Voiceless velar affricate

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Voiceless velar affricate
kx
Encoding
X-SAMPA k_x
Listen

The voiceless velar affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound are ⟨k͡x⟩ and ⟨k͜x⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is k_x. The tie bar is sometimes omitted, yielding ⟨kx⟩ in the IPA and kx in X-SAMPA. This is potentially problematic in case of at least some affricates, because there are languages that contrast certain affricates with stop-fricative sequences. Polish words czysta ('clean (f.)', pronounced with an affricate /t͡ʂ/) and trzysta ('three hundred', pronounced with a sequence /tʂ/) are an example of a minimal pair based on such a contrast.

Some languages have the voiceless pre-velar affricate,[1] which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless velar affricate, though not as front as the prototypical voiceless palatal affricate - see that article for more information.

Conversely, some languages have the voiceless post-velar affricate,[2] which is articulated slightly behind the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless velar affricate, though not as back as the prototypical voiceless uvular affricate - see that article for more information.

Features

Features of the voiceless velar affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is velar, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the soft palate.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bavarian Dialects spoken in Tyrol Kchind [ˈk͡xind̥] 'child'
Dutch Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[3] blik [ˈblɪk͡x] 'plate' Optional pre-pausal allophone of /k/.[3] See Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect phonology
English Broad Cockney[4] cab [ˈk͡xɛˑb̥] 'cab' Possible word-initial, intervocalic and word-final allophone of /k/.[5] See English phonology
New Zealand[6] Word-initial allophone of /k/.[6] See English phonology
North Wales[7] [ˈk͡xaˑb̥] Word-initial and word-final allophone of /k/; in free variation with a strongly aspirated stop [kʰ].[7] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[8] Occasional allophone of /k/.[8] See English phonology
Scouse[9] Possible syllable-initial and word-final allophone of /k/.[9] See English phonology
German Standard Austrian[10] Kübel [ˈk͡xyːbœl] 'bucket' Possible realization of /k/ before front vowels.[10] See Standard German phonology
Old dialect of Dinkelberg Anke [ˈɑŋk͡xə] 'butter'
Swiss dialects Sack [z̥ɑk͡x] 'bag' May be actually uvular [q͡χ] in some dialects.
Korean[11] (keuda) [k͡xɯ̽da] 'big' Allophone of /kʰ/ before /ɯ/.[11] See Korean phonology
Lakota lakhóta [laˈk͡xota] 'Lakota' Allophone of /kʰ/ before /a/, /ã/, /o/, /ĩ/, and /ũ/.
Navajo [example needed] Allophone of /kʰ/ before the back vowels /o, a/. See Navajo phonology
!Xóõ [example needed] Used in pulmonic-contour clicks.

See also

References

  1. ^ Instead of "pre-velar", it can be called "advanced velar", "fronted velar", "front-velar", "palato-velar", "post-palatal", "retracted palatal" or "backed palatal".
  2. ^ Instead of "post-velar", it can be called "retracted velar", "backed velar", "pre-uvular", "advanced uvular" or "fronted uvular".
  3. ^ a b Peters (2010), p. 240.
  4. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 322-323.
  5. ^ Wells (1982), p. 323.
  6. ^ a b Bauer et al. (2007), p. 100.
  7. ^ a b Penhallurick (2004), pp. 108-109.
  8. ^ a b Gimson (2014), p. 172.
  9. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 372.
  10. ^ a b Moosmüller, Schmid & Brandstätter (2015), p. 341.
  11. ^ a b Shin, Kiaer & Cha (2012), p. 77.

Bibliography

  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul; Bardsley, Dianne; Kennedy, Marianna; Major, George (2007), "New Zealand English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (1): 97–102, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002830 
  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan, ed., Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092 
  • Moosmüller, Sylvia; Schmid, Carolin; Brandstätter, Julia (2015), "Standard Austrian German", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 45 (03): 339–348, doi:10.1017/S0025100315000055 
  • Penhallurick, Robert (2004), "Welsh English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 98–112, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Peters, Jörg (2010), "The Flemish–Brabant dialect of Orsmaal–Gussenhoven", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 239–246, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000083 
  • Shin, Ji-young; Kiaer, Ji-eun; Cha, Jae-eun (2012), The Sounds of Korean, ISBN 9781107030053 
  • Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English 2: The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-24224-X 

References

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