Voiced palato-alveolar affricate

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Voiced palato-alveolar affricate
d͡ʒ
d͜ʒ
d̠ʒ
IPA number 104 135
Encoding
Entity (decimal) d​͡​ʒ
Unicode (hex) U+0064 U+0361 U+0292
X-SAMPA dZ or d_rZ
Kirshenbaum dZ
Listen

The voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate, voiced post-alveolar affricate or voiced domed postalveolar sibilant affricate, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨d͡ʒ⟩ (formerly the ligature ⟨ʤ⟩), or in broad transcriptionɟ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA representation is dZ. Alternatives commonly used in linguistic works, particularly in older or American literature, are ⟨ǰ⟩, ⟨ǧ⟩, ⟨ǯ⟩, and ⟨dž⟩. It is familiar to English speakers as the pronunciation of ⟨j⟩ in jump.

Features

Features of the voiced postalveolar affricate:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz аџыр [ad͡ʒər] 'steel' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe джанэ About this sound [d͡ʒaːna]  'dress'
Albanian xham [d͡ʒam] 'glass'
Amharic እን [ɨnd͡ʒəra] 'injera'
Arabic Standard[1] جَرَس [d͡ʒaras] 'bell' In other standards and dialects, corresponds to [ɡ] or [ʒ]. See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[2] ջուր [d͡ʒuɾ] 'water'
Western ճանճ [d͡ʒɑnd͡ʒ] 'fly'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic jura [d͡ʒuɾ:a] 'big' Used predominantly in Urmia and some Jilu dialects. [g] is used in other varieties.
Azerbaijani ağac [ɑɣɑd͡ʒ] 'tree'
Bengali [d͡ʒɔl] 'water' Contrasts with the aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Berber Kabyle lǧiran [ld͡ʒiræn] 'the neighbors'
Bulgarian джудже [ˈd͡ʒud͡ʒɛ] 'dwarf' See Bulgarian phonology
Chechen джерво / ''dzh'yerwo' [d͡ʒjerwo] 'previously married woman'
Chinese Quzhou dialect [d͡ʒõ] 'heavy'
Coptic ϫ [d͡ʒe] 'that'
Czech čba [lɛːd͡ʒba] 'treatment' See Czech phonology
English jump [ˈd͡ʒʌmp] 'jump ' See English phonology
Esperanto manĝaĵo [manˈd͡ʒaʒo̞] 'food' See Esperanto phonology
Faroese gestir [ˈd͡ʒɛstɪɹ] 'guests ' See Faroese phonology
French adjonction [ad͡ʒɔ̃ksjɔ̃] 'addition' Rare. See French phonology
Georgian[3] იბე [d͡ʒibɛ] 'pocket'
German Standard[4] Dschungel [ˈd͡ʒʊŋəl] 'jungle' Laminal or apico-laminal and strongly labialized.[4] Some speakers may merge it with /t͡ʃ/. See Standard German phonology
Goemai [d͡ʒaːn] 'twins'
Hebrew ג׳וק [d͡ʒuk] 'cockroach' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustani जाना / جانا [d͡ʒɑːnɑː] 'to go' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian lándzsa [laːnd͡ʒɒ] 'spear' Rare, mostly in loanwords. See Hungarian phonology
Italian[5] gemma [ˈd͡ʒɛmma] 'gem' See Italian phonology
Indonesian jarak [ˈd͡ʒaraʔ] 'distance'
Kashubian[6] [example needed]
Kurdish Kurmanji cîger [d͡ʒiɡɛɾ] 'lung'
Kyrgyz жаман [d͡ʒaman] 'bad' See Kyrgyz phonology
Limburgish Hasselt dialect[7] djèn [d͡ʒɛːn²] 'Eugene'
Lithuanian iaugsmingas [d͡ʒɛʊɡʲsʲˈmʲɪnɡɐs] 'gladsome' See Lithuanian phonology
Macedonian џемпер [ˈd͡ʒɛmpɛr] 'sweater' See Macedonian phonology
Malay jahat [d͡ʒahat] 'evil'
Manchu ᠵᡠᠸᡝ [d͡ʒuwe] 'two'
Marathi [d͡ʒəj] 'victory' See Marathi phonology
Occitan Languedocien ''j'ove' [ˈd͡ʒuβe] 'young' See Occitan phonology
Provençal [ˈd͡ʒuve]
Ojibwe ? [iːd͡ʒikiwẽːʔ] 'brother' See Ojibwe phonology
Pashto جګ [d͡ʒeɡ] 'high'
Persian کجا [kod͡ʒɒ] 'where' See Persian phonology
Polish Gmina Istebna dziwny [ˈd͡ʒivn̪ɘ] 'strange' /ɖ͡ʐ/ and /d͡ʑ/ merge into [d͡ʒ] in these dialects. In standard Polish, /d͡ʒ/ is commonly used to transcribe what actually is a laminal voiced retroflex affricate.
Lubawa dialect[8]
Malbork dialect[8]
Ostróda dialect[8]
Warmia dialect[8]
Portuguese Most Brazilian dialects[9] 'grande' [ˈɡɾɐ̃d͡ʒi] 'big' Allophone of /d/ before /i, ĩ/ (including when the vowel is elided) and other instances of [i] (e.g. epenthesis), marginal sound otherwise.
Most dialects jambalaya [d͡ʒɐ̃bɐˈlajɐ] 'jambalaya' In free variation with /ʒ/ in a few recent loanwords. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian ger [d͡ʒer] 'frost' See Romanian phonology
Sardinian Campidanese ''g'éneru' [ˈd͡ʒɛneru] 'son-in-law'
Scottish Gaelic Dia [d͡ʒia] 'God' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian Some speakers џем / em [d͡ʒê̞m] 'jam' May be laminal retroflex instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Bosnian ђаво / ''đ'avo' [d͡ʒâ̠ʋo̞ː] 'devil' Most Croatian and some Bosnian speakers merge /d͡ʒ/ and /d͡ʑ/, either to [d͡ʒ] or laminal [ɖ͡ʐ].
Croatian
Silesian Gmina Istebna[10] [example needed] These dialects merge /ɖ͡ʐ/ and /d͡ʑ/ into [d͡ʒ].
Jablunkov[10] [example needed]
Somali joog [d͡ʒoːɡ] 'stop' See Somali phonology
Spanish Many dialects cónyuge [ˈkõ̞ɲd͡ʒuxe̞] 'spouse' May correspond to [ɟʝ] in Castilian Spanish, or be a stigmatized dialectal realization of /ʝ/ and /ʎ/. See Spanish phonology
Some dialects ayudar [ad͡ʒuˈð̞ar] 'to help'
Some Rioplatense dialects diez [d͡ʒes] 'ten'
Turkish acı [äˈd͡ʒɯ] 'pain' See Turkish phonology
Turkmen jar [d͡ʒär] 'ravine'
Ubykh [amd͡ʒan] '?' See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian[11] джерело [d͡ʒɛrɛˈlɔ] 'source' See Ukrainian phonology
Uyghur جوزا [d͡ʒozɑ] 'desk' See Uyghur phonology
West Frisian siedzje [ˈʃɪd͡ʒǝ] 'to sow' See West Frisian phonology
Yiddish דזשוכע [d͡ʒʊxə] 'insect' See Yiddish phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[12] dxan [d͡ʒaŋ] 'god'

