Waikato (New Zealand electorate)

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Waikato electorate boundaries used since the 2014 election

Waikato is the name of a current electorate in the New Zealand Parliament. The electorate first existed from 1871 to 1963, and then from 1969 to 1996 when MMP was introduced. The current electorate was re-established for the 2008 election and has been represented by Tim van de Molen for the National Party since the 2017 general election.

Population centres

Through an amendment in the Electoral Act in 1965, the number of electorates in the South Island was fixed at 25, an increase of one since the 1962 electoral redistribution.[1] It was accepted that through the more rapid population growth in the North Island, the number of its electorates would continue to increase, and to keep proportionality, three new electorates were allowed for in the 1967 electoral redistribution for the next election.[2] In the North Island, five electorates were newly created and one electorate was reconstituted (Waikato) while three electorates were abolished.[3] In the South Island, three electorates were newly created and one electorate was reconstituted while three electorates were abolished.[4] The overall effect of the required changes was highly disruptive to existing electorates, with all but three electorates having their boundaries altered.[5] These changes came into effect with the 1969 election.[2]

The electorate was recreated after the 2006 census, as the successor to the former Piako electorate. Piako has been pulled north to account for changes both in Auckland (where population growth has pulled the boundary of Port Waikato around the Waikato River), and in the central North Island, where several electorates went into the boundary review under quota, forcing their boundaries further north. It has lost the towns of Te Aroha to Coromandel and Cambridge to Taupō, and in exchange gained the rural and semi-urban areas around Hamilton East, and Huntly, Te Kauwhata and Meremere from Port Waikato.

History

The Waikato electorate was first contested in the 1871 election.[6] James McPherson was elected, but he resigned again on 20 December 1871.[7] William Jackson won the resulting 1872 by-election (held on 1 March). He retired at the end of the parliamentary term in 1875.[8] Frederick Whitaker won the 5 January 1876 election.[9] In the 1879 election, Whitaker contested the Eden electorate but was beaten by Joseph Tole.[10][11]

The Waikato electorate was won by John Blair Whyte in the 1879 election, who served for eleven years until 1890 when he retired. Whyte was appointed to the Legislative Council in the following year.[12] John Bryce, who first became an MHR (Member of the House of Representatives) during the 4th Parliament, succeeded Whyte in the 1890 election, but he resigned in the following year.[13] The resulting 1891 by-election was won by Edward Lake, who retired at the end of the parliamentary term in 1893.[14]

The 1893 election was won by Alfred Cadman for the Liberal Party, who had been an MP in various electorates since 1881. At the next election in 1896, Cadman successfully contested the Ohinemuri electorate.[15] The Waikato electorate was won by Frederic Lang in 1896, who represented the electorate until his defeat by the Liberal Party's Henry Greenslade in the 1905 election.[16] Greenslade held the electorate until 1911,[17] when he was defeated by the Reform candidate Alexander Young.[18]

Young won the subsequent elections in 1914 and 1919. In the 1922 election, he successfully contested the newly formed Hamilton electorate.[18] Young was succeeded by the Liberal candidate Frederick Lye in the Waikato electorate in 1922.[19] At the 1925 election, Lye was defeated by Reform's Daniel Stewart Reid.[20] Lye in turn defeated Reid at the 1928 election, but this time standing for the United Party. The United/Reform Coalition was established just before the 1931 election and Lye was again successful.[19] In the 1935 election, Lye was beaten by Robert Coulter of the Labour Party.[21] Coulter served only one term in Waikato, as he was defeated by the National Party candidate William Goosman in the 1938 election. Goosman also won the 1943 election, but successfully contested the 1946 election in the newly formed Piako electorate.[17]

Goosman was succeeded in Waikato by National's Geoffrey Sim in 1946.[22] Sim held the electorate until it was abolished in 1963, when he contested Piako instead.[23]

The Waikato electorate was re-established in 1969. The first representative was National's Lance Adams-Schneider, who had previously represented the Hamilton electorate. Adams-Schneider retired from Parliament in 1981 and became Ambassador of New Zealand to the United States in the following year.[23] Adams-Schneider was succeeded by National's Simon Upton, who won the 1981 election and started his long parliamentary career with one term in Waikato. Upton contested the Raglan in the 1984 election and was succeeded by National's Rob Storey in Waikato. Storey held the electorate until it was abolished with the introduction of Mixed-member proportional voting in 1996. It was re-established for the 2008 election.

