Wellington (New Zealand electorate)

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Wellington (originally City of Wellington), was a parliamentary electorate in Wellington, New Zealand. It existed from 1853 to 1905 with a break in the 1880s. It was a multi-member electorate. The electorate was represented, over the years, by 24 Members of Parliament.

Population centres

In December 1887, the House of Representatives voted to reduce its membership from general electorates from 91 to 70. The 1890 electoral redistribution used the same 1886 census data used for the 1887 electoral redistribution. In addition, three-member electorates were introduced in the four main centres. This resulted in a major restructuring of electorates, and Wellington was one of eight electorates to be re-created for the 1890 election.[1]

History

The electorate was one of the original electorates used in the 1853 election for the 1st New Zealand Parliament. During the period until 1871, Wellington was a three-member electorate.

In 1858, Isaac Featherston and William Fitzherbert resigned their seats in Parliament.[2] Featherston apparently wanted to return to England.[3] Instead, he successfully stood for re-election within months. The other person returned in the same by-election was William Barnard Rhodes.[4]

The election for the 3rd Parliament was held on 11 December 1860,[5] with the announcement of the official results on 15 December.[6]

Members of Parliament

Key

 Independent    Liberal    Conservative    Liberal-Labour    Independent Liberal  

Three-member electorate (1853–1871)

Election Winner(s)
1853 election Charles Clifford Robert Hart James Kelham
1855 election Isaac Featherston William Fitzherbert
1858 by-election Isaac Featherston William Rhodes
1860 election William Taylor[7]
1866 election Charles Borlase[8]

Two-member electorate (1871–1881)

Election Winner(s)
1871 election George Hunter Edward Pearce[9]
1875 election
1877 by-election William Travers
1878 by-election George Elliott Barton[10]
1879 election William Hutchison[11] William Levin[12]
(Electorate abolished 1881–1890)

Three-member electorate (1890–1905)

From 1881 to 1890, the Wellington electorate was replaced by three separate electorates: Te Aro and Thorndon during the whole nine years, and Wellington South (until 1887) then Wellington East (1887–1890)

Election Winner(s)
1890 election George Fisher Kennedy Macdonald[13] John Duthie
1892 by-election William McLean[14]
1893 election Francis Bell Robert Stout
1896 election George Fisher John Hutcheson
1898 by-election[15] John Duthie
1899 by-election John Hutcheson
1899 election Arthur Atkinson
1902 election John Duthie John Aitken
1905 by-election Francis Fisher
(Electorate abolished 1905; see Wellington Central, Wellington East, and Wellington North)

In 1905 the Wellington electorate was again replaced by three electorates: Wellington Central, Wellington East, and Wellington North. In the 1905 election, all three Wellington incumbents stood in the new electorates, with Fisher and Aitken winning in Central and East respectively, while Duthie lost to Charles Izard in Wellington North - ending his parliamentary career.

Election results

1905 by-election

City of Wellington by-election, 1905[16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Independent Liberal Francis Fisher 4,692 42.06
Liberal Charles Izard 3,441 30.84
Liberal-Labour John Hutcheson 3,021 27.08
Majority 1,251 11.21
Turnout 11,154
Independent Liberal gain from Liberal Swing

1902 election

New Zealand general election, 1902[17][18][19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Aitken 7,808 55.29
Conservative John Duthie 6,886 48.76
Liberal George Fisher 6,685 47.34
Independent Liberal Patrick O'Regan 6,304 44.64
Conservative Arthur Atkinson 6,094 43.15
Liberal John Findlay 4,764 33.74
Liberal James Godber 1,437 10.18
Liberal Edwin George Jellicoe[20] 1,384 9.80
Labour David McLaren 1,003 7.10
Majority 3811 2.70
Informal votes 328
Total votes 42,365
Turnout 14,122 66.56
Registered electors 21,218

1 Majority is difference between lowest winning poll (Fisher: 6,685) and highest losing poll (O'Regan: 6,304)

Participation by gender  %
Female Turnout 7,312 72.00
Enrolled females 10,155 47.86
Male Enrolled males 11,063 52.14

1899 election

New Zealand general election, 1899[21][22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal-Labour John Hutcheson 7,436 51.06 +2.38
Conservative Arthur Richmond Atkinson 6,703 46.02 +1.75
Liberal George Fisher 6,442 44.23 -0.26
Liberal Kennedy Macdonald 6,320 43.39
Conservative Thomas William Hislop 6,297 43.23
Independent Liberal Edwin George Jellicoe[20] 4,751 32.62
Liberal Charles Luke 3,812 26.17
Independent Liberal Thomas Carmichael 1,004 6.89
Liberal-Labour William Earnshaw 851 5.84
Independent Liberal Denton Burnett Duncan 78 0.54
Majority 1221 0.84 +0.04
Total votes 43,694
Turnout 14,565 77.17 +8.95
Registered electors 18,874

