Visa policy of the United Kingdom

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Entry passport stamp for the United Kingdom issued at the Terminal 1 of London Heathrow Airport.

The visa policy of the United Kingdom is the policy by which Her Majesty's Government determines who may and may not enter the country of the United Kingdom, and the Crown dependencies of Guernsey, Jersey, and Isle of Man. Visitors must obtain a visa unless they are exempt.

The UK is a member of the European Union, but it has an opt-out from the Schengen border-free area. It operates its own visa policy and also maintains the Common Travel Area with the Republic of Ireland, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man.[1]

British Overseas Territories generally apply their own similar but legally distinct visa policies.

Visa exemptions

UK visa lists
  Visa-free provisions for EEA, OCT, or other
  Visa-free entry for 6 months
  Electronic visa waiver countries
  Visa required for entry, and landside transit (unless holding exemption documents); visa-free airside transit
  Visa required for entry, and both landside and airside transit (unless holding exemption documents)
  Unknown requirements

The following individuals can enter the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man without a visa:

As of right

Non-visa nationals

British Nationals who are not European Union citizens and citizens of 56 countries and territories are visa-exempt for stays in the UK of up to 6 months (or 3 months if they enter from the Republic of Ireland):[2][3]

United Kingdom British Nationals who are not European Union citizens:
Electronic visa waiver (EVW)

Citizens of the following countries can obtain an electronic visa waiver (EVW) online:[10][11]

School pupils resident in the European Economic Area and Switzerland
Gibraltar
British Irish Visa Scheme (BIVS)

Citizens of the following countries can travel to the UK without a visa if they hold a valid Irish visa endorsed with BIVS:[16]

Non-ordinary passport holders

Holders of diplomatic or special passports of the following countries do not require a visa:

D — diplomatic passports
Sp — special passports

Visa waiver also applies to holders of United Nations laissez-passer when they travel to the United Kingdom on official business.[19]

Transit

There are two types of transit through the United Kingdom under the United Kingdom Transit Rules — the airside transit and the landside transit.[20][21][22] The Transit Without Visa facility for visa requiring nationals was abolished, effective 1 December 2014, and replaced with United Kingdom Transit Rules.[23][24] Notwithstanding the lists below, in general, even persons from 'Direct Airside transit visa exempt nationalities' require a transit visa if transiting though the UK to other parts of the Common Travel Area including Ireland.

Airside transit
  • available only at London Heathrow Airport, Gatwick Airport and Manchester Airport.
  • available only to those passengers arriving and departing by air to an international destination other than Ireland on the same day.
  • available only to those passengers not leaving the airside zone of the airport and not passing through immigration control.
  • concerns those passengers that would normally require a visitor visa to enter the United Kingdom but who either hold a Direct Airside Transit visa, a passport of a transit visa exempt country or who hold direct airside transit visa exemption documents.
Landside transit
  • available only to those passengers arriving and departing by air by 23:59 the next day who require passing through immigration control and leaving the airport building only for transit purposes.
  • concerns those passengers that would normally require a visitor visa to enter the United Kingdom but who hold a Visitor in Transit visa or landside visa exemption documents.
Direct Airside transit visa exempt nationalities
  • United Nations stateless persons holding
    UN Convention 1954 travel
    documents and refugees whose
    original nationality is exempt.
Direct Airside transit visa required
Direct Airside Transit visa exemption documents

The exemption applies where travellers:

  • arrive and depart by air, and
  • the onward flight must be confirmed, and must depart the same day, and
  • have proper documentation for their destination (including a visa for the destination country if necessary), and
  • fulfil any one of the below conditions:
  1. have a valid visa for Australia, Canada, New Zealand or the USA, whether or not traveling to or from those countries, or
  2. have a valid Australian or New Zealand residence visa; or
  3. have a valid Canadian permanent resident card issued on or after 28 June 2002; or
  4. have a valid uniform format residence permit issued by an EEA state under Council Regulation (EC) number 1030/2002; or
  5. have a valid Irish biometric visa endorsed BC or BC BIVS; or
  6. have a valid uniform format category D visa for entry to a state in the European Economic Area (EEA); or
  7. have a valid USA I-551 permanent resident card issued on or after 21 April 1998; or
  8. have an expired I-551 permanent resident card issued on or after 21 April 1998, accompanied by an I-797 extension letter; or
  9. have a standalone US Immigration Form 155A/155B attached to an envelope; or
  10. have a valid Schengen Approved destination Scheme (ADS) group tourism visa where the holder is travelling to the country that issued it or holds a valid airline ticket from the Schengen area, provided the holder can demonstrate they entered there no more than 30 days previously on the basis of a valid Schengen ADS visa;

