Voiced velar affricate

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Voiced velar affricate

The voiced velar affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in very few spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ⟨ɡ͡ɣ⟩ and ⟨ɡ͜ɣ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is g_G. The tie bar is sometimes omitted, yielding ⟨ɡɣ⟩ in the IPA and gG in X-SAMPA. This is potentially problematic in case of at least some affricates, because there are languages that contrast certain affricates with stop-fricative sequences. Polish words czysta ('clean (f.)', pronounced with an affricate /t͡ʂ/) and trzysta ('three hundred', pronounced with a sequence /tʂ/) are an example of a minimal pair based on such a contrast.

The voiced velar affricate has not been reported to occur phonemically in any language.


Features of the voiced velar affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is velar, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the soft palate.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English Broad Cockney[1] good [ˈɡ͡ɣʊˑd̥] 'good' Occasional allophone of /ɡ/.[2][3] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[3]
Scouse[4] Possible syllable-initial and word-final allophone of /ɡ/.[4] See English phonology


  1. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 322-323.
  2. ^ Wells (1982), p. 323.
  3. ^ a b Gimson (2014), p. 172.
  4. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 372.


  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan, ed., Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092
  • Wells, John C. (1982). "Accents of English 2: The British Isles". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24224-X.
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