Victorian Aborigines

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A map of Victorian Aboriginal language territories.

Victorian Aborigines, the indigenous Australians of Victoria, Australia, occupied the land for tens of thousands of years prior to European settlement.[1]

The Aboriginal people of Victoria had developed a varied and complex set of languages, tribal alliances and trading routes, beliefs and social customs that involved totemism, superstition, initiation and burial rites, and tribal moieties that regulated sexual relationships and marriage.[2][3]

Prehistory

There is a wide range of archaeological sites in different parts of the state.[4] There is little evidence of the earliest periods, before about 25,000 years ago, but people were living in the Maribyrnong River valley, near present day Keilor, about 40,000 years ago [5][6].

At the Keilor archaeological site a human hearth excavated in 1971 was radiocarbon-dated to about 31,000 years BP, making Keilor one of the earliest sites of human habitation in Australia.[7] A cranium found at the site has been dated at between 12,000[8] and 14,700 years BP.[7]

Similar archaeological sites in Tasmania and on the Bass Strait Islands have been dated to between 20,000 to 35,000 years ago, when sea levels were 130 metres below present level allowing Aboriginal people to move across the region of southern Victoria and on to the land bridge of the Bassian plain to Tasmania by at least 35,000 years ago.[9][10]

There is evidence of occupation in Gariwerd (the Grampians) – the territory of the Jardwadjali people – many thousands of years before the last ice age. One site in the Victoria Range (Billawin Range) has been dated from 22,000 years ago..[11] [12][13]

During the Ice Age about 20,000 years BP, the area now the bay of Port Phillip would have been dry land, and the Yarra and Werribee river would have joined to flow through the heads then south and south west through the Bassian plain before meeting the ocean to the west. Between 16,000 and 14,000 years BP the rate of sea level rise was most rapid rising about 50 feet in 300 years according to Peter D. Ward.[14] Tasmania and the Bass Strait islands became separated from mainland Australia around 12,000 BP, when the sea level was approximately 50m below present levels.[9] Port Phillip was flooded by post-glacial rising sea levels between 8000 and 6000 years ago.[9]

Oral history and creation stories from the Wada wurrung, Woiwurrung and Bun wurrung languages describe the flooding of the bay. Hobsons Bay was once a kangaroo hunting ground. Creation stories describe how Bunjil was responsible for the formation of the bay,[10] or the bay was flooded when the Yarra river was created (Yarra Creation Story.[15])

The Wurundjeri mined diorite at Mount William Quarry which was a source of the highly valued greenstone hatchet heads, which were highly prized and traded across a wide area as far as New South Wales and Adelaide. The mine provided a complex network of trading for economic and social exchange among the different aboriginal nations in Victoria.[16][17][18] The quarry had been in use for more than 1,500 years and covered 18 hectares including underground pits of several metres. In February 2008 the site was placed on the National Heritage List for its cultural importance and archeological value.[19]

In some areas semi-permanent huts were constructed and a sophisticated network of water channels were constructed for farming eels. During winter the Djab wurrung encampments were more permanent, sometimes consisting of substantial huts as attested by Major Thomas Mitchell near Mount Napier in 1836:

'Two very substantial huts showed that even the natives had been attracted by the beauty of the land, and as the day was showery, I wished to return if possible, to pass the night there, for I began to learn that such huts, with a good fire between them, made comfortable quarters in bad weather.[20]

During early Autumn there were often large gatherings of up to 1000 people for one to two months hosted at the Mount William swamp or at Lake Bolac for the annual eel migration. Several tribes attended these gatherings including the Girai wurrung, Djargurd wurrung, Dhauwurd wurrung and Wada wurrung. Near Mount William, an elaborate network of channels, weirs and eel traps and stone shelters had been constructed. Eels were an important economic component for food and bartering, particularly the Short-finned eel.[21] Near Lake Bolac a san area of occupation extended some 35 kilometres along the river bank during autumn. George Augustus Robinson on 7 July 1841 described some of the infrastructure that had been constructed near Mount William:

...an area of at least 15 acres was thus traced out ... These works must have been executed at great cost of labour ... There must have been some thousands of yards of this trenching and banking. The whole of the water from the mountain rivulets is made to pass through this trenching ere it reaches the marsh ...[22]

Victorian Aboriginal languages

Thirty nine Aboriginal languages were spoken in Victoria at the time of European contact, according to Ian D. Clark, although five of these languages are primarily located around the border areas with New South Wales and South Australia.[23] Clark also identified 19 sub-dialects in seven languages. The Victorian Aboriginal Corporation For Languages (VACL) is the peak body for Aboriginal languages in Victoria and coordinates all of the community language programs throughout Victoria. The corporation is focused on retrieving, recording and researching Aboriginal languages and providing a central resource on Victorian Aboriginal languages with programs and educational tools to teach the indigenous and wider community about language.[24]

In recent years there has been an upsurge of interest in the Aboriginal languages of the south-eastern corner of Australia. The boundaries between one language area and another are not distinct. Rather, mixtures of vocabulary and grammatical construction exist in such regions, and so linguistic maps may show some variation about where one language ends and another begins. Many Australian indigenous languages have declined to a critical state. More than three-quarters of the original Australian languages have already been lost, and the survival of almost all of the remaining languages are extremely threatened.

