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Vitamin

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Vitamin
Drug class
B vitamin supplement tablets.jpg
A bottle of B-complex vitamin pills
Pronunciation UK: /ˈvɪtəmɪn, ˈv-/
US: /ˈvtəmɪn/[1]
In Wikidata

A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient—that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism but cannot synthesize, either at all or in sufficient quantities, and therefore must obtain through its diet. The term vitamin does not include the three other essential nutrients: essential mineral (nutrient)s, essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids.[2] Some substances can be synthesized by a certain organism, but not by another: that substance is not a vitamin in the first instance, but it is in the second. Most vitamins are not single molecules, but groups of related molecules called vitamers. Vitamins are classified by their biological/chemical activity, not their structure. The thirteen vitamins required by human metabolism are: vitamin A (retinols and carotenoids), vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B7 (biotin), vitamin B9 (folic acid or folate), vitamin B12 (cobalamins), vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin D (calciferols), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), and vitamin K (quinones).

Vitamins have diverse biochemical functions. Some forms of vitamin A function as regulators of cell and tissue growth and differentiation. The B complex vitamins function as enzyme cofactors (coenzymes) or the precursors for them. Vitamin D has a hormone-like function as a regulator of mineral metabolism, and is anti-proliferative. Vitamin E (and sometimes vitamin C), functions as an antioxidant.[3] Both deficient and excess intake of a vitamin can potentially cause clinically significant illness; although excess intake of a water-soluble vitamin is least likely to do so. All vitamins were discovered (identified) between 1913 and 1948.

Before 1935, the only source of vitamins for humans was from food. Since food sources and availability inevitably fluctuated, so did the amount of vitamins ingested: sometimes with resulting vitamin deficiency. Then commercially produced tablets of yeast-extract vitamin B complex and semi-synthetic vitamin C became available. This was followed in the 1950s by the mass production, and promotion, of vitamin supplements, including multivitamins, to prevent vitamin deficiencies in the general population, but is thought to be of little value in healthy people.[4] The addition of vitamins to staple foods (food fortification) has prevented folic acid and vitamin B12 vitamin deficiencies. The oral administration of certain vitamins during pregnancy prevents both maternal and fetal vitamin deficiencies.

The term vitamin is derived from the word vitamine, coined in 1912 by biochemist Casimir Funk, who isolated a complex of micronutrients essential to life, all of which he presumed to be amines. When this presumption was later determined not to be true, the "e" was dropped from the name.[5]

List

Vitamin generic
descriptor name
Vitamer chemical name(s) (list not complete) Solubility United States Recommended dietary allowances
(male/female, age 19–70)[6]
Deficiency disease Upper Intake Level
(UL/day)[6]
Overdose syndrome/symptoms Food sources
Vitamin A Retinol, retinal, and
four carotenoids
including beta carotene
Fat 900 µg/700 µg Night blindness, hyperkeratosis, and keratomalacia[7] 3,000 µg Hypervitaminosis A Liver, orange, ripe yellow fruits, leafy vegetables, carrots, pumpkin, squash, spinach, fish, soy milk, milk
Vitamin B1 Thiamine Water 1.2 mg/1.1 mg Beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome N/D[8] Drowsiness and muscle relaxation[9] Pork, oatmeal, brown rice, vegetables, potatoes, liver, eggs
Vitamin B2 Riboflavin Water 1.3 mg/1.1 mg Ariboflavinosis, glossitis, angular stomatitis N/D Dairy products, bananas, popcorn, green beans, asparagus
Vitamin B3 Niacin, niacinamide, Nicotinamide riboside Water 16 mg/14 mg Pellagra 35 mg Liver damage (doses > 2g/day)[10] and other problems Meat, fish, eggs, many vegetables, mushrooms, tree nuts
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid Water 5 mg/5 mg[11] Paresthesia N/D Diarrhea; possibly nausea and heartburn.[12] Meat, broccoli, avocados
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, pyridoxal Water 1.3–1.7 mg/1.2–1.5 mg Anemia[13] peripheral neuropathy 100 mg Impairment of proprioception, nerve damage (doses > 100 mg/day) Meat, vegetables, tree nuts, bananas
Vitamin B7 Biotin Water AI: 30 µg/30 µg Dermatitis, enteritis N/D Raw egg yolk, liver, peanuts, leafy green vegetables
Vitamin B9 Folates Water 400 µg/400 µg Megaloblastic anemia and deficiency during pregnancy is associated with birth defects, such as neural tube defects 1,000 µg May mask symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency; other effects. Leafy vegetables, pasta, bread, cereal, liver
Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin, adenosylcobalamin Water 2.4 µg/2.4 µg Pernicious anemia[14] N/D None proven Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk
Vitamin C Ascorbic acid Water 90 mg/75 mg Scurvy 2,000 mg None known Many fruits and vegetables, liver
Vitamin D Cholecalciferol (D3), Ergocalciferol (D2) Fat 15 µg/15 µg[15] Rickets and osteomalacia males and females 15 µg/ >70 years 20 µg Hypervitaminosis D Lichen, eggs, liver, certain fish species such as sardines, certain mushroom species such as shiitake
Vitamin E Tocopherols, tocotrienols Fat 15 mg/15 mg Deficiency is very rare; sterility in males and miscarriage in females, mild hemolytic anemia in newborn infants[16] 1,000 mg Possible increased incidence of congestive heart failure.[17] Many fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds
Vitamin K Phylloquinone, menaquinones Fat AI: 110 µg/120 µg Bleeding diathesis N/D Decreased anticoagulation effect of warfarin.[18] Leafy green vegetables such as spinach; egg yolks; liver