E-visas or e-residence permits are not acceptable for airside transit unless the airline is able to verify it with the issuing country. Nationals of Syria who are holders of US B1/B2 visas are not exempt.

Visitor in Transit visa exemption documents

The exemption applies where travellers:

  • arrive and depart by air, and
  • the onward flight must be confirmed, and must depart by 23:59 the following day, and
  • have proper documentation for their destination (including a visa for the destination country if necessary), and
  • fulfil any one of the below conditions:
  1. have a valid entry visa for Australia, Canada, New Zealand or the USA, and a valid airline ticket for travel via the UK, as part of a reasonable journey to or from one of those countries, or
  2. have a valid airline ticket for travel via the UK as part of a reasonable journey from Australia, Canada, New Zealand or the USA, if they are transiting the UK no more than 6 months after the date when they last entered Australia, Canada, New Zealand or the USA with a valid entry visa for that country; or
  3. have a valid Australian or New Zealand residence visa; or
  4. have a valid Canadian permanent resident card issued on or after 28 June 2002; or
  5. have a valid uniform format residence permit issued by an EEA state under Council Regulation (EC) number 1030/2002; or
  6. have a valid Irish biometric visa endorsed BC or BC BIVS; or
  7. have a valid uniform format category D visa for entry to a state in the European Economic Area (EEA); or
  8. have a valid USA I-551 permanent resident card issued on or after 21 April 1998; or
  9. have an expired I-551 permanent resident card issued on or after 21 April 1998, accompanied by an I-797 extension letter; or
  10. have a standalone US Immigration Form 155A/155B attached to an envelope;

E-visas such as those regularly issued by Australia or e-residence permits are not acceptable for landside transit.

Obtaining an entry visa

Mandatory tuberculosis testing for a long term UK visa

Visitors entering the UK, the Channel Islands and/or the Isle of Man who do not qualify for one of the visa exemptions listed above have to apply for a visa in advance through the UK Visas and Immigration at a visa application centre.

The UK visa in a Russian student's passport

All visitors must apply by registering an online account (except citizens of North Korea who must apply in person at the British Embassy), fill in the application form, pay the fee and attend an appointment at a visa application centre.[27]

A visitor's visa for a single stay or multiple stays of up to 6 months costs £83. A multiple-entry visitor's visa valid for 2 years costs £300, 5 years £544 and 10 years £737.[28][29] Special provisions are made for Chinese citizens as they are eligible for a 2-year, multiple-entry visitor's visa at a cost of £83.[30]

Family members of EU, EEA and Swiss citizens who are not covered by one of the visa exemptions above can apply for an EEA Family Permit free of charge (instead of a visa).[31]

Visitors applying for most types of UK visas (including a visitor's visa and an EEA Family Permit) are required to submit biometric identifiers (all fingerprints and a digital facial image) as part of the visa application process.[32] However, diplomats, foreign government ministers and officials and members of Commonwealth Forces are exempt from the requirement to submit biometric identifiers. Applicants who have obtained a new passport and are merely requesting a transfer of their visa vignette from their old passport to their new passport are not required to re-submit biometric identifiers.[33] In addition, applicants who are travelling directly to the Channel Islands or Gibraltar without passing through the UK or the Isle of Man are exempt from providing biometric information.[34] Children must be accompanied by an adult when their biometric identifiers are taken. Biometric identifiers may be shared with foreign governments. Biometric identifiers are destroyed 10 years after the last date a person's fingerprints and digital facial image were captured.[35]

Most visa applications are decided within 3 weeks.[29]

Applicants resident in the following countries and territories who wish to enter the UK for 6 months or more are required to be tested for tuberculosis as part of the visa application process:[36]

