Vuk Mandušić

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Vuk Mandušić
Vuk Mandušić.jpg
Retouched image of Vuk Mandušić's statue
Born Dalmatian hinterland, Ottoman Empire (now Croatia)
Died 31 July 1648
Zečevo, Ottoman Empire (now Croatia)
Allegiance  Republic of Venice
Years of service 1645-48
Rank "capo direttore de Morlacchi del territorio di Sebenico"[1]
Unit Morlach army
Battles/wars

Vuk Mandušić (Serbian Cyrillic: Вук Мандушић; fl. 1645 – died 13 July 1648) was the capo direttore of the Morlach army, one of the most prominent harambaša (rebel leaders) in the Dalmatian hinterland, that fought the Ottoman Empire during the Cretan War (1645–69). He is one of the heroes renowned in both Croatian, and Serbian epic poetry. The Montenegrin poet and prince-bishop Petar II Petrović Njegoš immortalized him in one of his epic poems,Gorski vijenac, also known in English translation as Mountain Wreath.

Early and personal life

Mandušić was called a Morlach or Vlach,[2] and his birthplace is undetermined, but it is generally considered he was born somewhere in the Dalmatian Zagora.[2] Several localities in the hinterland of modern-day Šibenik-Knin County has been given: Rupe near Skradin, according to the oral tradition preserved in the work from 1756 by Franciscan monk Andrija Kačić Miošić;[3][4] and Petrovo polje.[5] As Mandušić was included in the 19th century work by Petar II Petrović-Njegoš, under the influence of the work were given additional theories;[2] he was from Velestovo and revolted in Kotari (Dalmatia),[6][7] or that hailed from Tetovo (now in the Republic of Macedonia), before settling in Sredska, Kosovo,[8] while others claim it was another person with the same name.[7]

He adopted his sororal nephew Tadija Vrančić,[9][10] who later signed himself as Mandušić,[11] and replaced Vuk upon his death and was appointed commander of the Šibenik "uskoks".[10]

In late February 1648, he "jumped into" Venetian Dalmatia with Vlachs of Petrovo polje, fighting for five months.[12]

Career

With the Cretan War (1645–69), a solid organization was needed, with an officer commanding over several Harambaša.[10] At first this position was undetermined.[10] Priest Stjepan S/Šorić is mentioned as "governator delli Morlachi", Petar Smiljanić as "capo", Vuk Mandušić as "capo direttore", and Janko Mitrović as "capo principale de Morlachi", Jovan Dračevac as "governator", and many others.[10][13] This "Uskok" or "Morlach" army had less than 1,500 fighters.[14]

The first information on Mandušić dates to February 1648, when mentioning the Venetian attack on Drniš and Knin, which Mandušić played a great role. In March and May the same year, he took part in the liberation of Klis, and Ključ (with 175 fighters), respectively. On 3 July is mentioned in a notice by Leonardo Foscolo about the plunder of Ključ and Turkish territory.[15]

On 11 July is mentioned by Foscolo about the gold medal which received Stjepan S/Šorić in June that same year, who although a brave soldier and has many supporters, can not count on obedience, because with the soldiers is not generous,[16] while if for the captain Mandušić came the second medal equal to that of Šorić, and he deserves it, it would've saved him the bitterness of exclusion, and to the nation would serve as a great consolation, because he is in the Krajina appreciated more than any other.[17]

New Bosnian Pasha, Drviš Skopljak, who went down in Livno, in late July sent in Ravni Kotari his Kiaya-bey, Hussein-beg, with a detachment of 4,000 people. Hussein after looting Kotari reached the Biograd and Turanj, and with enormous loot was returning to the Knin.[9] Foscolo, powerless to prevent Hussein's hike, sent out for Ilija Smiljanić with Kotari Uskoks, and Mandušić with Šibenik Uskoks, as an attempt to cut off their retreat and snatch the loot.[9] In the conflict near Zečevo, on 31 July, he died while fighting, along twenty soldiers and three or four harambaša. His death was reported by three harambašas, Ilija Smiljanić, Martin Milković, and Matija Mihaljević.[9]

