Versions of Ramayana

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Rama (right) seated on the shoulders of Hanuman, battles the demon-king Ravana

Depending on the methods of counting, as many as three hundred[1][2] versions of the Indian epic poem, the Ramayana, are known to exist. The oldest version is generally recognized to be the Sanskrit version attributed to the sage Valmiki.

The Ramayana has spread to many Asian countries outside of India, including Burma, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Thailand, Malaysia, Japan, Mongolia, Vietnam and China.[3][4] The original Valmiki version has been adapted or translated into various regional languages, which have often been marked more or less by plot twists and thematic adaptations. Some of the important adaptations of the classic tale include the 12th-century Tamil language Ramavataram, 14th-century Telugu language Sri Ranganatha Ramayanam, the Khmer Reamker, the Old Javanese Kakawin Ramayana, and the Thai Ramakien, the Lao Phra Lak Phra Lam, and the Burmese Yama Zatdaw.

The manifestation of the core themes of the original Ramayana is far broader even than can be understood from a consideration of the different languages in which it appears, as its essence has been expressed in a diverse array of regional cultures and artistic mediums. For instance, the Ramayana has been expressed or interpreted in Lkhaon Khmer dance theatre, in the Mappila Songs of the Muslims of Kerala and Lakshadweep,[5] in the Indian operatic tradition of Yakshagana, and in the epic paintings still extant on, for instance, the walls of Thailand's Wat Phra Kaew palace temple. In Indonesia, the tales of the Ramayana appear reflected in ballet performances, masked danced drama, and Wayang shadow puppetry.[6] Angkor Wat in Siem Reap also has mural scenes from the epic Battle of Lanka on one of its outer walls.

Sanskrit versions

Below are a few of the most prominent Sanskrit versions of the Ramayana. Some primarily recount Valmiki’s narrative, while others focus more on peripheral stories and/or philosophical expositions:

  • Adhyatma Ramayana or spiritual Ramayana is extracted from the Brahmananda Purana, traditionally ascribed to Vyasa. It is thought to be the inspiration for TulsidasRamcharitmanas in Awadhi. While the Valmiki Ramayana emphasizes Rama’s human nature, the Adhyatam Ramayana tells the story from the perspective of his divinity. It is organized into seven Kandas, parallel to Valmiki’s.
  • Vasistha Ramayana (more commonly known as Yoga Vasistha) is traditionally attributed to Valmiki. It is principally a dialogue between Vasistha and Rama in which Vasistha advances many of the principle tenets of Advaita Vedanta. It includes many anecdotes and illustrative stories, but does not recount Valmiki’s story of Rama in detail.
  • Laghu Yoga Vasishtha, by Abhinanda of Kashmir, is an abbreviated version of the Yoga Vasistha.[7]
  • Ananda Ramayana is traditionally attributed to Valmiki. While it briefly recounts the traditional story of Rama, it is composed primarily of stories peripheral, though related, to Valmiki’s narrative. This ramayana provide information about last years of Rama's life. These include Ravana’s abduction of Sita and Rama’s installment of the Shiva Lingam at Rameswaram.[8]
  • Agastya Ramayana is also traditionally attributed to Agastya.
  • Adbhuta Ramayana, traditionally attributed to Valmiki, includes related stories of Rama. Its emphasis is on the role of Sita, and includes an expanded story of the circumstances of her birth as well as an account of her defeat of Ravana's older brother, known as Mahiravana but with 1000 heads.
  • The Ramayana story is also recounted within other Sanskrit texts, including: the Mahabharata (in the Ramokhyana Parva of the Vana Parva);[9] Bhagavata Purana contains a concise account of Rama’s story in its ninth skandha;[10] brief versions also appear in the Vishnu Purana as well as in the Agni Purana.
  • An eleventh-century Sanskrit play entitled Mahanataka by Hanumat relates the story of Rama in nine, ten, or fourteen acts, depending on recension.[11]
  • A sixth-century manuscript Dasa Griba Rakshash Charitram Vadha contains five kandas: Balakanda and Uttarakanda are missing. This version portrays Rama as more of a human than god.[12]