After a person has successfully obtained a UK visa, if he/she subsequently obtains a new passport, but the UK visa in his/her old passport still has remaining validity, he/she is not required to have the UK visa vignette affixed in the old passport transferred to the new passport, but must be able to present both the new and old passports at passport control when entering the UK.[37]

If a person who has successfully obtained a UK visa subsequently loses the passport in which the visa vignette is affixed (or if it is stolen), he/she has to pay the original visa fee in full again and may be required to show that his/her circumstances have not changed when applying for a replacement visa. However, a new 'confirmation of acceptance for studies' (CAS)/'certificate of sponsorship' (COS) is not required when applying for a replacement Tier 4/Tier 2 visa.[33]

Visa types

These are correct as of April 2015.

Visitor visas

  • Standard Visitor visa[38][39]
  • Marriage Visitor visa[40]
  • Permitted Paid Engagement visa[41]
  • Parent of a Tier 4 child visa[42]
  • Visa to pass through the UK in transit[43]
    • Direct Airside Transit visa
    • Visitor in Transit visa

Work visas

  • Tier 1 visa
    • Entrepreneur (minimum £200,000 investment or £50,000 if qualified)
    • Exceptional Talent (recognised leader in fields of science, humanities, engineering, medicine, digital technology or the arts)
    • General (highly skilled workers, writers, composers or artists and self-employed lawyers)
    • Graduate Entrepreneur
    • Investor (minimum £2,000,000 investment)
  • Tier 2 visa (sponsored workers)
    • General
    • Intra-company Transfer (foreign company workers in a UK branch)
    • Minister of Religion
    • Sportsperson
  • Tier 5 visa (temporary work for sponsored workers)
    • Charity Worker (unpaid voluntary work)
    • Creative and sporting
    • Government Authorised Exchange
    • International Agreement
    • Religious Worker
    • Youth Mobility Scheme
  • Domestic Workers in a Private Household visa (cleaners, chauffeurs, cooks, personal care providers and nannies)
  • Representative of an Overseas Business visa (head of a UK branch or a foreign journalist on a long-term posting)
  • Turkish Businessperson visa
  • Turkish Worker visa
  • UK Ancestry visa (Commonwealth citizens with UK born ancestors)
  • Croatian national registration certificates

Student visas

  • Short-term study visa
  • Tier 4 visa
    • General
    • Child

Review of visa exemptions

In March 2007, the Home Office announced that it would carry out its first Visa Waiver Test to review the list of countries and territories outside the European Union, European Economic Area and Switzerland whose nationals are exempt from holding a visa for the UK.

After carrying out the review, in July 2008, Jacqui Smith, the Home Secretary, and David Miliband, the Foreign Secretary, announced to Parliament that the results of the test showed a 'strong case' for introducing visa regimes for 11 countries (Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Lesotho, Malaysia, Mauritius, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela) having taken into account the following factors (including the extent to which they were being addressed by the countries' authorities):[44][45][46]

  • Passport security and integrity
  • The degree of co-operation over deportation or removal of the countries' nationals from the UK
  • Levels of illegal working in the UK and other immigration abuse (such as fraudulent asylum claims)
  • Levels of crime and terrorism risk posed to the UK

Following the July 2008 announcement, the UK Government entered into a 6-month period of 'detailed dialogue' with the governments of the 11 countries 'to examine how risks can be reduced in a way that obviates the need for a visa regime to be introduced'. In order to maintain visa-free access to the UK, the 11 countries had to 'demonstrate a genuine commitment to put into effect credible and realistic plans, with clear timetables, to reduce the risks to the UK, and begin real implementation of these plans by the end of the dialogue period'.[44]

On 9 January 2009, the new visa rules announced required citizens of Bolivia, Lesotho, South Africa and Swaziland to obtain a visa, and only Venezuelan nationals travelling on biometric passports with an electronic chip issued since 2007 could continue to enter the UK without a visa.[47] The existing visa-free status for citizens of Botswana, Brazil, Malaysia, Mauritius, Namibia and Trinidad and Tobago was maintained.[48]

Starting from 3 March 2009, a transitional regime was put in place until 30 June 2009 for South African citizens - those who held a valid South African passport and had previously entered the UK lawfully using that passport could continue to enter the UK without a visa, whilst all other South African citizens were required to apply for a visa. On the same day, Taiwan citizens were able to enter the UK without a visa.[49][50] On 18 May 2009, Bolivian citizens were no longer able to enter the UK without a visa and Venezuelan citizens were required to present a biometric passport to enter the UK without a visa.[51] On 1 July 2009, all South African citizens were required to apply for a visa to enter the UK. On the same day, citizens of Lesotho and Swaziland were required to apply for a visa to enter the UK.