1 Majority is difference between lowest winning poll (Fisher: 6,442) and highest losing poll (Macdonald: 6,320)

Participation by gender  %
Female Turnout 7,080 79.30
Enrolled females 8,928 47.30
Male Enrolled males 9,946 52.70

1899 by-election

City of Wellington by-election, 1899[23]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal-Labour John Hutcheson 6,945 58.28
Independent Edwin George Jellicoe[20] 4,971 41.72
Majority 1,974 16.57
Turnout 11,916

1898 by-election

City of Wellington by-election, 1898[24]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Duthie 7,283 53.80
Liberal Richard Clement Kirk 6,254 46.20
Majority 1,029 7.60
Turnout 13,537 77.26
Registered electors 17,522[25]

1896 election

New Zealand general election, 1896[26][27][28]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal-Labour John Hutcheson 6,410 48.68
Independent Robert Stout 6,305 47.88
Liberal George Fisher 5,858 44.49
Conservative Arthur Atkinson 5,830 44.27
Liberal Charles Wilson 5,569 42.29
Conservative Andrew Agnew Stuart Menteath 5,559 42.22
Liberal Francis Fraser 1,811 13.75
Independent Justinian John Kivern Powell 185 1.40
Liberal Arthur Warburton 91 0.69
Majority 28 1 0.21
Total votes 37,618
Turnout 13,168[29]2 68.21
Registered electors 19,304[30]

1 Majority is difference between lowest winning poll (Fisher: 5,858) and highest losing poll (Atkinson: 5,830)

2 Turnout is total number of voters - as voters had three votes each total votes cast was higher (37,618)

1893 election

New Zealand general election, 1893[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Robert Stout 6,218 46.73
Conservative Francis Bell 5,773 43.39
Conservative John Duthie 4,840 36.37
Liberal Kennedy Macdonald 3,863 29.03
Liberal Francis Fraser 3,729 28.02
Independent Harry Vogel 3,606 27.10
Liberal William McLean[14] 3,438 25.84
Liberal George Fisher 2,385 17.92
Independent Thomas Dwan 1,157 8.70
Independent William Travers 1,093 8.21
Majority 9771
Informal votes 147
Total votes 36,249
Turnout 13,306 2 80.66
Registered electors 16,497

1893 was the first election in which women could vote (the electoral act giving women the vote was passed ten weeks prior to the election).[32] Electoral returns quantified female enrolment and turnout, and showed women's turnout was higher than men's while women's enrolment was lower.

Participation by gender  %
Female Turnout 6,146 84.42
Enrolled females 7,280 44.13
Male Turnout 7,160 77.68
Enrolled males 9,217 55.87

1 Majority is difference between lowest winning poll (Duthie - 4,840) and highest losing poll (Mcdonald - 3,863)

2 Turnout is total number of voters - as voters had three votes each total votes cast was higher (36,102 valid, and 147 invalid votes)

1892 by-election

City of Wellington by-election, 1892[33][34]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal William McLean 3,388 51.08 +30.97
Conservative Francis Bell 3,245 48.92 +5.31
Majority 143 2.16 -1.32
Turnout 6,633 75.50 +15.49
Registered electors 8,786

1890 election

New Zealand general election, 1890[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal George Fisher 2,828 53.64
Conservative John Duthie 2,779 52.71
Liberal Kennedy Macdonald 2,482 47.08
Conservative Francis Bell 2,299 43.61
Liberal Edwin George Jellicoe[20] 1,921 35.98
Liberal Francis Fraser 1,755 33.29
Liberal William McLean[14] 1,060 20.11
Liberal Robert Winter[36] 716 13.58
Majority 183 3.47
Total votes 15,816
Turnout 5,272 60.00
Registered electors 8,786

1858 by-election

City of Wellington by-election, 1858[37]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Independent Isaac Featherston 360
Independent William Rhodes 352
Independent Jerningham Wakefield 349
Independent William Bowler[38] 347
Majority 3[nb 1]
Total votes 1,408
Table footnotes
  1. ^ Majority is the difference between lowest winning poll (Rhodes: 352) and highest losing poll (Wakefield: 349)