Communities throughout Victoria, supported by VACL, are reviving their languages through language camps, workshops, school programs, educational material for children, networking events, publications, music, digital resources, and dictionaries.[24] VACL is expanding into the use of interactive digital tools and apps for learning language. They have a number of digital applications to revive Victorian Aboriginal languages through traditional and contemporary stories.[25] VACL supports education and learning activities in schools and communities around Victoria.

Language or language family Status Dialects Spoken by
Barababaraba Extinct
Bidawal (Maap) Extinct
Boong wurrung Extinct Boon wurrung
Gunai Revived Brabralung, Braiakalung, Brataualung, Krauatungalung, Tatungalung Gunai
Daung wurrung Extinct Taungurong
Dhauwurd wurrung Extinct Bi:g wurrung, Dhauwurd wurrung, Gai wurrung, Gurngubanud, Wullu wurrung Gunditjmara
Dhudhuroa language (Jaithmathang) Extinct
Djabwurrung Extinct Djab wurrung, Pirtpirt wurrung, Knenknen wurrung Djab wurrung
Djadjawurrung Extinct Djadjawurrung
Djargurd wurrung Extinct Djargurd Wurrung
Gadubanud Extinct Gadubanud
Girai wurrung Extinct Girai wurrung, Wirngilgnad dhalinanong Girai wurrung
Gulidjan Extinct Gulidjan
Gundungerre (Jaithmathang) Extinct
Jardwadjali Extinct Nundadjali, Jardwadjali, Jagwadjali, Mardidjali Jardwadjali
Keramin Extinct Jarijari Jarijari, Dadi Dadi
Ladjila Extinct
Mogullumbidj Extinct
Ngarigu Extinct Southern Ngarigu Ngarigo
Ngurai-illam wurrung Extinct
Wadiwadi Extinct Piangil and non-Piangil
Wathawurrung Extinct Wathaurong
Way wurru (Waveroo, Pallanganmiddang) Extinct Kwartkwart and Mogullumbidj (Minjambuta)
Wekiweki Extinct
Wemba-Wemba Extinct Wergaia Wemba-Wemba
Wergaia Extinct Bewadjali, Buibadjali, Djadjala, Wudjubalug
Woiwurrung Extinct Wurundjeri
Yorta Yorta language (Bangarang) Revived Yorta Yorta
Yuyu (Ngindadj) Extinct

Marginal language groups in Victorian border areas with South Australia and New South Wales include Bindjali, Buandig, Jabulajabula, Ngargad, and Thawa.

