Voiceless labialized velar approximant

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Voiceless labialized velar approximant
ʍ
IPA Number 169
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʍ
Unicode (hex) U+028D
X-SAMPA W
Braille ⠖ (braille pattern dots-235)⠺ (braille pattern dots-2456)
Audio sample

The voiceless labialized velar (labiovelar) approximant (traditionally called a voiceless labiovelar fricative) is a type of consonantal sound, used in spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʍ⟩ (a rotated lowercase letter ⟨w⟩) or ⟨⟩.

[ʍ] is generally called a "fricative" for historical reasons, but in English, the language for which the letter ⟨ʍ⟩ is primarily used, it is a voiceless approximant, equivalent to [w̥] or [hw̥]. The symbol is rarely appropriated for a labialized voiceless velar fricative, [xʷ], in other languages.

Features

Features of the voiceless labial-velar approximant:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Chinese Taiwanese Hokkien 沃花/ak-hue [ʔak̚˥ʔ ʍeː˥] '(to) water flowers'
Cornish whath/hwath [ʍæːθ] 'yet' See Cornish phonology
Danish Jutish hvor [ʍɔr] and variations 'where' Generally transcribed as [hw-] in Danish dialectology.
Old, Middle and Early Modern Danish[citation needed] Modern Danish spelling has retained the mute h in initial hv- and hj-. See Danish phonology
English Conservative Received Pronunciation[1] whine [ʍaɪ̯n] 'whine' Commonly transcribed as /hw/ for simplicity; contrasts with /w/. In General American[2] and New Zealand English[3][4] only some speakers maintain the distinction; in Europe, mostly heard in Irish and Scottish accents.[1] See English phonology and phonological history of wh.
Cultivated South African[5]
Conservative General American[2][6]
Irish[5][7][8] [ʍʌɪ̯n]
Scottish[5][9][10][11]
Southern American[12] [ʍäːn]
New Zealand[3][4][9][13] [ʍɑe̯n]
Hupa tł'iwh [t͡ɬʼiʍ] 'snake' Contrasts with /w/ and /xʷ/
Italian Tuscan[14] la qualifica [lä ʍäˈliːfihä] 'the qualification' Intervocalic allophone of /kw/. See Italian phonology
Nahuatl Cuauhtēmallān [kʷaʍteːmalːaːn] 'Guatemala' Allophone of /w/ before voiceless consonants
Slovene[15][16] vse [ˈʍsɛ] 'everything' Allophone of /ʋ/ in the syllable onset before voiceless consonants, in free variation with a vowel [u]. Voiced [w] before voiced consonants.[15][16] See Slovene phonology
Washo Wáʔi [ˈw̥aʔi] 'he's the one who's doing it'
Welsh Southern Colloquial chwe [ʍeː] 'six' See Welsh phonology

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Received Pronunciation Phonology".
  2. ^ a b Rogers (2000), p. 120.
  3. ^ a b Rogers (2000), p. 117.
  4. ^ a b "Australian English and New Zealand English" (PDF). p. 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2014.
  5. ^ a b c Lass (2002), p. 121.
  6. ^ "North American English: General Accents" (PDF). Universität Stuttgart - Institut für Linguistik. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2014.
  7. ^ Wells (1982), p. 432.
  8. ^ "Irish English and Ulster English" (PDF). pp. 4 and 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2014.
  9. ^ a b McMahon (2002), p. 31.
  10. ^ Wells (1982), p. 408.
  11. ^ "Scottish Standard English and Scots" (PDF). p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2014.
  12. ^ Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006).
  13. ^ Wells (1982), p. 610.
  14. ^ Hall (1944:75)
  15. ^ a b Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999:136)
  16. ^ a b Greenberg (2006:18)

References

  • Greenberg, Mark L. (2006), A Short Reference Grammar of Standard Slovene, Kansas: University of Kansas
  • Hall, Robert A. Jr. (1944). "Italian phonemes and orthography". Italica. American Association of Teachers of Italian. 21 (2): 72–82. doi:10.2307/475860. JSTOR 475860.
  • Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles (2006), The Atlas of North American English, Berlin: Mouton-de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-016746-8
  • Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend (ed.), Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521791052
  • McMahon, April (2002), An Introduction to English Phonology, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd, ISBN 0 7486 1252 1
  • Rogers, Henry (2000), The Sounds of Language: An Introduction to Phonetics, Essex: Pearson Education Limited, ISBN 978-0-582-38182-7
  • Šuštaršič, Rastislav; Komar, Smiljana; Petek, Bojan (1999), "Slovene", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 135–139, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
  • Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. Volume 1: An Introduction (pp. i–xx, 1–278), Volume 3: Beyond the British Isles (pp. i–xx, 467–674). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52129719-2 , 0-52128541-0 .

External links

  • List of languages with [w̥] on PHOIBLE
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