Wikipedia:Main Page queue

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Today

Featured article
October 23
Harukichi Hyakutake
Harukichi Hyakutake

The Battle for Henderson Field (23–26 October 1942) on Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands was the third of three land offensives conducted by the Japanese during the Guadalcanal campaign of World War II. U.S. Army and Marine forces under Major General Alexander Vandegrift defended Henderson Field against attacks by the Japanese 17th Army under Lieutenant General Harukichi Hyakutake (pictured). Hyakutake's mission was to recapture the airfield from the Allies and drive them off the island. Numerous assaults over three days were repulsed with heavy Japanese losses, and Allied aircraft operating from the airfield successfully defended U.S. positions from attacks by Japanese naval air and sea forces. After a failed attempt to deliver reinforcements in November, Japan conceded the island and successfully evacuated many of its remaining forces in February. (Full article...)

Part of the Guadalcanal Campaign series, one of Wikipedia's featured topics.

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Bézier curve

A Bézier curve is a parametric curve used in computer graphics and related fields. The curve, which is related to the Bernstein polynomial, is named after Pierre Bézier, who used it in the 1960s for designing curves for the bodywork of Renault cars. Other uses include the design of computer fonts and animation. Bézier curves can be combined to form a Bézier spline, or generalized to higher dimensions to form Bézier surfaces.

Image: Phil Tregoning
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On this day

October 23: Mole Day

Paulina Kellogg Wright Davis
Paulina Kellogg Wright Davis

Sweyn III of Denmark (d. 1157) · Ludwig Leichhardt (b. 1813) · Soong Mei-ling (d. 2003)

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Tomorrow

Featured article
October 24
Francis Bacon

Fragment of a Crucifixion is a 1950 painting by the Irish-born figurative painter Francis Bacon (portrait shown). Although its title has religious connotations, it reflects Bacon's nihilistic view of the human condition; as an atheist he did not believe in either divine intervention or an afterlife. It shows two animals engaged in an existential struggle, with an upper figure, which may be a dog or a cat, crouching over a chimera and at the point of kill. The predator stoops on the horizontal beam of a T-shaped structure, which may signify Christ's cross. The chimera's despair forms the centrepiece of the work, and in its agony it can be compared to Bacon's later works focusing on the motif of an open mouth. The work contains thinly sketched passers-by, who seem oblivious to the central drama. He abandoned the theme of the crucifixion for the following 12 years, returning to it in the equally bleak triptych Three Studies for a Crucifixion. (Full article...)

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"The Raven"

An illustration by Édouard Manet for a French publication of Edgar Allan Poe's narrative poem "The Raven". In the poem, the raven flies into the narrator's home through the window (pictured). It then perches on a bust of Pallas Athena (seen here). The narrator asks the bird a series of questions, to which the bird only replies, "Nevermore". Eventually, the narrator falls into despair and ends with his final admission that his soul is trapped beneath the raven's shadow and shall be lifted "Nevermore". Originally published in 1845, the poem was widely popular and made Poe famous, though it did not bring him much financial success. "The Raven" has influenced many modern works and is referenced throughout popular culture in films, television, music and more.

Illustration: Édouard Manet. Restoration: Lise Broer
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On this day

October 24

Japanese battleship Musashi
Japanese battleship Musashi

Tycho Brahe (d. 1601) · Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham (b. 1675) · Letitia Woods Brown (b. 1915)

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In two days

Featured article
October 25
Sister ship

The Yugoslav torpedo boat T5 was a sea-going torpedo boat operated by the Royal Yugoslav Navy between 1921 and 1941. Originally 87 F, a 250t-class torpedo boat of the Austro-Hungarian Navy commissioned on 25 October 1915 during World War I, she was armed with two 66 mm (2.6 in) guns and four 450 mm (17.7 in) torpedo tubes. Following Austria-Hungary's defeat in 1918, 87 F was allocated to what became the Royal Yugoslav Navy, and was renamed T5. The ship was captured by the Italians during the German-led Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941. After her main armament was modernised, she served with the Royal Italian Navy under the Yugoslav designation, conducting coastal and second-line escort duties in the Adriatic Sea. Following the Italian capitulation in September 1943, the ship was returned to the Royal Yugoslav Navy-in-exile and served as T5. At the end of the war she was transferred to the new Yugoslav Navy and served as Cer, and in 1962 was broken up. (Full article...)