Notes

  1. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 54ff.
  2. ^ "HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES" (340). Otago Witness. 5 June 1858. p. 5. Retrieved 30 April 2010. 
  3. ^ Hamer, David (22 June 2007). "Featherston, Isaac Earl 1813 - 1876". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Retrieved 3 July 2010. 
  4. ^ "Wellington". Hawke's Bay Herald. 1 (47). 14 August 1858. p. 2. Retrieved 3 July 2010. 
  5. ^ "SUMMARY FOR Europe & Australia". Wellington Independent. XV (1478). 7 December 1860. p. 5. Retrieved 29 June 2010. 
  6. ^ "Declaration of the Poll". Wellington Independent. XV (1481). 18 December 1860. p. 2. Retrieved 29 June 2010. 
  7. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1897). "Mr. William Waring Taylor". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Wellington Provincial District. Wellington. Retrieved 20 June 2010. 
  8. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1897). "Mr. Charles Bonythorne Borlase". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Wellington Provincial District. Wellington. Retrieved 20 June 2010. 
  9. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1897). "Mr. Edward Pearce". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Wellington Provincial District. Wellington. Retrieved 20 June 2010. 
  10. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1897). "Mr. George Elliott Barton". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Wellington Provincial District. Wellington. Retrieved 20 June 2010. 
  11. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1897). "Mr. William Hutchison". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Wellington Provincial District. Wellington. Retrieved 20 June 2010. 
  12. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1897). "Mr. William Hort Levin". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Wellington Provincial District. Wellington. Retrieved 20 June 2010. 
  13. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1897). "Mr. Thomas Kennedy Macdonald". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Wellington Provincial District. Wellington. Retrieved 20 June 2010. 
  14. ^ a b c Cyclopedia Company Limited (1897). "Wellington Ex-Members Of The House Of Representatives". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Wellington Provincial District. Wellington. Retrieved 20 June 2010. 
  15. ^ "The Wellington City Election". Wanganui Herald, Volume XXXII, Issue 9384. 10 March 1898. p. 2. Retrieved 22 August 2011. 
  16. ^ "The Wellington Election". North Otago Times. 7 April 1905. p. 2. Retrieved 18 December 2015. 
  17. ^ "New Zealand General Election, 1902". Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1903 Session I, H-26. Retrieved 15 May 2013.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  18. ^ "Notice of Polling Day". Free Lance. III (125). 22 November 1902. p. 22. Retrieved 21 March 2014. 
  19. ^ "Wellington City Election". Free Lance. III (125). 22 November 1902. p. 8. Retrieved 21 March 2014. 
  20. ^ a b c d Cyclopedia Company Limited (1897). "Barristers and Solicitors". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Wellington Provincial District. Wellington: The Cyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  21. ^ "New Zealand General Election, 1899". Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1900 Session I, H-26. p. 2. Retrieved 15 May 2013.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  22. ^ "Untitled". The Evening Post. LVIII (136). 6 December 1899. p. 6. Retrieved 14 March 2014. 
  23. ^ "The Wellington Election". Clutha Leader. XXVI (1319). 28 July 1899. p. 5. Retrieved 26 August 2011. 
  24. ^ "Wellington Election". The New Zealand Herald. XXXV (10697). 10 March 1898. p. 5. Retrieved 24 December 2015. 
  25. ^ "The Wellington By-Election". Ashburton Guardian. XIX (4439). 8 March 1898. p. 2. Retrieved 26 August 2011. 
  26. ^ "A Mistake in the Wellington Vote". The Evening Post. 10 December 1896. p. 6. Retrieved 10 January 2014. 
  27. ^ "Page 1 Advertisements Column 3". The Evening Post. 28 November 1896. p. 1. Retrieved 10 January 2014. 
  28. ^ "List of Candidates". Hawera & Normanby Star. XXXIII (3411). 2 December 1896. p. 2. Retrieved 10 January 2014. 
  29. ^ "The Wellington Election". Clutha Leader. 28 July 1899. p. 5. Retrieved 26 August 2011. 
  30. ^ McRobie 1989, p. 63.
  31. ^ "Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1894 Session I, H-19". New Zealand General Election, 1893. 1894. Retrieved 15 May 2013. 
  32. ^ Electoral Act, 1893
  33. ^ "New Zealand". The Marlborough Express. XXVIII (17). 21 January 1892. p. 2. Retrieved 4 April 2014. 
  34. ^ "Wellington City Election". Wanganui Herald. XXVI (7620). 16 January 1892. p. 2. Retrieved 4 April 2014. 
  35. ^ "New Zealand General Election, 1890". 1891. Retrieved 15 May 2013. 
  36. ^ "Mr Robert Winter at Wellington". The Star (7000). 1 November 1890. p. 4. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  37. ^ "The General Assembly Election". The Wellington Independent. X (1310). 28 July 1858. p. 3. Retrieved 17 May 2013. 
  38. ^ Scholefield, Guy, ed. (1940). A Dictionary of New Zealand Biography : A–L (PDF). I. Wellington: Department of Internal Affairs. pp. 83f. Retrieved 18 June 2016. 

References

  • McRobie, Alan (1989). Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8. 
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103. 
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