Voiceless palatal lateral approximant

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Voiceless palatal lateral approximant
ʎ̥
IPA number 157 402A
Encoding
X-SAMPA L_0

The voiceless palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʎ̥⟩ (devoicedʎ⟩), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is L_0.

If distinction is necessary, the voiceless alveolo-palatal lateral approximant may be transcribed as ⟨l̠̊ʲ⟩ or ⟨l̥˗ʲ⟩ (both symbols denote a devoiced, retracted and palatalizedl⟩) or ⟨ʎ̥˖⟩ (devoiced and advancedʎ⟩); these are essentially equivalent, since the contact includes both the blade and body (but not the tip) of the tongue. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are l_0_-' or l_0_-_j and L_0_+, respectively. A non-IPA letter ⟨ȴ̊⟩ (devoiced ⟨ȴ⟩, which is an ordinary "l", plus the curl found in the symbols for alveolo-palatal sibilant fricatives ⟨ɕ, ʑ⟩) can also be used.

It is found as a phoneme distinct from the voiced /ʎ/ in the Xumi language spoken in China.[1][2]

Features

Features of the voiceless palatal lateral approximant:

  • Its manner of articulation is approximant, which means it is produced by narrowing the vocal tract at the place of articulation, but not enough to produce a turbulent airstream.
  • Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Faroese[3] kjálki [ˈt͡ʃʰaʎ̥t͡ʃɪ] 'jaw' Allophone of /l/.[3] See Faroese phonology
Inupiaq[4] sikł̣aq [sikʎ̥˖ɑq] ˈpickaxeˈ Alveolo-palatal;[4] also described as a fricative [ʎ̥˖˔].[5] Contrasts with voiceless /ɬ/ and voiced /ʎ/ and /l/.
nuiŋił̣ł̣uni [nuiŋiʎ̥˖ʎ̥˖uni] 'because it did not appear'
Norwegian Trondheim subdialect of Trøndersk[6] alt [ɑʎ̥c] 'everything, all' Allophone of /ʎ/ before /c/.[6] See Norwegian phonology
Some subdialects of Trøndersk[6] tatle [tɑʎ̥] 'acting silly' According to some scholars,[7][8] it is a phoneme that contrasts with /ʎ/ (as in /tɑʎ/ 'softwood'.)[6] See Norwegian phonology
Xumi Lower[1] [Hʎ̥˖o] 'spirit' Alveolo-palatal; contrasts with the voiced /ʎ/.[1][2]
Upper[2] [Hʎ̥˖ɛ] 'flavorless'

References

  1. ^ a b c Chirkova & Chen (2013), pp. 365, 367–368.
  2. ^ a b c Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), pp. 382–383.
  3. ^ a b Árnason (2011:115)
  4. ^ a b Kaplan 1981, p. 29.
  5. ^ MacLean 1980, p. XX.
  6. ^ a b c d Vanvik (1979), p. 37.
  7. ^ Such as Vanvik (1979)
  8. ^ An example of a scholar disagreeing with this position is Scholtz (2009). On page 15, she provides a phoneme chart for Trøndersk, in which /ʎ/ is included. Under the phoneme chart she writes "Vanvik also lists /ʎ̥/ as an underlying phoneme, but that’s ridiculous." She provides no further explanation for that.

Bibliography

  • Árnason, Kristján (2011), The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-922931-4 
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya (2013), "Xumi, Part 1: Lower Xumi, the Variety of the Lower and Middle Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 363–379, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000157 
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya; Kocjančič Antolík, Tanja (2013), "Xumi, Part 2: Upper Xumi, the Variety of the Upper Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 381–396, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000169 
  • Scholtz, Anna (2009), A phonetic study of the status of three mergers in the Trøndersk dialect of Norwegian (PDF), Williamstown, Massachusetts: Williams College 
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6 
  • MacLean, Edna Ahgeak (1980), Iñupiallu Tanņiḷḷu Uqaluņisa Iḷaņich = Abridged Iñupiaq and English Dictionary (PDF), Fairbanks, Alaska: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, p. xvii-xx, retrieved 20 December 2017 
  • Kaplan, Lawrence D. (1981), Phonological Issues in North Alaskan Inupiaq (PDF), Fairbanks, Alaska: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, p. 21-29, retrieved 20 December 2017 
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