Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate

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Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate
IPA number 216
Entity (decimal) ʥ
Unicode (hex) U+02A5
X-SAMPA d_z\ or J\_z\

The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ⟨d͡ʑ⟩, ⟨d͜ʑ⟩, ⟨ɟ͡ʑ⟩ and ⟨ɟ͜ʑ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are d_z\ and J\_z\, though transcribing the stop component with ⟨ɟ⟩ (J\ in X-SAMPA) is rare. The tie bar is sometimes omitted, yielding ⟨⟩ or ⟨ɟʑ⟩ in the IPA and dz\ or J\z\ in X-SAMPA. This is potentially problematic in case of at least some affricates, because there are languages that contrast certain affricates with stop-fricative sequences. Polish words czysta ('clean (f.)', pronounced with an affricate /t͡ʂ/) and trzysta ('three hundred', pronounced with a sequence /tʂ/) are an example of a minimal pair based on such a contrast.

Neither [d] nor [ɟ] are a completely narrow transcription of the stop component, which can be narrowly transcribed as [d̠ʲ] (retracted and palatalized [d]), [ɟ̟] or [ɟ˖] (both symbols denote an advanced [ɟ]). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are d_-' or d_-_j and J\_+, respectively.

This affricate used to have a dedicated symbol ⟨ʥ⟩, which was one of the six dedicated symbols for affricates in the International Phonetic Alphabet. It is the sibilant equivalent of voiced palatal affricate.


Features of the voiced alveolo-palatal affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bengali খন [d͡ʑɔkʰon] 'when' See Bengali phonology
Catalan[1] All dialects metge [ˈmedd͡ʑə] 'doctor' See Catalan phonology
Valencian joc [ˈd͡ʑɔk] 'game'
Chinese Taiwanese Hokkien /ji̍t [d͡ʑit̚˧ʔ] 'sun'
Wu [d͡ʑy] 'he/she/it'
Japanese 知人/chijin [t͡ɕid͡ʑĩɴ] 'acquaintance' See Japanese phonology
Korean 감자/gamja [kɐmd͡ʑɐ] 'potato' See Korean phonology
Polish[2] więk About this sound [d͡ʑvjɛŋk]  'sound' See Polish phonology
Romanian Banat dialect[3] des [d͡ʑes] 'frequent' Corresponds to [d] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian дочь бы [ˈd̪o̞d͡ʑ bɨ] 'daughter would' Allophone of /t͡ɕ/ before voiced consonants. See Russian phonology
Sema[4] aji [à̠d͡ʑì] 'blood' Possible allophone of /ʒ/ before /i, e/; can be realized as [ʑ ~ ʒ ~ d͡ʒ] instead.[4]
Serbo-Croatian ђаво / đavo [d͡ʑâ̠ʋo̞ː] 'devil' Merges with /d͡ʒ/ in most Croatian and some Bosnian accents. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Uzbek[5] [example needed]
Xumi Lower[6] [Hd͡ʑɐʔ] 'water'
Upper[7] [Hd͡ʑɜ]
Yi /jji [d͡ʑi˧] 'bee'

See also



  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya (2013), "Xumi, Part 1: Lower Xumi, the Variety of the Lower and Middle Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 363–379, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000157 
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya; Kocjančič Antolík, Tanja (2013), "Xumi, Part 2: Upper Xumi, the Variety of the Upper Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 381–396, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000169 
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj 
  • Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar, Uralic and Altaic Series, 18, Bloomington: Indiana University 
  • Teo, Amos B. (2014), A phonological and phonetic description of Sumi, a Tibeto-Burman language of Nagaland (PDF), Canberra: Asia-Pacific Linguistics, ISBN 978-1-922185-10-5 
  • Wheeler, Max W (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-925814-7 
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