Sources

For the most part, vitamins are obtained from the diet, but some are acquired by other means: for example, microorganisms in the gut flora produce vitamin K and biotin; and one form of vitamin D is synthesized in skin cells when they are exposed to a certain wavelength of ultraviolet light present in sunlight. Humans can produce some vitamins from precursors they consume: for example, vitamin A is synthesized from beta carotene; and niacin is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan.[6]

Classification by solubility

Vitamins are classified as either water-soluble or fat-soluble. In humans there are 13 vitamins: 4 fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K) and 9 water-soluble (8 B vitamins and vitamin C).

Water-soluble vitamins dissolve easily in water and, in general, are readily excreted from the body, to the degree that urinary output is a strong predictor of vitamin consumption.[19] Because they are not as readily stored, more consistent intake is important.[20]

Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of lipids (fats). Because they are more likely to accumulate in the body, they are more likely to lead to hypervitaminosis than are water-soluble vitamins. Fat-soluble vitamin regulation is of particular significance in cystic fibrosis.[21]

Biochemical functions

Each vitamin is typically used in multiple reactions, and therefore most have multiple functions.[22]

Effects

On fetal growth and childhood development

Vitamins are essential for the normal growth and development of a multicellular organism. Using the genetic blueprint inherited from its parents, a fetus begins to develop from the nutrients it absorbs. It requires certain vitamins and minerals to be present at certain times. These nutrients facilitate the chemical reactions that produce among other things, skin, bone, and muscle. If there is serious deficiency in one or more of these nutrients, a child may develop a deficiency disease. Even minor deficiencies may cause permanent damage.[23]

On adult health maintenance

Once growth and development are completed, vitamins remain essential nutrients for the healthy maintenance of the cells, tissues, and organs that make up a multicellular organism; they also enable a multicellular life form to efficiently use chemical energy provided by food it eats, and to help process the proteins, carbohydrates, and fats required for cellular respiration.[3]

Of cooking

The USDA has conducted extensive studies on the percentage losses of various nutrients from different food types and cooking methods.[24]

Some vitamins may become more "bio-available" – that is, usable by the body – when foods are cooked.[25]

The table below shows whether various vitamins are susceptible to loss from heat—such as heat from boiling, steaming, frying, etc. The effect of cutting vegetables can be seen from exposure to air and light. Water-soluble vitamins such as B and C dissolve into the water when a vegetable is boiled, and are then lost when the water is discarded.[26]

