Wikipedia:Main Page queue

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Today

Featured article
January 18
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Witches' Sabbath (The Great He-Goat) is an oil mural by the Spanish artist Francisco Goya. Satan is depicted as a goat in moonlit silhouette who preaches to a coven of terrified witches; a young woman in black sits at far right, withdrawn from the others, perhaps in defiance. The mural is one of the fourteen Black Paintings Goya created on the plaster walls of his home, the Quinta del Sordo, around 1822. He was in his mid-70s, living alone and suffering mental and physical distress. As in some of his earlier works, in Witches' Sabbath Goya seems to explore themes of aging, death, violence and intimidation. It is generally seen by art historians as a satire on the credulity of the age and as a condemnation of superstitions, such as the witch trials of the Spanish Inquisition. Some fifty years after Goya's death, the murals were removed from the home by transferring them to canvas supports. Today the paintings are in the collection of the Museo del Prado in Madrid. (Full article...)

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Drop impact

When a liquid drop impacts the surface of a liquid reservoir it can float, bounce, coalesce with the reservoir, or splash. A floating drop remains on the surface for several seconds. Drop bouncing can occur on perturbed liquid surfaces. If the drop is able to rupture the thin film of gas which separates it from the liquid reservoir, it can coalesce. Additionally, higher Weber number drop impacts produce splashing. In the splashing regime, the impacting drop creates a crater in the fluid surface, followed by a crown around the crater. Finally, a central jet, called the "Rayleigh jet" or "Worthington jet", protrudes from the center of the crater. If the impact energy is high enough, the jet rises to the point where it pinches off, sending one or more droplets upward out of the surface.

Photograph: José Manuel Suárez
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Featured list
January 18

The Trans-Tasman Trophy is awarded to the winner of the AustraliaNew Zealand Test match series in cricket. The trophy is awarded to the team that wins a Test series, or one-off Test match, between the two nations. If the series is a draw, the holder retains the trophy. It was first competed for in the 1985–86 season, although six Test series between the nations were contested before the trophy's instigation. As of February 2016, Australia hold the trophy following their 2–0 victory in the 2015–16 series in New Zealand. Australia also lead in overall wins, winning 10 of the 17 series, while New Zealand (nicknamed the Black Caps) have won 3, the remaining 4 ending in draws. Australia's Allan Border is the most successful batsman in the history of the trophy, scoring 1,356 runs in 25 innings at an average of 61.63. New Zealand's Ross Taylor holds the record for the highest score in the trophy's history, with 290 in the second innings of the second Test of the 2015–16 series in Australia. (Full list...)

On this day

January 18

Marion Barry
Marion Barry

Isabella Jagiellon (b. 1519) · Aleksandra Ekster (b. 1882) · Goose Tatum (d. 1967)

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Tomorrow

Featured article
January 19
Distribution of the species
Distribution of Thomasomys ucucha

Thomasomys ucucha is a rodent in the family Cricetidae. Found only in the Cordillera Oriental mountain range of Ecuador (map shown), it is known from forests and grasslands from 3,380 to 3,720 meters (11,090 to 12,200 ft) above sea level. It may share its habitat with seven other species of Thomasomys. First collected in 1903 and formally described as a new species in 2003, T. ucucha most closely resembles the woodland Oldfield mouse, which occurs further to the north. Medium-sized, dark-furred, and long-tailed, T. ucucha can be distinguished from other species of Thomasomys by its large, broad, procumbent upper incisors. Head-and-body length is 94 to 119 mm (3.7 to 4.7 in), and body mass is 24 to 46 grams (0.85 to 1.62 oz). The front part of the skull is flat, short, and broad. The incisive foramina, openings at the front of the palate, are short, and the palate itself is broad and smooth. It is listed as a vulnerable species due to the threat of habitat destruction. (Full article...)

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A Trip Down Market Street is a 13-minute actuality film recorded by placing a movie camera on the front of a cable car as it traveled down San Francisco’s Market Street in the spring of 1906. A virtual time capsule from over 100 years ago, the film shows many details of daily life in a major American city, including the transportation, fashions and architecture of the era. The film begins at 8th Street and continues eastward to the cable car turntable, at The Embarcadero, in front of the Ferry Building. Landmarks passed include the Call Building and the Palace Hotel. It was produced by the four Miles Brothers: Harry, Herbert, Earle and Joe. Harry J. Miles cranked the Bell & Howell camera during the filming. The film is notable for capturing San Francisco just before the city's devastating earthquake and fire.