In Sanskrit Drama

  • Pratima Natak of Bhasa which start with Rama's coronation which stop by kaikeyi and Rama exiled so Dasratha die. When Bharat came Ayodhya he saw statue of father with his ancestors and he knew that Dasratha was die. In this play kaikeyi said that she want to exiled rama for fourteen days but by mistake fourteen years.[13]
  • Abhiseka Nataka of Bhasa start with killing of Bali then Rama meet varuna for cross ocean. After killing Rawana , Rama take fire test of sita for her Chastity and finally end with coronation of Rama in Ayodhya.
  • Yagna-falam of Bhasa which start with Dasratha enjoyment for Birth of his sons from yagna ; then viswamitra take him Rama and Lakshman for save his yagna from Demons. Viswamitra take them Mithila for yagna of janaka and Rama married sita.
  • Kundamala of Dinnaga based on uttara-ramayana. Sita exiled by Rama and sita take vow she give kundamala or Garland to river for safe Birth of her son. Sita gave birth two twins. This twins sing ramayana in Rama's court and finally Rama meet his family.
  • Mahaviracharita of Bhavabhuti based on Ramayana. This play start with Rama came in Hermitage of visvamitra and end with coronation of Rama.
  • Uttara-rama-charita of Bhavabhuti based on later life Rama. Play start with sita blessed by sage astavkara then Rama show picture gallery with sita. Durmukha tell him rumours about sita's Chastity so sita exiled and she given Birth twins. Janaka and kaushlaya meet in Hermitage of valmiki. Twins fight with army of Rama who protect horse of Ashwamedha. Finally valmiki arranged drama and Rama know about his family.
  • Janaka jananada of kalya Lakshmi Narsingh based on Ramayana of jaimini Ashwamedha. In this play Rama's sons lava and kusha fight with army of Rama who protect horse of Ashwamedha. only Three mss of this play survived. It is very rare play because only four play are based on uttara-ramayana.
  • Chalita-Rama based on Rama's later life written in 9th century. In this play surpanakha planned plot and sita exiled But today we not found any mss of play.
  • Ramabhyudaya of Yashovarman in six acts written during 7th century A.D.
  • Ramabhyudaya of Ramadeva vyasa in two acts written during 15th century A.D.
  • Swapana-Dasanana of Bhimata based Dream of Rawana written around 6th or 7th century A.D.
  • Maithili-kalyana of Hastimalla based on marriage of sita written around 9th century A.D.
  • Uddata-Raghava by Mayu-raja also called Anagaharsha written around 8th century A.D.
  • Ascharya-choodamani of Shaktibhadra written around 9th century based on Ramayana.
  • Kritya-Rawana written during 9th century.
  • Maya-puspaka written during 9th century.
  • Rama-Charita drama based on Ramayana written during 9th century.
  • Ramananada of shrigadita based on Ramayana written during 9th century.
  • Anargha-Raghava of Murari written during 9th or 10th century.
  • Bala-Ramyana of Raj-shekhara in ten acts written during 9th or 10th century.
  • Abhinava-Raghava of kshiraswamin written during 10th century.
  • Vali-Vadha written during 10th century. It is preksanka type drama.
  • Marica-Vancitaka give ramayana story in five acts written during 11th century.
  • Prasana-Raghava of Jayadeva is a drama in seven acts written around 12th century.
  • Raghu-vilasa of Ramachandra written around 12th century.
  • Raghavabhyudaya of Ramachandra written around 12th century. There are other three dramas of same name written by Gangadhara (1294 - 1325 A.D.) , Bhagavan Raya and venkatesvara.
  • Janaki-Raghava written around 12th century. Another Janaki-Ragava of Yuvraja ramasinha written in 1625 A.D.
  • Rama-vikrama also is a lost Ramayana drama known only through the reference made to it by Sagaranandin. It is most likely a work of the 12th century A.D.
  • Dutangada of Subhata. The Prologue of this play states that it was represented at the court of Tribhuvanapala, a Calukya king of Anhilvad who reigned in 1242-1243 A.D., at a spring festival held in honour of the dead king Kumarapala who restored the saiva temple of Devapattana in Kathiawad. Another Dutangada of Ramachandra.
  • Amogha-raghava is a lost Ramayana-drama known only through the reference made to it by singabhupala. It may be assigned to the 13th century A.D.
  • Abhirama-raghava is lost Ramayana-drama known only through the reference made to it by singabhupala. It seems to belong to the 13th cen. A.D
  • Ullagha-raghava of Somesvara is a Ramayana drama belonging to the 13th century A.D. Somesvara . He was the- court-poet of Viradhavala and of Gujarat (1219-1271 A.D.). the Ms. of this drama is preserved in Baroda library.
  • Unmatta-raghava of Bhaskara written around 14th century. The Unmatta-raghava gives a curious tale of Rama. Sita enters into a garden forbidden to the womenfolk and is transformed into a gazelle. Rama wanders in her search and his maddened soliloquies.The s'age Agasta takes pity and relieves Sita of the curse of Durvasa which was the cause of her transformation because once Durvasa disturb by gazelle.
  • Unmatta-raghava of Mahadeva sastri.
  • Ananda-raghava is a drama on the Ramayana theme. Its author Rajacudamani Diksita was the son of Srinivasa and Kamakshi and was patronised by king Raghunatha of Tanjore. He flourished in the last part of the 16th century. Anandaraghava describes in five acts the story of Rama from his marriage to coronation.
  • Abhirama-mani of Sundaramisra is a drama in seven acts based on Ramayana written in 1599 A.D.
  • Adbhuta-darpana of Mahadeva is a Ramayana-drama in ten acts. Mahadeva is the son of Krsna Suri of Tanjore and belongs to the 17th century A.D.
  • Janaki-parinaya is a Ramayana-drama by Ramabhadra Diksita also belongs to the 17th century A.D.There are two more dramas of this name, one by Narayana Bhatta and the other by Sitarama.
  • Raghavananda is a Ramayana-drama by Venkatesvara belonging to the last quarter of the 17th century in the court of Sahaji and Serfoji of Tanjore (1684-1728).
  • Sita-raghava
  • Lalita-raghava is drama on the Ramayana story by Ramapani deva belonging to the middle of the 18th century A.D.
  • Maha-Nataka of Damodara written around 11th century and second written by Madhusudana around 14th century.