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A591 road

The A591 is a major road in the English county of Cumbria, which lies almost entirely within the Lake District national park. The road starts at a roundabout with the A590 close to Sizergh Castle and runs generally north west, bypassing the towns of Kendal and Keswick, ending on the A595 near Bothel. A 2009 poll by satellite navigation firm Garmin named the stretch of the road between Windermere and Keswick as the most popular road in Britain. The A591 was badly damaged during Storm Desmond in 2015, with part of the road washed away at Dunmail Raise, and had to be closed for five months. While it was closed a new trail for walkers, cyclists, and horseriders was built to the west of the road.

Photograph: Diliff.
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On this day

October 25

George III
George III

Magnus the Good (d. 1047) · Thomas Babington Macaulay (b. 1800) · Bernard Hogan-Howe (b. 1957)

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In three days

Featured article
October 26
Volcano is to the right.

Taapaca is a volcanic complex in northern Chile's Arica y Parinacota Region. It is part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, one of four distinct volcanic chains in South America. The town of Putre lies at the southwestern foot of the volcano. Like other volcanoes of the Central Volcanic Zone, Taapaca formed from the subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath the South America Plate. It lies on the western margin of the Altiplano high plateau, on top of older volcanic and sedimentary units. Taapaca reaches a height of 5,860 metres (19,230 ft) above sea level. It is usually covered by snow but does not feature glaciers. It consists primarily of many overlapping lava domes that formed during several stages of eruptions, starting during the Pliocene. The emplacement of lava domes was often followed by their collapse and block-and-ash avalanches. The most recent eruption is dated to 320 BCE. (Full article...)

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The Hunting of the Snark

The Hunting of the Snark, published in 1876, is a poem by Lewis Carroll, telling the story of ten individuals who cross the ocean to hunt the Snark. In common with other Carroll works, the meaning of the poem has been queried and analysed in depth. It is divided into eight "fits" (a pun on the archaic fitt meaning a part of a song, and fit meaning a convulsion).

This picture is Plate 9 of Henry Holiday's illustrations for the first edition of the poem. It illustrates the seventh fit, The Banker's Fate. The Banker, Mr Bones, is sitting in a chair and holding bone castanets.

Illustration: Henry Holiday. Restoration: Adam Cuerden
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Featured list
October 26
Taunton Castle
Taunton Castle

There are 33 scheduled monuments in Taunton Deane, a local government district with borough status in Somerset, England. A scheduled monument is a nationally important archaeological site or monument which is given legal protection by being placed on a list (or "schedule") by the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport; English Heritage takes the leading role in identifying such sites. Many of the scheduled monuments are Neolithic through to the Bronze and Iron Ages such as bowl barrows, cairns along with hill forts such as Norton Camp. Castle Neroche was an Iron Age hill fort which was reused as a Norman motte-and-bailey castle. Burrow Mump shows evidence of Roman use but is better known as a Norman motte-and-bailey castle, and later church. The Medieval period is represented by several churchyard crosses. The defensive walls and part of Taunton Castle (pictured), which has Anglo-Saxon origins and was expanded during the Medieval and Tudor eras, is included. (Full list...)