Vitamin Soluble in Water Stable to Air Exposure Stable to Light Exposure Stable to Heat Exposure
Vitamin A no partially partially relatively stable
Vitamin C very unstable yes yes yes
Vitamin D no no no no
Vitamin E no yes yes no
Vitamin K no no yes no
Thiamine (B1) highly no ? > 100 °C
Riboflavin (B2) slightly no in solution no
Niacin (B3) yes no no no
Pantothenic Acid (B5) quite stable ? no yes
Vitamin B6 yes ? yes ?
Biotin (B7) somewhat ? ? no
Folic Acid (B9) yes ? when dry at high temp
Vitamin B12 yes ? yes no

Deficient intake

Humans must consume vitamins periodically but with differing schedules, to avoid deficiency. The body's stores for different vitamins vary widely; vitamins A, D, and B12 are stored in significant amounts, mainly in the liver,[16] and an adult's diet may be deficient in vitamins A and D for many months and B12 in some cases for years, before developing a deficiency condition. However, vitamin B3 (niacin and niacinamide) is not stored in significant amounts, so stores may last only a couple of weeks.[7][16] For vitamin C, the first symptoms of scurvy in experimental studies of complete vitamin C deprivation in humans have varied widely, from a month to more than six months, depending on previous dietary history that determined body stores.[27]

Deficiencies of vitamins are classified as either primary or secondary. A primary deficiency occurs when an organism does not get enough of the vitamin in its food. A secondary deficiency may be due to an underlying disorder that prevents or limits the absorption or use of the vitamin, due to a "lifestyle factor", such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, or the use of medications that interfere with the absorption or use of the vitamin.[16] People who eat a varied diet are unlikely to develop a severe primary vitamin deficiency. In contrast, restrictive diets have the potential to cause prolonged vitamin deficits, which may result in often painful and potentially deadly diseases.

Well-known human vitamin deficiencies involve thiamine (beriberi), niacin (pellagra),[28] vitamin C (scurvy), and vitamin D (rickets).[29] In much of the developed world, such deficiencies are rare; this is due to (1) an adequate supply of food and (2) the addition of vitamins and minerals to common foods (fortification).[6][16] In addition to these classical vitamin deficiency diseases, some evidence has also suggested links between vitamin deficiency and a number of different disorders.[30][31]

Excess intake

Symptoms

Some vitamins have documented side effects that tend to be more severe with a larger dosage. Acute symptoms can include nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.[7][32]

Toxic levels

In the United States, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies has established Tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) for those vitamins which have documented side effects at high intakes. In the European Union the European Food Safety Authority has also set ULs.[33] ULs from the two organizations do not always match.

Incidence

The likelihood of consuming too much of any vitamin from food is remote, but overdosing (vitamin poisoning) from vitamin supplementation does occur. In 2014, overdose exposure to all formulations of vitamins and multi-vitamin/mineral formulations was reported by 68,058 individuals to the American Association of Poison Control Centers with 73% of these exposures in children under the age of five.[34]

Supplements

Calcium combined with vitamin D (as calciferol) supplement tablets with fillers.

In those who are otherwise healthy, there is little evidence that supplements have any benefits with respect to cancer or heart disease.[4][35] Vitamin A and E supplements not only provide no health benefits for generally healthy individuals, but they may increase mortality, though the two large studies that support this conclusion included smokers for whom it was already known that beta-carotene supplements can be harmful.[35][36] Other findings suggest that vitamin E toxicity is limited to only a specific form when taken in excess.[37]

The European Union and other countries of Europe have regulations that define limits of vitamin (and mineral) dosages for their safe use as dietary supplements. Most vitamins that are sold as dietary supplements are not supposed to exceed a maximum daily dosage referred to as the tolerable upper intake level (UL). Vitamin products above these regulatory limits are not considered supplements and should be registered as prescription or non-prescription (over-the-counter drugs) due to their potential side effects. The European Union, United States, Japan and some other countries each set ULs.[38][39]

Dietary supplements often contain vitamins, but may also include other ingredients, such as minerals, herbs, and botanicals. Scientific evidence supports the benefits of dietary supplements for persons with certain health conditions.[40] In some cases, vitamin supplements may have unwanted effects, especially if taken before surgery, with other dietary supplements or medicines, or if the person taking them has certain health conditions.[40] They may also contain levels of vitamins many times higher, and in different forms, than one may ingest through food.[41]

Commercial production

Until the mid-1930s, when the first commercial yeast-extract vitamin B complex and semi-synthetic vitamin C supplement tablets were sold, vitamins were obtained solely through the diet. Vitamins have been produced as inexpensive supplements since the 1950s.