Lindsay Tisch was the MP for Piako from its re-establishment in 2002, and became the MP for Waikato at the 2008 election.[24] Tisch was confirmed in the 2011 election.[25]

In June 2016, Tisch announced that he would not stand at the 2017 general election,[26] and the seat was won by Tim van de Molen, retaining it for the National Party.

In the 20th century Waikato was a safe National Party seat; and three of the five National Party Members of Parliament for Waikato were cabinet ministers.

Members of Parliament

Key

 Independent    Conservative    Liberal    Reform    United    Labour    National  

Election Winner
1871 election James McPherson
1872 by-election William Jackson
1876 election Frederick Whitaker
1879 election John Blair Whyte
1881 election
1884 election
1887 election
1890 election John Bryce
1891 by-election Edward Lake
1893 election Alfred Cadman
1896 election Frederic Lang
1899 election
1902 election
1905 election Henry Greenslade
1908 election
1911 election Alexander Young
1914 election
1919 election
1922 election Frederick Lye
1925 election Stewart Reid
1928 election Frederick Lye (2nd term)
1931 election
1935 election Robert Coulter
1938 election William Goosman
1943 election
1946 election Geoffrey Sim
1949 election
1951 election
1954 election
1957 election
1960 election
(Electorate abolished 1963–1969)
1969 election Lance Adams-Schneider
1972 election
1975 election
1978 election
1981 election Simon Upton
1984 election Rob Storey
1987 election
1990 election
1993 election
(Electorate abolished 1996–2008)
2008 election Lindsay Tisch
2011 election
2014 election
2017 election Tim van de Molen

List MPs

Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested the Waikato electorate. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.

Election Winner
2008 election Jacinda Ardern
2011 election Barbara Stewart
2014 election

Election results

2014 election

General election, 2014: Waikato[27]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
National Green tickY Lindsay Tisch 22,911 64.89 -0.01 21,598 59.99 +0.01
Labour Christine Greer 6,742 19.09 +0.69 5,303 14.73 -1.71
NZ First Barbara Stewart 3,330 9.43 +4.28 3,870 10.75 +2.65
Conservative Brian Dobbs 1,442 4.08 +0.34 2,053 5.70 +1.62
ACT Mike Burrows 290 0.82 -0.91 191 0.53 -1.40
Democrats Katherine Ransom 172 0.49 +0.14 38 0.11 -0.02
Green   2,075 5.76 -1.26
Māori   196 0.54 -0.05
Legalise Cannabis   180 0.50 -0.04
Internet Mana   178 0.49 +0.20
Ban 1080   89 0.25 +0.25
United Future   78 0.22 -0.55
Independent Coalition   10 0.03 +0.03
Civilian   10 0.02 +0.02
Focus   6 0.02 +0.02
Informal votes 421 127
Total Valid votes 35,308 36,000
National hold Majority 16,169 45.79 -0.71

2011 election

General election, 2011: Waikato[25]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
National Green tickY Lindsay Tisch 19,817 64.90 +1.47 18,875 59.98 +2.54
Labour Kate Sutton 5,619 18.40 -4.52 5,173 16.44 -6.13
Green Cameron Harper 1,970 6.45 +1.77 2,208 7.02 +3.08
NZ First Barbara Stewart 1,571 5.15 +0.88 2,549 8.10 +2.81
Conservative Brian Dobbs 1,142 3.74 +3.74 1,284 4.08 +4.08
ACT Robin Boom 307 1.01 -2.43 607 1.93 -4.54
Democrats John Pemberton 107 0.35 -0.03 41 0.13 +0.01
United Future   243 0.77 -0.11
Māori   186 0.59 -0.14
Legalise Cannabis   170 0.54 +0.16
Mana   91 0.29 +0.29
Libertarianz   28 0.09 +0.04
Alliance   12 0.04 -0.04
Informal votes 775 298
Total Valid votes 30,533 31,467
National hold Majority 14,198 46.50 +5.99

Electorate (as at 26 November 2011): 42,084[28]