Film: Miles Brothers
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On this day

January 19

San Agustin Church, Manila
San Agustin Church, Manila

Paul Cézanne (b. 1839) · Natacha Rambova (b. 1897) · Sarah Burke (d. 2012)

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In two days

Featured article
January 20
Gugu Mbatha-Raw and Mackenzie Davis

"San Junipero" is the fourth episode of the third series of the science fiction anthology programme Black Mirror. Premiering on Netflix on 21 October 2016 with the rest of series three, the episode stars Gugu Mbatha-Raw and Mackenzie Davis (pictured) as the outgoing Kelly and the more introverted Yorkie. They meet at a 1980s nightclub in San Junipero, a beach resort town. Written by series creator Charlie Brooker as an optimistic love story, it is more positive in tone than previous episodes. "San Junipero" was the first episode written following the show's departure from Channel 4; it was inspired by nostalgia therapy and originally featured a heterosexual couple. Some pieces of music, such as "Heaven Is a Place on Earth" by Belinda Carlisle, hint at the episode's plot twist. Filming took place in Cape Town, South Africa, and London, England, with Owen Harris as director. The episode received critical acclaim, winning two Primetime Emmy Awards and two British Academy Television Craft Awards. (Full article...)

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Lady Standing at a Virginal

Lady Standing at a Virginal is a genre painting created by the Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer in about 1670–1672. It depicts a richly dressed woman playing a virginal in a home with a tiled floor, paintings on the wall and some of the locally manufactured Delftware blue and white tiles of a type that appear in other Vermeer works. This work can be related to another Vermeer in the collection, Lady Seated at a Virginal, on a canvas of almost exactly the same size, with which it may form a pair. A recent study has shown that the canvas for the two paintings came from the same bolt. Lady Standing at a Virginal is in the permanent collection of the National Gallery, London.

Painting: Johannes Vermeer
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On this day

January 20: World Religion Day (2019)

Honório Carneiro Leão
Honório Carneiro Leão

David Wilmot (b. 1814) · Sarah Conlon (b. 1926) · Claudio Abbado (d. 2014)

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In three days

Featured article
January 21
Jane Austen by her sister Cassandra

Jane Austen's novels have risen in popularity in recent decades, becoming the subject of intense scholarly study and the centre of a diverse fan culture. Austen, the author of Pride and Prejudice (1813) and Emma (1815), is one of the most widely read novelists in the English language. During her lifetime, her novels brought her little personal fame; like many women writers, she published anonymously. When they were published, her works received few positive reviews. By the mid-19th century, her novels were admired by members of the literary elite, but it was not until the 1940s that Austen was widely accepted in academia as a "great English novelist". The second half of the 20th century saw a proliferation of scholarship exploring artistic, ideological and historical aspects of her works. The 1940 film Pride and Prejudice was the first of many television and film adaptations. In the 21st century, Austen fandom supports an industry of printed sequels and prequels. (Full article...)

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Curlew sandpiper

The curlew sandpiper (Calidris ferruginea) is a small wader that breeds on the tundra of Arctic Siberia. It is a strongly migratory bird, wintering mainly in Africa, but also in south and southeast Asia and in Australia and New Zealand. The curlew sandpiper is similar to the dunlin, and has a length of 18–23 cm (7.1–9.1 in) and wingspan of 38–41 cm (15–16 in). In breeding season it has a bright red underside. This picture shows a curlew sandpiper in Thailand, with its winter plumage.

Photograph: JJ Harrison
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Featured list
January 21
Rutland Water
Rutland Water

There are 19 Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) in Rutland, a landlocked ceremonial county in the East Midlands of England. SSSIs are designated by Natural England, a non-departmental public body which is responsible for protecting England's natural environment. Designation as an SSSI gives legal protection to the most important wildlife and geological sites. Sixteen of the 19 SSSIs in Rutland are designated for their biological importance, one for its geological importance and two under both criteria. The largest site is Rutland Water (pictured) at 1,555.3 hectares (3,843 acres), a Ramsar internationally important wetland site and a Special Protection Area under the European Union Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds. The smallest is Tolethorpe Road Verges at 1.0 hectare (2.5 acres), which has several regionally uncommon plants on Jurassic limestone. (Full list...)