On 5 August, Foscolo highly praised him and wrote From Šibenik arrived the confirmation on news of the death of poor Mandušić, whom let the Lord God grant heavenly abode, before he died avengeed the death of five Turks. He was indeed a brave soldier, modest and unselfishly governor, a trait that is rarely encountered in this nation, which in most can call rapacious. If he succeeded to loot something, all would share among the soldiers, who had so loved, worshiped and obeyed him as much as was afraid among the Turks. I vividly felt his loss, because of damage that will arise for the common good.[18] He was enumerated in Alessandro Vernino's Della historia delle Guerre di Dalmatia (1648) as "Mandusich de Murlacchi".[19] His sabre is kept at the Roman Catholic Visovac Monastery.[20]

Legacy

He is mentioned in Cvit razgovora naroda i jezika iliričkoga aliti rvackoga (The Flower of Discourse among the Illyrian and Croatian People and Language, 1747) by Franciscan priest Filip Grabovac, and Razgovor ugodni naroda slovinskog (Pleasant Conversation of Slavic People, 1756) by Franciscan monk Andrija Kačić Miošić.[21] Miošić said of him "a mighty hero, not only praised by the Dalmatians, and exalted, furthermore also praised by Catholics in their books".[22]

He is one of the heroes renowned in Serbian epic poetry.[23] Epic poems starring Mandušić include Шеовић Осман, Мустајбег лички и Вук Мандушић, Удар на Вука Мандушића,[24] and Два Куртића и Бојичић Алил.[25] He is most notably included in The Mountain Wreath (1847) by Montenegrin Prince-Bishop Petar II Petrović-Njegoš.[26] He became an example of heroic character and behaviour of the Serbs.[27] In Serbian historiography, he is often called a Serb.[26][28][29]

The authors of the Srpski list (late 19th century) from Split used names from the Mountain Wreath; Vuk Mandušić was one of the pseudonyms.[30] Serbian-Canadian writer Radoje Vukčević used his name as a pseudonym.[31]

Croatian writer Nikola Pulić in 1989 wrote a novel Sablja Vuka Mandušića.[32]

There are several streets named after him, such as in Belgrade,[33] Novi Sad,[34] Subotica,[35] and Podgorica.[36]

See also

References

  1. ^ Michel Aubin (1974). Visions historiques et politiques dans l'œuvre poétique de P[etar II] P[etrovic] Njegos. Diffusion de Boccard. p. 243. capo direttore de Morlacchi 
  2. ^ a b c Desnica, Boško (June 1998). "Hrabra smrt kod zečeva (from book Stojan Janković i uskočka Dalmacija, 1991)". Srpsko Nasleđe, Istorijske sveske, br. 6 (in Serbo-Croatian). 
  3. ^ Matić, Tomo (1942). Djela Andrije Kačića Miošića (Knj. Prva: Razgovori Ugodni) [Works by Andrija Kačić Miošić (Book One: Pleasant Conversation)] (in Croatian). Zagreb: HAZU. pp. 24, 492–493. Retrieved 5 February 2015. 

    Slide vitezovi od Šibenika i države šibeničke (Rata od Kandije) - Vuk Mandušić iz Rupa, glasoviti vitez ... Slidi pisma od vitezova šibeniški - Al poslušaj, dragi pobratime, koji nosiš od junaka ime, da ti kažem silnoga vojnika od bijela grada Šibenika, po imenu Mandušića Vuka, u koga je od mejdana ruka: svu je tursku zemlu porobio i stotinu glava odsikao. Nega fale latinska gospoda i junaci slavnoga naroda, jer bijaše Vuče Mandušiću silni junak kano Krajeviću.