Governmental regulation

Most countries place dietary supplements in a special category under the general umbrella of foods, not drugs. As a result, the manufacturer, and not the government, has the responsibility of ensuring that its dietary supplement products are safe before they are marketed. Regulation of supplements varies widely by country. In the United States, a dietary supplement is defined under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994.[42] There is no FDA approval process for dietary supplements, and no requirement that manufacturers prove the safety or efficacy of supplements introduced before 1994.[28][29] The Food and Drug Administration must rely on its Adverse Event Reporting System to monitor adverse events that occur with supplements.[43] In 2007, the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 21, part III took effect, regulating Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) in the manufacturing, packaging, labeling, or holding operations for dietary supplements. Even though product registration is not required, these regulations mandate production and quality control standards (including testing for identity, purity and adulterations) for dietary supplements.[44] In the European Union, the Food Supplements Directive requires that only those supplements that have been proven safe can be sold without a prescription.[45] For most vitamins, pharmacopoeial standards have been established. In the United States, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) sets standards for the most commonly used vitamins and preparations thereof. Likewise, monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph.Eur.) regulate aspects of identity and purity for vitamins on the European market.

Naming

Nomenclature of reclassified vitamins
Previous name Chemical name Reason for name change[46]
Vitamin B4 Adenine DNA metabolite; synthesized in body
Vitamin B8 Adenylic acid DNA metabolite; synthesized in body
Vitamin BT Carnitine Synthesized in body
Vitamin F Essential fatty acids Needed in large quantities (does
not fit the definition of a vitamin).
Vitamin G Riboflavin Reclassified as Vitamin B2
Vitamin H Biotin Reclassified as Vitamin B7
Vitamin J Catechol, Flavin Catechol nonessential; flavin reclassified as Vitamin B2
Vitamin L1[47] Anthranilic acid Non essential
Vitamin L2[47] Adenylthiomethylpentose RNA metabolite; synthesized in body
Vitamin M Folic acid Reclassified as Vitamin B9
Vitamin P Flavonoids No longer classified as a vitamin
Vitamin PP Niacin Reclassified as Vitamin B3
Vitamin S Salicylic acid Proposed inclusion[48] of salicylate as an essential micronutrient
Vitamin U S-Methylmethionine Protein metabolite; synthesized in body

The reason that the set of vitamins skips directly from E to K is that the vitamins corresponding to letters F–J were either reclassified over time, discarded as false leads, or renamed because of their relationship to vitamin B, which became a complex of vitamins.

The German-speaking scientists who isolated and described vitamin K (in addition to naming it as such) did so because the vitamin is intimately involved in the coagulation of blood following wounding (from the German word Koagulation). At the time, most (but not all) of the letters from F through to J were already designated, so the use of the letter K was considered quite reasonable.[46][49] The table nomenclature of reclassified vitamins lists chemicals that had previously been classified as vitamins, as well as the earlier names of vitamins that later became part of the B-complex.

There are other missing B vitamins which were reclassified or determined not to be vitamins. For example, B9 is folic acid and five of the folates are in the range B11 through B16, forms of other vitamins already discovered, not required as a nutrient by the entire population (like B10, PABA for internal use[50]), biologically inactive, toxic, or with unclassifiable effects in humans, or not generally recognised as vitamins by science,[51] such as the highest-numbered, which some naturopath practitioners call B21 and B22. There are also nine lettered B complex vitamins (e.g. Bm). There are other D vitamins now recognised as other substances,[50] which some sources of the same type number up to D7. The controversial cancer treatment laetrile was at one point lettered as vitamin B17. There appears to be no consensus on any vitamins Q, R, T, V, W, X, Y or Z, nor are there substances officially designated as Vitamins N or I, although the latter may have been another form of one of the other vitamins or a known and named nutrient of another type.