Regional versions

Rama is shown about to offer his eyes to make up the full number - 108 - of lotus blossoms needed in the puja that he must offer to the goddess Durga to gain her blessing. Scene from Krittivasi Ramayan.

Some noteworthy examples of these additional renderings of the Ramayana tale include:

States
Languages
  • Kannada - Two prose works by Nanadalike Lakshminarayana ('Muddanna') entitled Adbhuta Ramayana (1895) and Ramaswamedham (1898).
  • Urdu version called the Pothi Ramayana was written in the 17th century.

Versions in other Dharmic religions

  • Buddhism - Dasarata Jataka. This version is notable for depicting Rama and Sita as siblings who marry. Such sibling marriages are a common symbolic imagery in early Buddhist literature to denote purity of a dynasty. As the Buddha is supposed to have come from the Ikshvaku clan (of Rama) this symbolised his dynastic merits.
  • Jainism - Paumachariyam, the most influential among the Jain versions is written as a polemic against Sanskrit versions asserting that all characters in the Ramayana were mere mortals who engaged in conflict over moral issues. The only superhuman feat mentioned is Ravana's ability to fly through the clouds (meghavahana). All characters are depicted as Jains and the Rama, Sita and Lakshmana visit Jain pilgrimage sites rather than ashrams (as in Valmiki ramayana) during their stay in the forest.