On 30 March 2010, Alan Johnson, the Home Secretary, and David Miliband, the Foreign Secretary, announced to Parliament that, having carried out a review of visa regimes in relation to Eastern Caribbean countries, 5 countries (Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Grenada, St Kitts and Nevis and St Vincent and the Grenadines) would have their visa-free status maintained. At the same time, the UK Government would enter a six-month period of 'detailed dialogue' with the governments of 2 countries (Dominica and St Lucia), who would have to 'demonstrate a genuine commitment to put into effect credible and realistic plans, with clear timetables, to reduce the risks to the UK, and begin implementing these plans by the end of the dialogue period' to maintain their visa-free status.[52] On 2 March 2011, Theresa May, the Home Secretary, and William Hague, the Foreign Secretary, announced to Parliament that the governments of Dominica and St Lucia 'have made concrete improvements to the immigration, border control and identity systems which would not have happened without the test', and so the visa-free status for the 2 countries would be maintained.[53]

On 13 June 2011, new Immigration Rules were laid before Parliament that came into force on 4 July 2011 introducing a new streamlined application procedure (waiving the normal requirements to provide documentary evidence of maintenance and qualifications at the time of application) for some non-visa nationals from 'low-risk countries' who wish to study in the UK for more than 6 months and apply for Tier 4 entry clearance. The following 15 countries and territories were categorised as 'low-risk' and included in 'Appendix H' of the Immigration Rules: Argentina, Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Croatia, Hong Kong, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Trinidad and Tobago and the United States.[54][55][56] Although the announcement did not relate to a Visa Waiver Test per se, it showed that the UK Border Agency considers some countries and territories in the list of visa-free nationalities to be lower risk than others. In particular, Trinidad and Tobago, which was considered to be a high-risk country from a visa regime perspective in 2008 when the Visa Waiver Test was carried out, was now viewed by the UK Border Agency as a low-risk country. On 5 September 2012, two more countries (Botswana and Malaysia) were added to the list of 'low-risk' nationalities for the purpose of Tier 4 entry clearance applications, i.e. 'Appendix H', (taking effect on 1 October 2012),[57] whilst on 6 September 2013, Barbados was also added to 'Appendix H' (taking effect on 1 October 2013).[58] Again, although the announcement did not relate to a Visa Waiver Test per se, it showed that Botswana, Malaysia and Barbados (countries which were considered to be a high-risk countries from a visa regime perspective when the Visa Waiver Test was carried out in 2008 in the case of Botswana and Malaysia, and in 2010 in the case of Barbados) were now viewed by the UK Border Agency as low-risk countries.[59][60]

In March 2013, it was revealed that Theresa May, the Home Secretary, was considering removing Brazil from the list of visa-exempt nationalities due to concerns about illegal immigration, since Brazil was fifth in the top 10 of illegal immigrant nationalities in the UK according to Home Office figures for 2011, and was the only country on the list for which short-term visitors do not need a visa. However, the UK Government later decided to retain the visa exemption for Brazilian citizens, a decision which was seen as attempting to develop closer trading links with Brazil.[61]

On 1 January 2014, an electronic visa waiver (EVW) scheme was introduced, enabling citizens of Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates who have obtained an EVW authorisation online to visit and/or study in the UK for up to 6 months without a visa.[62] After 'assessing countries against a list of risk and compliance criteria', on 13 March 2014 the UK Government added Oman, Qatar and the UAE to 'Appendix H' (the list of 'low-risk' nationalities for the purpose of Tier 4 student visa applications), with the change taking effect on 6 April 2014.[63] These two changes reflect the UK Government's view that Oman, Qatar and the UAE should now be regarded as low-risk countries from a visa regime perspective, and it is possible that in future nationals of these three countries will be classified as non-visa nationals (enabling them to visit and/or study in the UK without a visa for up to 6 months without having to obtain an EVW authorisation online every time they wish to enter the UK). According to Frank Baker, the British Ambassador to Kuwait, the EVW will be extended to Kuwaiti citizens in the near future.[64]

