Whithorn

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Whithorn
Whithorn is located in Dumfries and Galloway
Whithorn
Whithorn
Whithorn shown within Dumfries and Galloway
Population 867 (2001 Census)
OS grid reference NX445405
Council area
Lieutenancy area
Country Scotland
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town NEWTON STEWART
Postcode district DG8
Dialling code 01988
Police Scottish
Fire Scottish
Ambulance Scottish
EU Parliament Scotland
UK Parliament
Scottish Parliament
List of places
UK
Scotland
54°44′06″N 4°24′58″W / 54.735°N 4.416°W / 54.735; -4.416Coordinates: 54°44′06″N 4°24′58″W / 54.735°N 4.416°W / 54.735; -4.416

Whithorn (Taigh Mhàrtainn in Gaelic) is a former royal burgh in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, about ten miles south of Wigtown.[1] The town was the location of the first recorded Christian church in Scotland, Candida Casa : the 'White [or 'Shining'] House', built by Saint Ninian about 397.

Toponymy

Whithorn was first known (in Latin) as Candida Casa. 'Whithorn' is a modern form of the Anglo-Saxon version of this name, Hwit Ærn, 'white house'. In Gallovidian Gaelic, it was called Rosnat, or Futarna, the latter a version of the Anglo-Saxon name (Gaelic has no sound corresponding to English 'wh').[2]

Eighth and twelfth centuries

A monastery and diocese of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria was founded on the site in the 8th century. It was the centre of the revived See of Galloway (or Candida Casa) under the patronage of Fergus, Lord of Galloway and Bishop Gille Aldan from the 12th century. The late-medieval cathedral Whithorn Priory is ruinous, much of it having disappeared completely apart from the much-altered aisleless nave and vaults at the former eastern end which once held the shrine of St. Ninian, one of medieval Scotland's major pilgrimage destinations. A museum in the town contains finds from the site, which has been extensively excavated in recent years. A late-medieval gateway with the arms of the King of Scots leads into the site of the priory, which contains the 19th-century parish church and a museum of carved stones (Historic Scotland). The collection of early medieval stones is one of the largest in Scotland, and includes the country's earliest surviving Christian memorial, the 5th-century inscribed 'Latinus Stone'. The museum layout and display was revised and greatly improved in 2005.

The crozier

One of the finest artefacts found at the site is the Whithorn crozier. The gilded and enamelled crozier is an outstanding example of champlevé enamels which were being made in England in the second half of the 12th century, and this one dates to around 1175.[3] It is now housed in the National Museums of Scotland, although it is loaned to the Whithorn Trust Visitor Centre every summer. It is thought that the crozier was buried with the body of Simon de Wedale, who was one of the Bishops of Whithorn.

Geography

Whithorn's link to the sea was the port known as the Isle of Whithorn (a separate community from Whithorn itself and actually a peninsula). It was much used in the Middle Ages by pilgrims arriving by boat. The thirteenth-century Saint Ninian's Chapel marked the point where pilgrims came ashore (the roofless remains are looked after by Historic Scotland).

The 1st-century settlement of Rispain Camp, about 1 mile west of Whithorn, is also in the care of Historic Scotland.

Railway

Whithorn was once served by a railway station until 1950 when the passenger service was withdrawn and the freight services falling victim to the Beeching axe in 1964. The track was lifted in April 1965. [4]

List of Listed Buildings

List of listed buildings in Whithorn, Dumfries and Galloway

Gallery

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ "Whithorn", Royal Burgh of Whithorn and District Business Association
  2. ^ Thomas, Charles (1971) "Topographical Notes. - 3 : Rosnat, Rostat, and the Early Irish Church" In: Ériu, Vol.xxii, 1971
  3. ^ Glenn, Romanesque and Gothic, pp. 29-33.
  4. ^ https://www.railscot.co.uk/imageenlarge/photographer.php?loc=Frank%20Spaven%20Collection%20(Courtesy%20David%20Spaven)&img=27486
  • Glenn, V. (2003) Romanesque and Gothic: decorative metalwork and ivory carvings in the Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh: Museum

External links

  • http://www.aocarchaeology.com/machars/
  • http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Whithorn_Priory
  • https://archive.org/stream/castellateddomes05macguoft#page/249/mode/1up Castlewigg Tower plan
  • https://archive.org/stream/castellateddomes05macguoft#page/354/mode/1up Isle of Whithorn Castle
  • The Whithorn Trust
  • http://www.whithorn.info/
  • http://www.whithornevergreens.co.uk/
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