Versions outside India

The following are among the versions of the Ramayana that have emerged outside India:

East Asia
Southeast Asia
South Asia
West Asia

Contemporary versions

Contemporary prose versions of the epic Ramayana include Sri Ramayana Darshanam by Dr. K. V. Puttappa in Kannada and Ramayana Kalpavrikshamu by Viswanatha Satyanarayana in Telugu, both of which have been awarded the Jnanpith Award. A prose version called Geet Ramayan in Marathi by G.D. Madgulkar was rendered in music by Sudhir Phadke and is considered to be a masterpiece of Marathi literature. The popular Indian author R. K. Narayan wrote a shortened prose interpretation of the epic. In addition, Ramesh Menon wrote a single-volume edition of the Ramayana, which has received praise from scholars. A short version with a somewhat contemporary feel, influenced, according to the author, by contemporary representations of guerrilla warfare, appeared in Martin Buckley's Ramayana-based travelogue, An Indian Odyssey (Random House London, 2008). C Rajgopalachari, India's only Indian Governor General, also wrote a single volume Ramayana, published by Bhavans in 1957. In September 2006, the first issue of Ramayan 3392 A.D. was published by Virgin Comics, featuring the Ramayana as re-envisioned by author Deepak Chopra and filmmaker Shekhar Kapur.

Most recently, popular Indian author Ashok Banker, authored an eight-volume imaginative retelling based on the Ramayana which found considerable success and was credited with ushering in a new wave of interest in the epic as well as other mythological retellings. Banker's version took considerable liberties with the original Sanskrit epic yet found critical acclaim. It is claimed to be the most popular retelling of the epic currently.

The latest in the retelling of the epic is from Ravi Venugopal, an US based NRI narrating the story from the eyes of Rama. The first volume is I, Rama trilogy is Age of Seers and it talks about an age old Rama who introspects his life and the events happening with a pragmatic view. The book is the first of its kind and stuns the reader with new perspectives of several characters. The book tries to give a scientific lift to the ancient epic.

Screen

The Ramayana has been adapted on screen as well, most notably as the television series Ramayan by producer Ramanand Sagar, which is based primarily on the Ramcharitmanas and Valmiki's Ramayana and, at the time, was the most popular series in Indian television history. In the late 1990s, Sanjay Khan made a series called Jai Hanuman, recounting tales from the life of Hanuman and related characters from the Ramayana.

A Japanese animated film called Ramayana: The Legend of Prince Rama was released in the early 1990s. US animation artist Nina Paley retold the Ramayana from Sita's point of view (with a secondary story about Paley's own marriage) in the animated musical Sita Sings the Blues. An Indian animated film called Ramayana: The Epic was released in October 2010. The Stories Without Borders Production Company has a documentary in production about different versions of the Ramayana and a second India epic, the Mahabharata, across South and Southeast Asia that is slated to film begin filming in 2014. In 2015,star plus hosted Siya ke Ram,a retelling of Ramayana from Sita's POV.

Stage

Starting in 1978, and under the supervision of Baba Hari Dass, the Ramayana has been performed every year by Mount Madonna School in Watsonville,[18] California. Currently, it is the largest yearly, Western version of the epic being performed. It takes the form of a colorful musical with custom costumes, sung and spoken dialog, jazz-rock orchestration and dance. This performance takes place in a large audience theater setting usually in June, in San Jose, CA.[19] Baba Hari Dass has thought acting arts, costume-attire design, masks making, and choreography to bring alive characters of Sri Ram, Sita, Hanuman, Lakshmana, Shiva, Parvati, Vibhishan, Jatayu, Sugriva, Surpanakha, Ravana and his rakshasa court, Meghnaad, Kumbhakarna, and the army of monkeys and demons.