  4. ^ Mandušić, Zoran Josip (November 1998). "Legenda o Vuku Mandušiću" [The Legend about Vuk Mandušić]. Meridijani (in Croatian). Samobor: Meridijani. 36. Retrieved 5 February 2015. 
  5. ^ Историски записи. 1. с.н. 1948. p. 37. 
  6. ^ Slobodan Tomović (1999). Enciklopedija Njegoš. CID. p. 514. Према Павлу Ровинском, Вук Мандушић је Црногорац из Велестова, који је годинама хајдуковао у Далмацији. 
  7. ^ a b Stvaranje. Stvaranja. 1964. p. 701. Интересантна је забелешка Павла Ровинског о Ман- душићу: „Тако говоре да је Вук Мандушић из Велестова неколико година хајдуковао у Котарима (Далмација); а други, напротив, тврде да је то био његов једноимењак. П. Поповић у својој познатој књизи „О Горском ... 
  8. ^ "Презимена, село Средска (Призрен)" (in Serbian). poreklo.rs. 5 May 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2015. Yugoslav ethnologist Tatomir Vukanović, when studying settlements in Kosovo, found that the Mandušići in Sredska, Kosovo, who lived in the hamlet of Pejčići, hailed from Tetovo (now in the Republic of Macedonia), which they left after murdering Turk oppressors; a part of the Mandušići also settled in Montenegro. Furthermore, he claimed that Vuk Mandušić most likely hailed from these Mandušići. 
  9. ^ a b c d Desnica 1998.
  10. ^ a b c d e Univerzitet u Beogradu. Filološki fakultet (1958). Prilozi za književnost, jezik, istoriju i folklor, Volume 24, Parts 1-2 (in Serbo-Croatian). Државна штампарија Краљевине Срба, Хрвата и Словенаца. p. 11. 

    Имамо документе о томе да је Вук Мандушић посинио свога сестрића Тадију Вранчића, који је заменио ујака и био постављен за старешину шибенских ускока

  11. ^ Povijesno društvo Hrvatske (1952). Historijski zbornik, Volumes 5-6 (in Croatian). Nakladni zavod Hrvatske. p. 141. 

    biran je njegov sestrić Tadija Vrančić, koji se kasnije potpisuje i .kao »Mandušić«. Negdje je. opet, taj čin i položaj bio nasljedan. Za Kandiskog rata pokazala se potreba za čvršćom organizacijom, izborom oficira koji će komandovati nad više harambaša. Spočetka je taj položaj neodređen i pn imenu i po kompetenciji. Pop Stjepan Sorić spominje se kao >governator delli Morlachi«. Petar Smiljanić je ^>capo«. Vuk Mandušić »capo direttore«, Janko M'i- trović ?capo principale de Morlachi«. Jovan Dračevac ^governator« i td

  12. ^ Prilozi za književnost, jezik, istoriju i folklor. Државна штампарија Краљевине Срба, Хрвата и Словенаца. 1954. p. 78. Вук Мандушић је хисториски утврђен. Он је са петропољ- ским власима ускочио на територију млетачке Далмације крајем фебруара 1648, водио је борбе само пет месеци и погинуо је 31 јула 1648 у бици на Зечеву. 
  13. ^ Boško Desnica (1950–1951). Istorija Kotarski Uskoka 1646–1749 (PDF) (in Serbian). I–II. Venice: SANU. pp. 140, 141, 142. 
  14. ^ Radovan Samardžić (1981). Istorija srpskog naroda, Volume 3, Part 1 (in Serbian). Srpska knjiiževna zadruga. 

    Ускочку војску, у којој укупно није било ни 1.500 људи, предводили су, поред осталих, харамбаше Петар Смиља- нић, поп Стеван Суботић (Сорић) и калуђер Петроније Селаковић.

  15. ^ Desnica 1998a: vlaški kapetan Mandušić, iskušan u svim potrebama, doista vrlo hrabar, ali ujedno i smotren, što je neobično svojstvo kod ljudi njegova kova
  16. ^ Desnica 1998b: da bi taj znak vanredne ljubavi prema tom licu, mogao da oneraspoloži koga drugog koji služi jednako kao on (Šorić) ako ne i bolje od njega, jer iako je Šorić hrabar vojnik i ima nešto pristaša, ne može da računa na posluh, jer sa vojnicima nije darežljiv.
  17. ^ Desnica 1998c: Kad bi za kapetana Mandušića došla druga kolajna jednaka Šorićevoj, a on je zanago zaslužuje, to bi njemu prištedilo gorčinu isključenja, a naciji bi poslužilo na veliku utjehu, jer je on na Krajini cijenjen više nego ijedan drugi.
  18. ^ Desnica 1998d: Iz Šibenika stiže potvrda vijesti o pogibiji jadnog Mandušića, kojemu nek Gospod Bog podari rajsko naselje, pogibiji koju je on prije smrti osvetio smrću petorice Turaka. bio je zaista hrabar vojnik, skroman i nekoristoljubiv vojvoda, svojstvo na koje se vrlo rijetko nailazi kod ovog naroda, koji se u većini može da nazove grabljivim. Kad bi mu uspjelo da što upljačka, sve bi podijelio među vojnike, koji su ga stoga ljubili, štovali i slušali isto onoliko koliko su ga se Turci bojali. ja sam živo osjetio njegov ghubitak, radi štete koja će otuda nastati za opću stvar.
  19. ^ Alessandro Vernino (1648). Della historia delle Guerre di Dalmatia. p. 124. 
  20. ^ United States. Foreign Broadcast Information Service (1993). Daily report: East Europe, Issues 45-52. The Service. p. 49. 