2008 election

General election, 2008: Waikato[24]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
National Green tickY Lindsay Tisch 20,122 63.44 18,532 57.45
Labour Jacinda Ardern 7,272 22.93 7,280 22.57
Green Wendy Harper 1,484 4.68 1,271 3.94
NZ First Barbara Stewart 1,353 4.27 1,708 5.29
ACT Mark Davies 1,089 3.43 2,088 6.47
Kiwi James Ross 278 0.88 171 0.53
Democrats John Pemberton 122 0.38 40 0.12
United Future   285 0.88
Māori   235 0.73
Bill and Ben   195 0.60
Progressive   188 0.58
Legalise Cannabis   123 0.38
Family Party   87 0.27
Alliance   25 0.08
Libertarianz   15 0.05
Workers Party   8 0.02
Pacific   4 0.01
RAM   3 0.01
RONZ   1 0.003
Informal votes 245 107
Total Valid votes 31,720 32,259
National win new seat Majority 12,850 40.51

1935 election

General election, 1935: Waikato[29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Robert Coulter 4,258 44.01
United Frederick Lye 3,474 35.90 -20.95
Country Party Solomon Netheim Ziman[nb 1] 1,221 12.62 -30.53
Democrat Dr. H E Annett 722 7.46
Informal votes 155 1.60 +0.69
Majority 784 8.10
Turnout 9,675 87.38 +9.46
Registered electors 11,072

Table footnotes:

  1. ^ Ziman was the father of John Ziman[30]

1931 election

General election, 1931: Waikato[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
United Frederick Lye 4,072 56.85
Country Party Solomon Netheim Ziman[nb 1] 3,091 43.15
Majority 981 13.70
Informal votes 66 0.91
Turnout 7,229 77.92
Registered electors 9,277

Table footnotes:

  1. ^ Ziman was the father of John Ziman[32]

1908 election

General election, 1908: Waikato, first ballot[33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Henry Greenslade 3,305 54.03
Conservative Allen Bell 2,812 45.97
Majority 493 8.06
Turnout 6,117 83.01
Registered electors 7,369

1899 election

General election, 1899: Waikato[34][35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Frederic Lang 2,337 53.70
Liberal John Hosking 2,015 46.30
Majority 322 7.40
Turnout 4,352 82.39
Registered electors 5,282

Notes

  1. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 108, 111, 112.
  2. ^ a b McRobie 1989, p. 111.
  3. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 107, 111.
  4. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 108, 112.
  5. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 111f.
  6. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 165.
  7. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 124.
  8. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 116.
  9. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 147.
  10. ^ Stone, R. C. J. "Whitaker, Frederick - Biography". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  11. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 144.
  12. ^ Scholefield 1950, pp. 87, 147.
  13. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 97.
  14. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 211.
  15. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 99.
  16. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 119.
  17. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 109.
  18. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 149.
  19. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 121.
  20. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 134.
  21. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 102.
  22. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 139.
  23. ^ a b Wilson 1985.
  24. ^ a b "Official Count Results -- Waikato". Wellington: New Zealand Electoral Commission. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  25. ^ a b "Official Count Results -- Waikato". Wellington: New Zealand Electoral Commission. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  26. ^ "MP Lindsay Tisch not to seek re-election". Stuff.co.nz. 20 June 2016. Retrieved 27 September 2017. 
  27. ^ "Official Count Results -- Waikato". Wellington: New Zealand Electoral Commission. Retrieved 15 December 2016. 
  28. ^ "Enrolment statistics". Electoral Commission. 26 November 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2011. 
  29. ^ The General Election, 1935. National Library. 1936. pp. 1–35. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  30. ^ "Ziman, John Michael" (PDF). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  31. ^ The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 5. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  32. ^ "Ziman, John Michael" (PDF). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  33. ^ AtoJs 1908 election 1909, p. 6.
  34. ^ "The General Election, 1899". Wellington: Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives. 19 June 1900. p. 1. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  35. ^ "Official Declaration of Poll". Auckland Star. XXX (296). 30 November 1899. p. 5. Retrieved 7 March 2014. 

References

  • McRobie, Alan (1989). Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8. 
  • Mansfield, F. W. (1909). The General Election, 1908. National Library. Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  • Scholefield, Guy (1950) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer. 
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103. 

External links

  • Electorate map from Elections NZ
  • 1870 description of boundaries
  • 1902 map
  • 1911 map (page 29) and description of boundaries
  • 1917 map (page 27) and description of boundaries
  • 1937 map
  • 1946 map
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