On this day

January 21: Martin Luther King Jr. Day in the United States (2019)

Women's March participants in Porto, Portugal
Women's March participants in Porto, Portugal

Chaim of Volozhin (b. 1749) · Eusapia Palladino (b. 1854) · Frances Gertrude McGill (d. 1959)

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In four days

Featured article
January 22
Beijing National Stadium, 2008 summer games

Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games is a sports and party game developed by Sega Sports R&D. Published by Nintendo in Japan and by Sega in other regions, it was released on the Wii in November 2007 and the Nintendo DS handheld in January 2008. It features the two title characters and fourteen others from the Mario and Sonic the Hedgehog games, participating in twenty-four events based on the official venues of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, China, including the Bird's Nest (pictured). Players assume the role of a Nintendo or Sega character, using either the Wii Remote or a stylus and button controls. Critics praised the multiplayer interaction of the Wii game (not offered on the DS) and the variety of events of both versions, but criticized the Wii version for its complexity. Mario & Sonic was awarded "Best Wii game of 2007" at the Games Convention in Leipzig. It sold over ten million units and started a series of related sports video games to coincide with Olympic events. (Full article...)

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Gold certificate

Gold certificates were a United States paper currency between 1863 and 1933. Each certificate gave its title to a corresponding amount of gold coin as established by the Coinage Act of 1834. The Series of 1882, shown here, was the first series to be payable to the bearer; unlike previous issues, anyone could redeem these certificates for the equivalent in gold. Shown here is a $1000 large denomination banknote, depicting Grover Cleveland.

Banknote: Bureau of Engraving and Printing (image courtesy of the National Numismatic Collection, National Museum of American History)
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On this day

January 22: Tu BiShvat (Judaism, 2019); Day of Unity of Ukraine in Ukraine (1919)

Pan Am Boeing 747
Pan Am Boeing 747

John Donne (b. 1572) · Gisela Januszewska (b. 1867) · Ali Hassan Salameh (d. 1979)

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In five days

Featured article
January 23
Front page of The Illustrated London News depicting the chase

The Tottenham outrage of 23 January 1909 was a theft of wages from the Schnurmann rubber factory in Tottenham, north London, followed by a two-hour, six-mile (10 km) police chase. The armed robbers, Paul Helfeld and Jacob Lepidus, killed themselves at the end of the pursuit. The bravery of the police led to the creation of the King's Police Medal, awarded to several of those involved in the pursuit. A joint funeral for the two shooting victims—Police Constable William Tyler and Ralph Joscelyne, a ten-year-old boy—was attended by a crowd of up to half a million mourners, including 2,000 policemen. The deaths exacerbated ill feelings towards immigrants in London, and much of the press coverage was anti-Semitic in nature; Helfeld and Lepidus were Jewish Latvian Socialists. Public sentiment was further inflamed the following year after another criminal act by Latvian immigrants, culminating in the Siege of Sidney Street, in which three policemen were murdered. (Full article...)

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Hyperglide

Hyperglide is the name given by cycling component manufacturer Shimano to a sprocket design in their bicycle derailleur tooth cassette systems. The design improves on their earlier Uniglide design (which used beveled/twisted gear teeth instead of ramps), and was introduced as part of a commercially viable index shifting system. The individual sprockets on a Hyperglide cassette or freewheel are designed specifically to work with their neighbours. In order to ensure alignment of each sprocket with its neighbour, the freehub has a narrow spline at one position, and each sprocket has a corresponding wide tooth on its inside face.

Photograph: Petar Milošević
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On this day

January 23

USS Pueblo
USS Pueblo

Muthu Coomaraswamy (b. 1834) · Mykola Leontovych (d. 1921) · Louisa Cadamuro (b. 1987)

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In six days

Featured article
January 24
Troop ships

Operation Pamphlet (24 January – 27 February 1943) was a World War II convoy that brought the Australian Army's 9th Division home from Egypt. The convoy included five transports, which were protected from Japanese warships by several Allied naval task forces during their trip across the Indian Ocean and along the Australian coastline. The Australian Government had requested an end to the Second Australian Imperial Force's role in the North African Campaign. Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt attempted to convince the Australian Prime Minister, John Curtin, to withdraw the request until the Allied victory in North Africa was complete, but Curtin and Allied military leaders in the South West Pacific believed that the veteran division was needed for planned offensive operations in New Guinea. The 9th Division arrived in Australian ports with no losses from enemy action, and went on to make important contributions in New Guinea during late 1943. (Full article...)