Promotion

Once discovered, vitamins were actively promoted in articles and advertisements in McCall's, Good Housekeeping, and other media outlets.[28] Marketers enthusiastically promoted cod-liver oil, a source of Vitamin D, as "bottled sunshine", and bananas as a “natural vitality food". They promoted foods such as yeast cakes, a source of B vitamins, on the basis of scientifically-determined nutritional value, rather than taste or appearance.[52] World War II researchers focused on the need to ensure adequate nutrition, especially in processed foods.[28] Robert W. Yoder is credited with first using the term vitamania, in 1942, to describe the appeal of relying on nutritional supplements rather than on obtaining vitamins from a varied diet of foods. The continuing preoccupation with a healthy lifestyle has led to an obsessive consumption of additives the beneficial effects of which are questionable.[29]

Anti-vitamins

Anti-vitamins are chemical compounds that inhibit the absorption or actions of vitamins. For example, avidin is a protein in raw egg whites that inhibits the absorption of biotin; it is deactivated by cooking.[53] Pyrithiamine, a synthetic compound, has a molecular structure similar to thiamine, vitamin B1, and inhibits the enzymes that use thiamine.[54]

History

The discovery dates of the vitamins and their sources
Year of discovery Vitamin Food source
1913 Vitamin A (Retinol) Cod liver oil
1910 Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Rice bran
1920 Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) Citrus, most fresh foods
1920 Vitamin D (Calciferol) Cod liver oil
1920 Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Meat, dairy products, eggs
1922 Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Wheat germ oil,
unrefined vegetable oils
1929 Vitamin K1 (Phylloquinone) Leaf vegetables
1931 Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) Meat, whole grains,
in many foods
1931 Vitamin B7 (Biotin) Meat, dairy products, Eggs
1934 Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Meat, dairy products
1936 Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Meat, grains
1941 Vitamin B9 (Folic acid) Leaf vegetables
1948[55] Vitamin B12 (Cobalamins) Meat, organs (Liver), Eggs

The value of eating certain foods to maintain health was recognized long before vitamins were identified. The ancient Egyptians knew that feeding liver to a person may help with night blindness, an illness now known to be caused by a vitamin A deficiency.[56] The advancement of ocean voyages during the Renaissance resulted in prolonged periods without access to fresh fruits and vegetables, and made illnesses from vitamin deficiency common among ships' crews.[57]

In 1747, the Scottish surgeon James Lind discovered that citrus foods helped prevent scurvy, a particularly deadly disease in which collagen is not properly formed, causing poor wound healing, bleeding of the gums, severe pain, and death.[56] In 1753, Lind published his Treatise on the Scurvy, which recommended using lemons and limes to avoid scurvy, which was adopted by the British Royal Navy. This led to the nickname limey for British sailors. Lind's discovery, however, was not widely accepted by individuals in the Royal Navy's Arctic expeditions in the 19th century, where it was widely believed that scurvy could be prevented by practicing good hygiene, regular exercise, and maintaining the morale of the crew while on board, rather than by a diet of fresh food.[56] As a result, Arctic expeditions continued to be plagued by scurvy and other deficiency diseases. In the early 20th century, when Robert Falcon Scott made his two expeditions to the Antarctic, the prevailing medical theory at the time was that scurvy was caused by "tainted" canned food.[56]

During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the use of deprivation studies allowed scientists to isolate and identify a number of vitamins. Lipid from fish oil was used to cure rickets in rats, and the fat-soluble nutrient was called "antirachitic A". Thus, the first "vitamin" bioactivity ever isolated, which cured rickets, was initially called "vitamin A"; however, the bioactivity of this compound is now called vitamin D.[58] In 1881, Russian medical doctor Nikolai I. Lunin (ru) studied the effects of scurvy at the University of Tartu .[59] He fed mice an artificial mixture of all the separate constituents of milk known at that time, namely the proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and salts. The mice that received only the individual constituents died, while the mice fed by milk itself developed normally. He made a conclusion that "a natural food such as milk must therefore contain, besides these known principal ingredients, small quantities of unknown substances essential to life."[59] However, his conclusions were rejected by his advisor, Gustav von Bunge, even after other students reproduced his results.[60] A similar result by Cornelius Pekelharing appeared in a Dutch medical journal in 1905, but it was not widely reported.[60]