    In a Catholic monastery not far from Knin, the monks show off the sword of Vuk Mandusic, from Rupe, as the weapon of a great Croatian hero. When Ljubo, long before the war as a high school student, asked the Croatian priest what connection this Serbian Orthodox from "Gorski Vijenac" has with Croathood, he and the entire class were sent outside and punished with a reprimand.

  21. ^ Andrija Kačić Miošić (1801). Razgovor ugodni naroda Slovinskoga. Czesar. p. 251. delija mandussich vuçene 
  22. ^ Andrija Kačić Miošić (1833). Korabglicza pisma svetoga i svih vikovah svita dogagiaijh poglavitih u dva poglavja razdigliena. p. 506. Vuk Mandussich silni Junak, ne samo od Dalmatina pivan, i uzviscem, dali josc, i od latinah u gniovim kniggam pofaglien. 
  23. ^ Popović, Miodrag (1987). Vuk Stef. Karadžić: 1787–1864 (in Serbian). Belgrade: Nolit. p. 293. Retrieved 19 May 2012. У њима, здружени у истом херојском сплету, нашли су се ју- наци из различитих крајева: Краљевић Марко из старе постојбине у Македонији, Мијат Томић из Босне, Бајо Пивљанин из Боке, Стојан Јанковић, Вук Мандушић и Илија Смиљанић из средње Далмације 
  24. ^ Vlado Strugar (1987). Prošlost Crne Gore kao predmet naučnog istraživanja i obrade. Crnogorska akademija nauka i umjetnosti. У пјесми Удар на Вука Мандушића (Његошево Огледало српско, VII) Бошкозић има једно од челних мјеста у акцији коју спушки капетан предузима против Црногораца. Турскју војску предводе Петар Бошковић и турски капетан из ... 
  25. ^ Bulletin du Musée etnographique de Cétigné. 3. Muzej. 1963. pp. 4, 407. 
  26. ^ a b Časlav Đorđević, mr Predrag Lučić (2009). Književnost i srpski jezik (in Serbian). Novi Sad: Izdavačka agencija D-Đorđević. pp. 65–76. 
  27. ^ Istorija srpskog naroda: knj. Od najstarijih vremena do Maričke bitke (1371). Srpska književna zadruga. 1993. p. 352. 
  28. ^ Mitološki zbornik. 15-17. Centar za mitološki studije Srbije. 2006. Вук Мандушић био је један од најистакнутијих харамбаша Срба котарских ускока 
  29. ^ Lazo M. Kostić (1968). Srbi u očima stranaca: kolektaneja. p. 61. 
  30. ^ Cetinje (Montenegro). Etnografski Muzej (1963). Glasnik. p. 380. 
  31. ^ Lazo M. Kostić (1963). 0 odgovornosti za ubijanje Srba u poslednjem ratu. Izdanje Srpske narodne odbrane u Kanadi. Тако "Вук Мандушић" у "Гласу канадских Срба" (псеудоним Радоја Вукчевића). 
  32. ^ "Umro književnik Nikola Pulić" (in Croatian). Jutarnji list. 31 December 2005. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  33. ^ http://www.planplus.rs/ulica/14120/beograd-vozdovac-vuka-mandusica
  34. ^ http://www.nadji.info/rs/novi-sad/ulica/vuka-mandusica/as35612351/
  35. ^ http://subotica.mapa.in.rs/ulice/vuka-mandusica
  36. ^ http://podgorica.mapa.in.rs/ulice/vuka-mandusica

External links

  • Novak Kilibarda. "Lik Vuka Mandušića u Gorskom vijencu" (in Serbo-Croatian). Rastko. 
  • "Vuk Mandušić". Croatian Encyclopedia (in Croatian). Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
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