On 13 March 2014, the UK Government announced that, with effect from 5 May 2014, Venezuelan citizens (including those with biometric passports) would require a visa to enter the UK.[63][65]

At present, although citizens of Argentina, Brazil, Israel, holders of Hong Kong SAR passports and Macao SAR passports are able to visit and/or study in the UK without a visa for up to 6 months, and although citizens of Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates with an EVW can visit and/or study in the UK without a visa for up to 6 months, if they decide to stay for more than 6 months and have been granted entry clearance permitting them to do so, they are required to register with the police at a cost of £34 within 7 days of arriving in the UK (or within 7 days of obtaining their visa if they apply within the UK).[66][67] This suggests that citizens of these 8 countries and territories are considered to be higher-risk than other non-visa nationalities (who are not required to register with the police if they obtain a visa to stay in the UK for more than 6 months), although Argentina, Hong Kong, Oman, Qatar and the UAE are deemed to be 'low-risk' from a visa regime perspective for the purpose of Tier 4 student visa applications and appear in 'Appendix H' (see above).

Entry and stay conditions for the EU/EEA/Swiss citizens

Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 recognises the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States[68][69][70] defines the right of free movement for citizens of the European Economic Area (EEA), which includes the European Union (EU) and the three European Free Trade Association (EFTA) members Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein. Switzerland, which is a member of EFTA but not of the EEA, is not bound by the Directive but rather has a separate bilateral agreement on the free movement with the EU.

Citizens of all European Economic Area (EEA) member states and Switzerland holding a valid passport or national identity card enjoy freedom of movement rights in each other's territory and can enter and reside in the each other's territory without a visa.

Although, by law, EU, EEA and Swiss citizens are entitled to use their valid national identity cards as travel documents to enter the UK, in practice UK Border Force officials have been known to place extra scrutiny on and to spend longer processing identity cards issued by certain member states which are deemed to have limited security features and hence more susceptible to tampering/forgery. Unlike their counterparts in the Schengen Area (who, by law, must only perform a 'rapid' and 'straightforward' visual check for signs of falsification and tampering and are not obliged to use technical devices (such as document scanners, UV light and magnifiers) when EU/EEA/Swiss citizens present their passports and/or national identity cards at external border checkpoints),[71] as a matter of policy UKBF officials are required to examine physically all passports and national identity cards presented by EU/EEA/Swiss citizens for signs of forgery and tampering.[72] In addition, unlike their counterparts in the Schengen Area (who, when presented with a passport or national identity card by an EU/EEA/Swiss citizen, are not legally obliged to check it against a database of lost/stolen/invalidated travel documents (and, if they do so, must only perform a 'rapid' and 'straightward' database check) and may only check to see if the traveller is on a database containing persons of interest on a strictly 'non-systematic' basis where such a threat is 'genuine', 'present' and 'sufficiently serious'),[71] as a matter of policy UKBF officials are required to check every EU/EEA/Swiss citizen and their passport/national identity card against the Warnings Index (WI) database.[72] For this reason, when presented with a non-machine readable identity card, it can take up to four times longer for a UKBF official to process the card as the official has to enter the biographical details of the holder manually into the computer to check against the WI database and, if a large number of possible matches is returned, a different configuration has to be entered to reduce the number of possible matches.[73] For example, at Stansted Airport UKBF officials have been known to take longer to process Italian paper identity cards because they often need to be taken out of plastic wallets,[74] because they are particularly susceptible to forgery/tampering[75] and because, as non-machine readable documents, the holders' biographical details have to be entered manually into the computer.[74]

If EU, EEA and Swiss nationals are unable to present a valid passport or national identity card at the border, they must nonetheless be afforded every reasonable opportunity to obtain the necessary documents or have them brought to them within a reasonable period of time or corroborate or prove by other means that they are covered by the right of free movement.[76][77] Where, after being given every reasonable opportunity, they are still unable to demonstrate their identity and nationality, they should be either considered for Temporary Admission to allow further enquiries to be made or refused entry.[78]