In East Asia, where polished white rice was the common staple food of the middle class, beriberi resulting from lack of vitamin B1 was endemic. In 1884, Takaki Kanehiro, a British-trained medical doctor of the Imperial Japanese Navy, observed that beriberi was endemic among low-ranking crew who often ate nothing but rice, but not among officers who consumed a Western-style diet. With the support of the Japanese navy, he experimented using crews of two battleships; one crew was fed only white rice, while the other was fed a diet of meat, fish, barley, rice, and beans. The group that ate only white rice documented 161 crew members with beriberi and 25 deaths, while the latter group had only 14 cases of beriberi and no deaths. This convinced Takaki and the Japanese Navy that diet was the cause of beriberi, but they mistakenly believed that sufficient amounts of protein prevented it.[61] That diseases could result from some dietary deficiencies was further investigated by Christiaan Eijkman, who in 1897 discovered that feeding unpolished rice instead of the polished variety to chickens helped to prevent beriberi in the chickens.[28] The following year, Frederick Hopkins postulated that some foods contained "accessory factors" — in addition to proteins, carbohydrates, fats etc. — that are necessary for the functions of the human body.[56] Hopkins and Eijkman were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1929 for their discoveries.[62]

Jack Drummond’s single paragraph paper in 1920 which provided structure and nomenclature used today for vitamins

In 1910, the first vitamin complex was isolated by Japanese scientist Umetaro Suzuki, who succeeded in extracting a water-soluble complex of micronutrients from rice bran and named it aberic acid (later Orizanin). He published this discovery in a Japanese scientific journal.[63] When the article was translated into German, the translation failed to state that it was a newly discovered nutrient, a claim made in the original Japanese article, and hence his discovery failed to gain publicity. In 1912 Polish-born biochemist Casimir Funk, working in London, isolated the same complex of micronutrients and proposed the complex be named "vitamine". It was later to be known as vitamin B3 (niacin), though he described it as "anti-beri-beri-factor" (which would today be called thiamine or vitamin B1). Funk proposed the hypothesis that other diseases, such as rickets, pellagra, coeliac disease, and scurvy could also be cured by vitamins. Max Nierenstein a friend and reader of Biochemistry at Bristol University reportedly suggested the "vitamine" name (from "vital amine").[64][65] The name soon became synonymous with Hopkins' "accessory factors", and, by the time it was shown that not all vitamins are amines, the word was already ubiquitous. In 1920, Jack Cecil Drummond proposed that the final "e" be dropped to deemphasize the "amine" reference, after researchers began to suspect that not all "vitamines" (in particular, vitamin A) have an amine component.[61]

In 1930, Paul Karrer elucidated the correct structure for beta-carotene, the main precursor of vitamin A, and identified other carotenoids. Karrer and Norman Haworth confirmed Albert Szent-Györgyi's discovery of ascorbic acid and made significant contributions to the chemistry of flavins, which led to the identification of lactoflavin. For their investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2, they both received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1937.[66]

In 1931, Albert Szent-Györgyi and a fellow researcher Joseph Svirbely suspected that "hexuronic acid" was actually vitamin C, and gave a sample to Charles Glen King, who proved its anti-scorbutic activity in his long-established guinea pig scorbutic assay. In 1937, Szent-Györgyi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery. In 1943, Edward Adelbert Doisy and Henrik Dam were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of vitamin K and its chemical structure. In 1967, George Wald was awarded the Nobel Prize (along with Ragnar Granit and Haldan Keffer Hartline) for his discovery that vitamin A could participate directly in a physiological process.[62]

In 1938, Richard Kuhn was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on carotenoids and vitamins, specifically B2 and B6.[67]

Etymology

The term vitamin was derived from "vitamine", a compound word coined in 1912 by the Polish biochemist Casimir Funk[68] when working at the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine. The name is from vital and amine, meaning amine of life, because it was suggested in 1912 that the organic micronutrient food factors that prevent beriberi and perhaps other similar dietary-deficiency diseases might be chemical amines. This was true of thiamine, but after it was found that other such micronutrients were not amines the word was shortened to vitamin in English.