Voiced postalveolar non-sibilant affricate

Voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative
d̠͡ɹ̠˔
d̠ɹ̠˔
d͡ɹ̝˗
dɹ̝˗
Listen

Features

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is postalveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English Australian[13] dream [d̠͡ɹ̠˔ʷɪi̯m] 'dream' Phonetic realization of the stressed, syllable-initial sequence /dr/.[13][14][15][16] In General American and Received Pronunciation, the less common alternative is alveolar [d͡ɹ̝].[14] See Australian English phonology and English phonology
General American[14][15]
Received Pronunciation[14][15]
Port Talbot[16] [d̠͡ɹ̠˔iːm]

See also

References

  1. ^ Watson (2002:16)
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:13)
  3. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  4. ^ a b Mangold (2005:51–52)
  5. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  6. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". 
  7. ^ Peters (2006:119)
  8. ^ a b c d Dubisz, Karaś & Kolis (1995:62)
  9. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:228)
  10. ^ a b Dąbrowska (2004:?)
  11. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  12. ^ Merrill (2008:108)
  13. ^ a b Cox & Fletcher (2017), p. 144.
  14. ^ a b c d Gimson (2014), pp. 177, 186–188, 192.
  15. ^ a b c Wells (2008).
  16. ^ a b Connolly (1990), p. 121.

Bibliography

  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 227–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756 
  • Connolly, John H. (1990), "Port Talbot English", in Coupland, Nikolas; Thomas, Alan Richard, English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, Multilingual Matters Ltd., pp. 121–129, ISBN 1-85359-032-0 
  • Cox, Felicity; Fletcher, Janet (2017) [First published 2012], Australian English Pronunciation and Transcription (2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1-316-63926-9 
  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 9783929075083 
  • Dąbrowska, Anna (2004), Język polski, Wrocław: wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie, ISBN 83-7384-063-X 
  • Dubisz, Stanisław; Karaś, Halina; Kolis, Nijola (1995), Dialekty i gwary polskie, Warsaw: Wiedza Powszechna, ISBN 83-2140989-X 
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan, ed., Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092 
  • Mangold, Max (2005) [First published 1962], Das Aussprachewörterbuch (6th ed.), Mannheim: Dudenverlag, ISBN 978-3-411-04066-7 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344 
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 117–124, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002428 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628 
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659 
  • Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press 
  • Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180 
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