However, entry can be refused to an EU/EEA/Swiss national on public policy, public security or public health grounds where the person presents a "genuine, present and sufficiently serious threat affecting one of the fundamental interests of society".[79] If the person has obtained permanent residence in the country where he/she seeks entry (a status which is normally attained after 5 years of residence), the member state can only expel him/her on serious grounds of public policy or public security. Where the person has resided for 10 years or is a minor, the member state can only expel him/her on imperative grounds of public security (and, in the case of minors, if expulsion is necessary in the best interests of the child, as provided for in the Convention on the Rights of the Child).[80] Expulsion on public health grounds must relate to diseases with 'epidemic potential' which have occurred less than 3 months from the person's the date of arrival in the Member State where he/she seeks entry.[81]

Non-EU/EEA/Swiss citizen family members

A family member of an EU/EEA/Swiss citizen who is in possession of a residence card indicating their status is exempt from the requirement to hold a visa when entering the Schengen area,European Economic Area or Switzerland if his residence card is issued from one of a Schengen members states and Ireland (called Stamp 4 EU FAM),European Economic Area or Switzerland.

However A family member of an EU/EEA/Swiss citizen who is in possession of a residence permit indicating their status is exempt from the requirement to hold a visa for entering to European Union outside Schengen membres states (ireland,Bulgaria,Romania,Cyprus) when they are accompanying their EU/EEA/Swiss family member or are seeking to join them.[82]

As of 6 April 2015, the non-EU family members of an EU national who are in possession of a residence card, which is issued to them under article 10 of directive 2004/38, are entitled to enter the UK without the need to apply for an EEA Family Permit, only by providing their residence card at the border. However, the UK border officers would grant entry to non-EU family members if they can prove their relation to the EU national family member who would be accompanying them, by providing documents such as marriage or birth certificate. In the case of the EU national family member being present in the UK, the non-EU family members should be able to prove that the EU national family member is residing in the UK and whether they have a right of residency in the UK as a qualified person. Therefore, the non-EU family member should be able to demonstrate that the EU national family member is residing in the UK less than three months (the initial right of residence) and if more than three month, then they are in the UK as worker, self-employed, self-sufficient or student or they acquired the status of permanent residency after having resided in the UK for five years.[83]

Reciprocity

Of the 58 countries and territories outside the European Union, European Economic Area and Switzerland whose citizens are granted 6 months' visa-free access to the UK, the following offer full reciprocal treatment to British citizens: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Canada, Dominica, Grenada, Hong Kong, Macao, Mexico, Monaco, New Zealand, Panama, San Marino and Vatican City.

Other countries and territories only offer partially reciprocal treatment to British citizens (i.e. visa-free access that is less than 6 months). The following countries permit British citizens to stay without a visa for up to 90 days (or 3 months) only: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Brunei, Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guyana, Honduras, Israel, Malaysia, Namibia, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Korea, Trinidad and Tobago, United States, Uruguay and Venezuela. (However, the United States requires British citizens to obtain an ESTA (at a cost of US$14) in advance if entering the US by air or by sea, whilst Australia requires British citizens to obtain an eVisitor authorisation online in advance free of charge, although the UK does not require Australian and US citizens to obtain an authorisation in advance.) The following countries and territories permit British citizens to stay without a visa for up to 90 days (although an extension is possible for a stay beyond 90 days): Botswana, Japan and Taiwan. The following countries also only offer partially reciprocal treatment: Belize (1 month), Fiji (4 months, extendable for an extra 2 months), Kiribati (30 days), Maldives (30 days), Marshall Islands (30 days), Mauritius (60 days for tourists, 90 days on business), Micronesia (30 days), Nauru (30 days), Palau (30 days), St Lucia (6 weeks), Samoa (60 days), Seychelles (1 month, extendable to 12 months), Tonga (31 days), Tuvalu (1 month) and Vanuatu (30 days).