See also

References

  1. ^ Jones, Daniel (2011). Roach, Peter; Setter, Jane; Esling, John, eds. Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-052-115255-6. 
  2. ^ Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins; Charles William McLaughlin; Susan Johnson; Maryanna Quon Warner; David LaHart; Jill D. Wright (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-981176-1. OCLC 32308337. 
  3. ^ a b Bender, David A. (2003). Nutritional biochemistry of the vitamins. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80388-5. 
  4. ^ a b Fortmann, SP; Burda, BU; Senger, CA; Lin, JS; Whitlock, EP (12 Nov 2013). "Vitamin and Mineral Supplements in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: An Updated Systematic Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force". Annals of Internal Medicine. 159 (12): 824–34. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-159-12-201312170-00729. PMID 24217421. 
  5. ^ Jr, Gerald F. Combs (2007-10-30). The Vitamins. Elsevier. ISBN 9780080561301. 
  6. ^ a b c d Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins. The National Academies, 2001.
  7. ^ a b c "Vitamin A: Fact Sheet for Health Professionals". National Institute of Health: Office of Dietary Supplements. 5 June 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-03. 
  8. ^ "Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins". The National Academies. 2001. Archived from the original on 17 August 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2013. Amount not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake. 
  9. ^ "Thiamin, vitamin B1: MedlinePlus Supplements". U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. 
  10. ^ Hardman, J.G.; et al., eds. (2001). Goodman and Gilman's Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (10th ed.). p. 992. ISBN 0071354697. 
  11. ^ Plain type indicates Adequate Intakes (A/I). "The AI is believed to cover the needs of all individuals, but a lack of data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake" (see Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins Archived 17 August 2013 at WebCite. The National Academies, 2001).
  12. ^ "Pantothenic acid, dexpanthenol: MedlinePlus Supplements". MedlinePlus. Retrieved 5 October 2009. 
  13. ^ Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Vitamin B6. Dietary-supplements.info.nih.gov (15 September 2011). Retrieved on 2013-08-03.
  14. ^ Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Vitamin B12. Dietary-supplements.info.nih.gov (24 June 2011). Retrieved on 2013-08-03.
  15. ^ Value represents suggested intake without adequate sunlight exposure (see Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins Archived 17 August 2013 at WebCite. The National Academies, 2001).
  16. ^ a b c d e The Merck Manual: Nutritional Disorders: Vitamin Introduction Please select specific vitamins from the list at the top of the page.
  17. ^ Gaby, Alan R. (2005). "Does vitamin E cause congestive heart failure? (Literature Review & Commentary)". Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. 
  18. ^ Rohde LE; de Assis MC; Rabelo ER (2007). "Dietary vitamin K intake and anticoagulation in elderly patients". Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 10 (1): 1–5. doi:10.1097/MCO.0b013e328011c46c. PMID 17143047. 
  19. ^ Fukuwatari T; Shibata K (2008). "Urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite contents as nutritional markers for evaluating vitamin intakes among young Japanese women". J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 54 (3): 223–9. doi:10.3177/jnsv.54.223. PMID 18635909. 
  20. ^ Bellows, L. & Moore, R. "Water-Soluble Vitamins". Colorado State University. Retrieved 7 December 2008. 
  21. ^ Maqbool A; Stallings VA (2008). "Update on fat-soluble vitamins in cystic fibrosis". Curr Opin Pulm Med. 14 (6): 574–81. doi:10.1097/MCP.0b013e3283136787. PMID 18812835. 
  22. ^ Kutsky, R.J. (1973). Handbook of Vitamins and Hormones. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, ISBN 0-442-24549-1
  23. ^ Gavrilov, Leonid A. (10 February 2003) Pieces of the Puzzle: Aging Research Today and Tomorrow. fightaging.org
  24. ^ "USDA Table of Nutrient Retention Factors, Release 6" (PDF). USDA. USDA. Dec 2007. 
  25. ^ Comparison of Vitamin Levels in Raw Foods vs. Cooked Foods. Beyondveg.com. Retrieved on 3 August 2013.
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External links

  • USDA RDA chart in PDF format
  • Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes Reference Chart for Vitamins
  • NIH Office of Dietary Supplements: Fact Sheets

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