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Gustav III

Gustav III (24 January [O.S. 13 January] 1746 – 29 March 1792) was King of Sweden from 1771 until his assassination in 1792. Born in Stockholm as the eldest son of King Adolf Frederick, he married Sophia Magdalena of Denmark in 1766. At the time of his accession, the Swedish Riksdag held more power then the monarchy but it was bitterly divided between rival parties. After unsuccessful attempts to mediate, Gustav seized power himself in 1772, changing the constitution, in what is considered a coup d'état. Following an attempt to form a league of princes to counter the French Revolution, a conspiracy formed among Swedish nobles and he was shot while attending the opera. He died two weeks later and was succeeded by his son Gustav Adolf.

This picture, titled King Gustav III of Sweden and his Brothers, is a 1771 oil-on-canvas painting by Alexander Roslin. It shows Gustav (seated, left) with his two brothers, Frederick Adolf (standing) and Charles (seated, right). It is now in the Nationalmuseum, Stockholm.

Painting: Alexander Roslin.
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On this day

January 24

Sutter's Mill (reconstruction)
Sutter's Mill (reconstruction)

George Rooke (d. 1709) · Charles Boardman Hawes (b. 1889) · Maximilian Bircher-Benner (d. 1939)

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In seven days

Featured article
January 25
ZETA reactor left side.jpg

ZETA was an early experiment in fusion power research. Built at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment in England, it was much larger and more powerful than any other fusion machine at that time. It went into operation in August 1957, and by the end of the month was giving off bursts of about a million neutrons per pulse. Measurements suggested temperatures between 1 and 5 million kelvins, hot enough to produce nuclear fusion reactions. Early results were leaked to the press, and front-page headlines announced a breakthrough. Further experiments revealed measurement errors, and the claim of fusion was publicly withdrawn, casting a chill over the entire fusion establishment. The neutrons were later explained as the product of instabilities in the fuel. ZETA went on to have a long experimental lifetime, supporting work in plasma theory and originating more accurate laser-based temperature measurements that supported the tokamak approach a decade later. (Full article...)

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Albizia saman

Samanea saman, also known as the rain tree or Albizia saman, is a species of flowering tree in the pea family, Fabaceae, that is native to the Central and South America. It is a wide-canopied tree with a large umbrella-shaped crown, and usually reaches a height of 15–25 m (49–82 ft) with a diameter of 30 m (98 ft). The tree has pinkish flowers with white and red stamens, set on heads with around 12–25 flowers per head. These heads may number in the thousands, covering the whole tree.

Photograph: Basile Morin
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January 25
Sonam Kapoor
Sonam Kapoor

The 2016 Indian Hindi-language biographical thriller film Neerja won 37 awards from 57 nominations. Neerja was directed by Ram Madhvani and produced by Atul Kasbekar. The film stars Sonam Kapoor (pictured) as the eponymous protagonist, and features Shabana Azmi, Yogendra Tiku and Shekhar Ravjiani in supporting roles. Its direction and performances of the cast members have received the most attention from award groups. The film won two awards at the 64th ceremony of India's National Film AwardsBest Feature Film in Hindi and Special Jury Award for Kapoor. At the 62nd Filmfare Awards, Neerja won five awards, including Best Film (Critics) and Best Actress (Critics); the film was also nominated for Best Director and Best Film. At the 2016 Screen Awards, it received a nomination for Best Actress, and won four awards, including Best Director. (Full list...)

On this day

January 25: Feast day of Gregory of Nazianzus (Eastern Orthodox Church); Tatiana Day in Russia

Artist's concept of rover on Mars
Artist's concept of rover on Mars

J. Marion Sims (b. 1813) · Virginia Woolf (b. 1882) · Mikhail Suslov (d. 1982)

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