Two countries whose citizens can enter the UK visa-free for up to 6 months require British citizens to obtain a visa: Papua New Guinea requires British citizens to obtain a visa on arrival that is valid for up to 60 days and costs PGK100 (tourist) or PGK500 (business); Timor-Leste requires British citizens to obtain a visa on arrival valid for up to 30 days at a cost of US$30.

Visitor statistics

Most visitors arriving to United Kingdom were from the following countries of nationality:[84]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Persons holding a Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passport. See also British National (Overseas) for persons residing in Hong Kong holding a form of British nationality.
  2. ^ Persons holding a Macau Special Administrative Region passport.
  3. ^ Only for holders with their personal ID numbers stipulated in their respective passports. Taiwan issues passports without ID numbers to some persons not having the right to reside in Taiwan, including nationals without household registration and certain persons from Hong Kong, Macau, and mainland China.[6][7] The visa waiver granted by the United Kingdom to Taiwan passport holders has not altered its non-recognition of Taiwan as a sovereign country.
  4. ^ Holy See Service & Emergency passport holders only.[3]
  5. ^ Non-biometric passports only

References

  1. ^ Smith, Evan (20 July 2016). "Brexit and the history of policing the Irish border". History & Policy. History & Policy. Retrieved 21 July 2016. 
  2. ^ UK Border Agency: Arriving at the UK border (If you are not a citizen of the EU, EEA or Switzerland)
  3. ^ a b UK Border Agency. "Visa and Direct Airside Transit Visa (DATV) nationals". Retrieved 17 August 2010. 
  4. ^ Do I need a visa? Hong Kong. UK Border Agency. Retrieved 17 August 2010
  5. ^ Do I need a visa? Macao. UK Border Agency. Retrieved 17 August 2010
  6. ^ ROC (Taiwan) Immigration Reference Guide for Civil Carriers (PDF), National Immigration Agency, 18 March 2011, retrieved 21 December 2011 
  7. ^ "護照條例施行細則", Laws & Regulations Database of The Republic of China, Taipei: Ministry of Justice, 29 June 2011, retrieved 21 December 2011 . English translation available from the Bureau of Consular Affairs.
  8. ^ UK Border Agency: Student visitors
  9. ^ UK Border Agency: Child visitors
  10. ^ UK electronic visa waiver introduced for Oman, Qatar and UAE
  11. ^ [1]
  12. ^ UK Border Agency | EUN07 - Travel facilities for non-EEA national school pupils resident in Member State
  13. ^ Government of Gibraltar - Visas and Immigration
  14. ^ http://www.gbc.gi/news/1405/immigration,-asylum-and-refugee-act-amended
  15. ^ http://www.chronicle.gi/headlines_details.php?id=28347
  16. ^ a b c The British-Irish Visa Scheme
  17. ^ a b British-Irish visa scheme
  18. ^ Joint visit visa to UK and Ireland launched
  19. ^ ECB08: what are acceptable travel documents for entry clearance
  20. ^ Visa to pass through the UK in transit
  21. ^ Visa to pass through the UK in transit
  22. ^ Visa to pass through the UK in transit
  23. ^ Are you intending to transit via the UK?
  24. ^ [2]
  25. ^ Passports that do not contain a Personal ID Number.
  26. ^ Biometric passports only
  27. ^ Apply for a UK visa
  28. ^ UK Border Agency | How to apply
  29. ^ a b General Visitor visa
  30. ^ The Home Office launches new two-year Chinese visa pilot
  31. ^ UK Border Agency: EEA family permits
  32. ^ The Immigration (Provision of Physical Data) Regulations 2006
  33. ^ a b UK Border Agency: Entry clearance guidance (ECB17 - Transferring a visa to a new passport, replacing a visa and dealing with unused visas)
  34. ^ UK Border Agency | Common Travel Area (CTA)
  35. ^ UK Border Agency | Applying for a visa
  36. ^ Tuberculosis tests for visa applicants
  37. ^ UK Border Agency: Transferring your visa to a new passport
  38. ^ Standard Visitor visa
  39. ^ The Standard Visitor visa has replaced the Family Visitor visa, General Visitor visa, Child Visitor visa, Business Visitor visa (including visas for academics, doctors and dentists), Sports Visitor visa, Entertainer Visitor visa, Prospective Entrepreneur visa, Private Medical Treatment Visitor visa, and Approved Destination Status (ADS) visa.
  40. ^ Marriage Visitor visa
  41. ^ Permitted Paid Engagement visa
  42. ^ Parent of a Tier 4 child visa
  43. ^ Visa to pass through the UK in transit