On this day

October 26: National Day in Austria (1955)

Laurent Gbagbo
Laurent Gbagbo

Cuthbert of Canterbury (d. 760) · Elizabeth Cady Stanton (d. 1902) · Masaharu Iwata (b. 1966)

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In four days

Featured article
October 27
1893 illustration by John Gerrard Keulemans

The Mascarene parrot (Mascarinus mascarin), now extinct, was endemic to the Mascarene island of Réunion in the western Indian Ocean. It has historically been grouped taxonomically with the Psittaculini parrots or the vasa parrots, with the latest genetic study favouring the former group. It was 35 cm (14 in) in length with a large red bill and long, rounded tail feathers. Its legs were red, and it had naked red skin around the eyes and nostrils. It had a black facial mask and partially white tail feathers. Very little is known about the bird in life. The Mascarene parrot was first mentioned in 1674, and live specimens were later brought to Europe, where they lived in captivity. The species was scientifically described in 1771. Only two stuffed specimens exist today, in Paris and Vienna. The date and cause of extinction for the Mascarene parrot are unclear; it is probable that the species became extinct prior to 1800, and may have become extinct in the wild even earlier. (Full article...)

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Black-headed lapwing

The black-headed lapwing (Vanellus tectus tectus). It is a resident breeder across sub-Saharan Africa from Senegal to Ethiopia.

Photograph: Charles J. Sharp
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On this day

October 27

Ayub Khan
Ayub Khan

Gabriel Báthory (d. 1613) · Oliver Leese (b. 1894) · Zoya Phan (b. 1980)

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In five days

Featured article
October 28
Ceremonial first pitch

The 2009 World Series was the championship series of Major League Baseball's 2009 season. Opening on October 28, it was a best-of-seven playoff between the Philadelphia Phillies, champions of the National League and defending World Series champions, and the New York Yankees, champions of the American League. The Yankees defeated the Phillies, 4 games to 2, with a Game 6 victory in which Hideki Matsui hit his third home run of the series. He was named Most Valuable Player of the series, making him the first Japanese-born player to win the award. Several records were tied, extended, or broken during this World Series, including team championships (Yankees with 27), career postseason wins (Andy Pettitte with 18), career World Series saves (Mariano Rivera with 11), home runs in a World Series (Chase Utley with five), strikeouts by a hitter in a World Series (Ryan Howard with 13), and runs batted in during a single World Series game (Matsui with six). (Full article...)

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After the Bath, Woman drying herself

After the Bath, Woman Drying Herself is a pastel drawing by Edgar Degas, made at some point between 1890 and 1895. The work is part of a series of drawings, preliminary sketches and completed works in pastels and oils by Degas from this period that depict women bathing. The drawing was made on several pieces of paper mounted on cardboard. Degas may have started with a smaller composition which he extended as he worked, requiring more paper. The work had a considerable influence on Francis Bacon, most noticeably on his triptychs Three Figures in a Room (1964, Centre Pompidou, Paris) and Three Studies of the Male Back. After the Bath, Woman drying herself was exhibited by Theo Van Gogh at Galerie Boussod et Valadon in 1888, and now hangs in the National Gallery, London.

Drawing: Edgar Degas.
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On this day

October 28: Feast day of Jude the Apostle (Western Christianity)

Tutankhamun's mask
Tutankhamun's mask

Johann Karl August Musäus (d. 1787) · Rosalie Slaughter Morton (b. 1876) · Bill Gates (b. 1955)

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In six days

Featured article
October 29
A binary search tree

A binary search algorithm is a method to determine the position of a target value within a sorted array (an ordered list). Binary search compares the target value to the middle element of the array. If they are not equal, the half in which the target cannot lie is eliminated and the search continues on the remaining half, again taking the middle element to compare to the target value, and so on. If the remaining half at any stage is found to be empty, then the target is not in the array. Even though the idea is simple, implementing binary search correctly requires attention to some subtleties about its exit conditions and midpoint calculation. Binary search runs in logarithmic time in the worst case. It is faster than linear search except for small arrays, but the array must be sorted first. Although specialized data structures designed for fast searching, such as hash tables, can be searched more efficiently, binary search applies to a wider range of problems. (Full article...)