There is considerable debate over the substance and location of North-eastern Victorian indigenous languages including Mogullumbidj, Dhudhuroa and Yaithmathang.[26] Howitt considered Mogullumbidj the eastern most dialect of the Kulin speaking tribes of central Victoria, but Clark argues the name is a descriptive term of appearance.[27]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ David Frankel, Between the Murray and the Sea. Aboriginal Archaeology in South-eastern Australia. , Sydney University Press, 2017, ISBN 978-1-74332-552-0
  2. ^ Colin Leslie Dean, The Religions of the Pre-contact Victorian Aborigines, Gamahucher Press, Geelong West, Geelong, Victoria, Australia, 1998. Accessed 10 September 2011
  3. ^ James Dawson, (1881) Australian Aboriginal People: the languages and customs of several tribes of Aboriginal people in the western district of Victoria, Australia, Originally published George Robertson Melbourne in 1881, Facsimile edition AIAS 1981.
  4. ^ David Frankel, Between the Murray and the Sea. Aboriginal Archaeology in South-eastern Australia. , Sydney University Press, 2017, ISBN 978-1-74332-552-0
  5. ^ Gary Presland, p. 1, Aboriginal Melbourne: The Lost Land of the Kulin People, Harriland Press (1985), Second edition 1994, ISBN 0-9577004-2-3.
  6. ^ David Frankel, Between the Murray and the Sea. Aboriginal Archaeology in South-eastern Australia. , Sydney University Press, 2017, ISBN 978-1-74332-552-0
  7. ^ a b Gary Presland, Keilor Archaeological Site, eMelbourne website. Accessed 3 November 2008
  8. ^ Peter Brown, The Keilor Cranium Archived 15 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine., Peter Brown's Australian and Asian Palaeoanthropology, Accessed 3 November 2008
  9. ^ a b c Hanna Steyne, Investigating the Submerged Landscapes of Port Phillip Bay, Victoria Archived 23 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine., Heritage Victoria, who sources (Lambeck & Chappell 2001) and (Bird 1993, Bowler 1966, Holdgate et al. 2001), Accessed 3 November 2008
  10. ^ a b David Rhodes, Terra Culture Heritage Consultants, Channel Deepening Existing Conditions Final Report – Aboriginal Heritage Archived 1 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine., Prepared for Parsons Brinckerhoff and Port of Melbourne Corporation, August 2003. Accessed 3 November 2008
  11. ^ David Frankel, Between the Murray and the Sea. Aboriginal Archaeology in South-eastern Australia. , Sydney University Press, 2017, ISBN 978-1-74332-552-0
  12. ^ Caroline Bird and David Frankel
  13. ^ Parks Victoria, Management Plan for Grampians National Park Archived 23 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine., 2003, ISBN 0-7311-3131-2. Accessed 19 November 2008
  14. ^ Peter D. Ward, p. 30, The Flooded Earth. Our Future in a World Without Ice Caps, Basic Books, New York, 2010, ISBN 978-0-465-00949-7
  15. ^ Ian Hunter, Yarra Creation Story, Wurundjeri Dreaming. Recorded 2004–5. Accessed 3 November 2008
  16. ^ Isabel McBryde, Kulin Greenstone Quarries: The Social Contexts of Production and Distribution for the Mt William Site, in World Archaeology, Vol. 16, No. 2, Mines and Quarries (Oct. 1984), pp. 267-285 (article consists of 19 pages) Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. Accessed 3 November 2008
  17. ^ Isabel Ellender and Peter Christiansen, p. 44, People of the Merri Merri. The Wurundjeri in Colonial Days, Merri Creek Management Committee, 2001 ISBN 0-9577728-0-7
  18. ^ Gary Presland, Aboriginal Melbourne. The lost land of the Kulin people, Harriland Press, 1985. New edition 2001. ISBN 0-9577004-2-3
  19. ^ National Heritage List, Mount William Stone Hatchet Quarry, Australian Government, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Accessed 3 November 2008
  20. ^ Major Mitchell quoted in Two Native Tribes Shared Shire Area Shire of Mt. Rouse Centenary booklet, 1964, as detailed by the Mt. Rouse & District Historical Society website, 20 October 2007. Accessed 25 November 2008
  21. ^ Victorian Eel Fishery – Management Plan Accessed 25 November 2008
  22. ^ Harry Lourandos, p. 63–65, Continent of Hunter-gatherers: New Perspectives in Australian Prehistory, Cambridge University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-521-35946-5
  23. ^ Ian D. Clark, Aboriginal Language Areas in Victoria – a reconstruction, A Report to the Victorian Aboriginal Corporation For Languages, 25 August 2005. Accessed 10 September 2011
  24. ^ a b http://www.vaclang.org.au/
  25. ^ https://itunes.apple.com/us/artist/victorian-aboriginal-corporation/id928978621
  26. ^ Ian D. Clark, 2009 "Dhudhuroa and Yaithmathang languages and social groups in north-east Victoria – a reconstruction." in Aboriginal History, Volume 33, 2009, ANU E-Press. Accessed 10 September 2011
  27. ^ Ian D. Clark, 2010, "Aboriginal language areas in Northeast Victoria 'Mogullumbidj' reconsidered", Victorian Historical Journal, Royal Historical Society of Victoria.: 2010, 81, 2, pp. 181–192. Accessed article abstract on 10 September 2011

Sources

  • David Frankel (2017) Between the Murray and the Sea. Aboriginal Archaeology in Southeastern Australia, Sydney University Press, Sydney.ISBN 978-1-74332-552-0
  • Peter Beveridge (1889) The Aborigines of Victoria and Riverina, (reprinted 2008, Lowden Publishing Co., Victoria), ISBN 978-1-9207-530-8-5
  • Richard Broome, Aboriginal Victorians: A History Since 1800, Allen & Unwin, 2005, ISBN 1-74114-569-4, ISBN 978-1-74114-569-4
  • Ian Clark, (c. 1990) Aboriginal languages and clans :an historical atlas of western and central Victoria, 1800–1900, Dept. of Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University, Melbourne, Vic.
  • J. Dawson, (1881) Australian Aborigines: the languages and customs of several tribes of Aborigines in the western district of Victoria, Australia, Originally published George Robertson Melbourne in 1881, Facsimile edition AIAS 1981.
  • Sue Wessen, An Historical Atlas of the Aborigines of Eastern Victoria and Far South-eastern New South Wales, Monash University Publications in Geography and Environmental Science, Number 53, 2000, Monash University, Victoria ISBN 0-909685-68-1

Further reading

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