, last week's New Scientist magazine (18 February 2018) ran a feature article (see here) on Sherif's experiments, but as the article says, there seems to have been asome manipulation by the experimenters to achieve the results they, perhaps, desired.
Someone with a better overall grasp of the discipline might want to edit our article on Sherif in nthe light of this. {The poster formerly known as} (talk) 14:45, 22 February 2018 (UTC)
Sherif's Robbers Cave Experiment is described in our article on realistic conflict theory. Gandalf61 (talk) 15:03, 22 February 2018 (UTC)

U.S. Gun Control Laws & Psychological Evaluation.

(Eastern European here, so please do not assume I possess any in-depth knowledge on the subject).

Am I right in assuming that the latter provides a sort of legal loophole, or is it something in the `fine print` of the first two (or perhaps other U.S. gun control laws which I did not mention), that either directly or indirectly prevent it from becoming such ? (talk) 03:42, 22 February 2018 (UTC)

The various stuff you've linked to contains the answer. Psychological evolution is a slippery slope, and is very complicated. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 04:06, 22 February 2018 (UTC)
And dangerous - lots of people slide right down to the bottom and stay there. Textorus (talk) 07:51, 22 February 2018 (UTC)
Psychological "evolution" or "evaluation"? CodeTalker (talk) 18:31, 22 February 2018 (UTC)
  • The issue is that gun sales and purchasing laws generally have exemptions big enough to drive a tank through; things like private sales from person to person, "gun shows", gifts, etc. are not covered, tracked, or documented in any meaningful way. Buying a gun from a licensed gun shop owner requires all of these legal loopholes, but (for example) a father gifting his son with a gun he had already legally purchased isn't. See here for example of the inconsistencies here. --Jayron32 18:44, 22 February 2018 (UTC)

Repurposed churches in the colonial Caribbean

Many Caribbean islands changed hands several times between the Spanish, French, English, Dutch, and others, with consequent changes of predominant religion. I thought I had read elsewhere that the Anglican Cathedral of St, Jago de la Vega in Spanish Town, Jamaica, was a repurposed Catholic church - but it seems it was merely built on the ruins of a former Catholic edifice. But I wonder - does anyone know of Catholic churches that were actually converted into Protestant churches in the colonial era? Or vice-versa? Seems like it would have saved a lot of expense for hard-pressed colonial administrations. (NB - Yes, I know this happened plenty of times in Europe during the Protestant Reformation, but that's another subject.) Textorus (talk) 08:17, 22 February 2018 (UTC)

In the case of the British West Indies, it seems that the Protestant British allowed the existing Catholic structures to continue; “French and Spanish priests were permitted to worship God according to the dictates of their conscience" (Jamaica, 1807). The glebe land which supported the Catholic clergy was confiscated, but they were paid an allowance instead "“for the pastoral care of the papists” (Grenada, 1784). See St George's Cathedral, St Vincent & The Grenadines - History of the Church. It seems that the early churches in the West Indies were not very substantial affairs, the oldest church building in Trinidad is Our Lady of Montserrat Roman Catholic Church which was completed in 1878. [9] Alansplodge (talk) 09:09, 22 February 2018 (UTC)

A.L.R. in legal citation

Conversion (law) makes numerous citations to A.L.R., e.g. "51 A.L.R 1462." What could it be? It looks like a law code, but if I run a Google search (prefixed, "51 A.L.R.", to exclude anything and everything containing these letters) and exclude OCR errors for "51 Air", the first several results are coming from Georgia, West Virginia, North Carolina, and New Mexico. Or consider this judgement from the Supreme Court of North Dakota, which cited 51 A.L.R. 1462 on conversion, so apparently it's really stable if the same item deals with the same topic more than eighty years later. And the relevant state legal codes are the Code of Alabama, the Alaska Statutes, the Arizona Revised Statutes, and the Arkansas Code: nothing that could be abbreviated this way. Does the American Law Reports get cited in this manner? Our ALR disambiguation page doesn't mention anything else legal, aside from the Australian Law Reports that I assume to be irrelevant. Nyttend backup (talk) 13:33, 22 February 2018 (UTC)

It's stable because of the way the system works. American Law Reports is a continuously updated system of annotated law reports, referenced to the originally published volume. There are six series plus a Federal series and 2nd Federal series. In the citation the volume number within the series comes first, then "ALR" then "2d", "3d", "5th" etc. (to indicate the series), page number and year. (talk) 15:57, 22 February 2018 (UTC)

Translation please from German to English

Hi can you please translate the following:

Eine unklare Erwähnung von Globke, die Life auf unsere Forderung hin wegläßt

Thanks. scope_creep (talk) 20:47, 22 February 2018 (UTC)

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