  44. ^ a b http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20080806121433/http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/news/visawaivertest.pdf?view=Binary
  45. ^ [ARCHIVED CONTENT] UK Border Agency|Results of Britain's first global visa review
  46. ^ "Results of Britain's first global visa review". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. 14 July 2008. Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  47. ^ "Important change for Venezuelan visitors to the UK". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  48. ^ BBC News (9 February 2009). "Countries face new UK visa rules". Retrieved 14 July 2010. 
  49. ^ [ARCHIVED CONTENT] UK Border Agency|New countries face tough visa rules
  50. ^ http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/policyandlaw/statementsofchanges/2009/hc227.pdf?view=Binary
  51. ^ http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20090414164007/http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/news/introofvisaregimes?view=Binary
  52. ^ House of Commons Hansard Ministerial Statements for 30 Mar 2010 (pt 0004)
  53. ^ House of Commons Hansard Ministerial Statements for 02 Mar 2011 (pt 0001)
  54. ^ UK Border Agency | Next set of changes to student visa rules is announced
  55. ^ UK Border Agency | Changes to student visa rules are now in force
  56. ^ http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/policyandlaw/statementsofchanges/2011/hc1148.pdf?view=Binary
  57. ^ https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/268230/hc565.pdf
  58. ^ https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/statement-of-changes-in-immigration-rules--5
  59. ^ http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/policyandlaw/statementsofchanges/2012/hc565.pdf?view=Binary
  60. ^ UK Border Agency | Changes to the Immigration Rules - September 2012
  61. ^ "UK puts Brazil visitor visa crackdown on hold". BBC News. 13 March 2013. 
  62. ^ https://www.gov.uk/government/news/uk-electronic-visa-waiver-introduced-for-oman-qatar-and-uae
  63. ^ a b https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/289857/HC_1138_EM_Web_Accessible.pdf
  64. ^ http://blogs.fco.gov.uk/frankbaker/2013/12/24/electronic-visa-waiver-explained/
  65. ^ Changes to UK visa requirements for Venezuelan nationals
  66. ^ http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/policyandlaw/modernised/cross-cut/police-registration/police-registration.pdf?view=Binary
  67. ^ http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/policyandlaw/guidance/ecg/ecb/ecb16/
  68. ^ "Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States". 2004-04-29. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  69. ^ Summary of the Directive 2004/38/EC "Right of Union citizens and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States". 2006-05-02. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  70. ^ "Decision of the EEA Joint Committee No 158/2007 of 7 December 2007 amending Annex V (Free movement of workers) and Annex VIII (Right of establishment) to the EEA Agreement" (PDF). 2007-12-07. Retrieved 2008-12-22. 
  71. ^ a b Article 7(2) of the Schengen Borders Code (OJ L 105, 13 April 2006, p. 1).
  72. ^ a b Home Office WI Checking Policy and operational instructions issued in June 2007 (see [3], pg 21)
  73. ^ See [4], pg 12
  74. ^ a b See [5], pg 3
  75. ^ See [6], table of statistics at 4.13 on pg 12
  76. ^ The Immigration (European Economic Area) Regulations 2006, Reg 11(4)
  77. ^ Judgement of the European Court of Justice of 17 February 2005, Case C 215/03, Salah Oulane vs. Minister voor Vreemdelingenzaken en Integratie ([7])
  78. ^ http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20131001174849/http://www.bia.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/policyandlaw/borderforce/primary-checkpoint/initial-examination/uk-eea-no-passport.pdf?view=Binary
  79. ^ Article 27 of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
  80. ^ Article 28 of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
  81. ^ Article 29 of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
  82. ^ Articles 3(1) and 5(2) of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
  83. ^ https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/entering-the-uk-as-the-holder-of-an-article-10-residence-card/entering-the-uk-as-the-holder-of-an-article-10-residence-card
  84. ^ Overseas Residents Visits to the UK 2.10
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