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Yacine Brahimi

Yacine Brahimi (pictured in green) is a French-born Algerian professional footballer who plays for FC Porto and the Algeria national team. Born in Paris to Algerian parents and raised in Montreuil, Brahimi was selected to attend the Clairefontaine academy in 2003. Despite being courted by several French and European clubs, following his stint at Clairefontaine, he signed a youth contract with Rennes. After turning professional, Brahimi was loaned out to second division club Clermont Foot. While at Clermont, he had a successful individual 2009–10 season. After spending the previous season there on loan, he moved to the La Liga club Granada CF in 2013, and then to Porto for €6.5 million one year later. Having played for France at youth and under-21 level, Brahimi switched his allegiance to Algeria in 2013. He went on to represent them at the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2015 African Cup of Nations. Brahimi is shown here playing for Algeria in a May 2014 friendly, attacking against Taron Voskanyan of Armenia.

Photograph: Clément Bucco-Lechat
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Featured list
October 29
Tove Lo discography
Tove Lo discography

The discography of Swedish singer and songwriter Tove Lo includes three studio albums, one extended play (EP), and twenty-two singles (including nine as a featured artist). Lo started her career as the lead singer and songwriter in math rock band Tremblebee from 2006 until 2009. In 2013, she self-released "Habits", which received positive feedback from music blogs and led her to sign a record deal with Universal Music Group. Her first EP, Truth Serum, was released the following year. A remixed version of "Habits", re-titled as "Stay High", peaked at number 13 in Sweden and reached the top ten of the charts in Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Lo's debut album, Queen of the Clouds, was released that same year, peaking at number six in Sweden and number 14 on the US Billboard 200. "Habits" was re-issued as "Habits (Stay High)" and released as the lead single from the record, peaking at number three on the Billboard Hot 100. In 2016, the singer released her second studio album, Lady Wood, which topped the albums chart in Sweden and peaked at number 11 on the US Billboard 200. The next year, Lo released her third studio album, Blue Lips, which peaked at number 15 in Sweden. (Full list...)

On this day

October 29: Republic Day in Turkey (1923)

Mount Hood, Oregon
Mount Hood, Oregon

Dirck Coornhert (d. 1590) · Narcisa de León (b. 1877) · Lipman Bers (d. 1993)

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In seven days

Featured article
October 30
Gevninge helmet fragment - 150x105.png

The Gevninge helmet fragment is the dexter eyepiece of a Danish helmet from the Viking Age or end of the Nordic Iron Age. It was found in 2000 during the excavation of a Viking farmstead at Gevninge. The fragment is moulded from bronze and gilded, and consists of a stylised eyebrow with eyelashes above an oval opening. There are three holes at the top and bottom of the fragment to affix the eyepiece to a helmet. One of two Scandinavian eyepieces discovered alone, it may have been deposited in an invocation of the one-eyed god Odin. Gevninge is three kilometres (1.9 mi) upriver from Lejre, a one-time centre of power believed to be the setting for Heorot, the fabled mead hall to which the epic hero Beowulf journeys in search of the monster Grendel; on his way, Beowulf passes through an armed outpost comparable to Gevninge. The eyepiece has been in the collection of the Lejre Museum since its discovery, and has been exhibited internationally as part of a traveling exhibition on Vikings. (Full article...)

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Bolshoi Theatre

The Bolshoi Theatre is a historic theatre in Moscow, Russia which holds ballet and opera performances. The company was founded on 28 March [O.S. 17 March] 1776, when Catherine the Great granted Prince Pyotr Urusov a licence to organise theatrical performances, balls and other forms of entertainment. Usunov set up the theatre in collaboration with English tightrope walker Michael Maddox. The theatre's present building was built between 1821 and 1824 and designed by architect Joseph Bové.

Photograph: DmitriyGuryanov
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On this day

October 30: Arba'een/Arba'een Pilgrimage (Shia Islam, 2018);Mischief Night in some areas of the United States

Raúl Alfonsín
Raúl Alfonsín

Hieronymus van Beverningh (d. 1690) · Adelaide Anne Procter (b. 1825) · Hilja Riipinen (b. 1883)

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