Late Tamil Actor R. S. Manohar played Ravana as the Antagonist in his Magnum Opus Lankeswaran, in which he projects the heroic and better side of Ravana. It was staged more than 1,800 times.[20]

Comic series

Artist Vikas Goel and writer Vijayendra Mohanty have created a ten-part comic series called Ravanayan that presents the story of Ramayana from Ravana's perspective.[21]

Following the success of Ashok Banker's Ramayana Series retellings, a graphic novel adaptation was released in 2010.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Camille Bulcke, Ramkatha: Utpatti aur Vikās (The Rāma story: Original and development), Prayāg: Hindī Pariṣad Prakāśan, 1950.
  2. ^ A. K. Ramanujan, "Three hundred Rāmāyaṇas: Five Examples and Three Thoughts on Translation", in Paula Richman (ed.), Many Rāmāyaṇas: The Diversity of a Narrative Tradition in South Asia, Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1991, p. 48, note 3.
  3. ^ "Ramayana(s) retold in Asia". The Hindu. 19 February 2012. Retrieved 2015-02-07. 
  4. ^ "History of Rama and Ramayan". Hindu Online. 2010. Retrieved 2015-02-07. 
  5. ^ "A different song". The Hindu. 12 August 2005. Retrieved 2009-05-21. 
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 October 2009. Retrieved 13 December 2009. 
  7. ^ Leslie, Julia (2003). Authority and meaning in Indian religions: Hinduism and the case of Vālmīki. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. ISBN 0-7546-3431-0.
  8. ^ Ananda Ramayana. Parimal Publications. 2006. 
  9. ^ Mahabharata. Parimal Publications. 2006. 
  10. ^ Srimad Bhagavata Mahapurana. Gita Press, Gorakhpur. ISBN 81-293-0155-5. 
  11. ^ Schuyler, Montgomery (1877). A bibliography of the Sanskrit drama: with an introductory sketch of the dramatic literature of India. Columbia University Press, the Macmillan Company, agents. 
  12. ^ Jhimli Mukherjee Pandey (18 December 2015). "6th-century Ramayana found in Kolkata, stuns scholars". The Times of India. 
  13. ^ "Pratima Nataka of Bhasa". 
  14. ^ Saradesāya, Manohararāya (2000). A history of Konkani literature: from 1500 to 1992. Sahitya Akademi,. p. 317. ISBN 9788172016647. 
  15. ^ Bhembre, Uday (September 2009). Konkani bhashetalo paylo sahityakar:Krishnadas Shama. Sunaparant Goa. pp. 55–57. 
  16. ^ "A different song". 
  17. ^ de Jong, J.W. 1971. ‘Un fragment de l’histoire de Rāma en tibétain’ in Études tibétaines dédiées à la mémoire de Marcelle Lalou. Paris: Librairie d’Amérique et d’Orient; de Jong, J.W. 1977. The Tun-huang Manuscripts of the Tibetan Ramayana Story’, Indo-Iranian Journal 19:37-88, 1977; Thomas, F.W. 1929. ‘A Rāmāyaṇa Story in Tibetan from Chinese Turkestan’ in Indian Studies in Honor of Charles Rockwell Lanman: 193–212. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
  18. ^ website editor (June 6–8, 2014). "Ramayana". 36th Annual Ramayana!. Mount Madonna School. Retrieved Aug 8, 2014. 
  19. ^ Jha, Ritu (July 8, 2011). "California school celebrates Ramayan for 33 years". rediff News,. rediff.com. Retrieved Aug 3, 2014. 
  20. ^ "Superstar of Tamil theatre". October 2, 2000. 
  21. ^ Banerjee, Manali (2011-07-09). "The Ramayana as Ravana saw it". Hindustan Times. New Delhi: HT Media. Retrieved 2011-07-23. 

Bibliography

  • Many Ramayanas: The Diversity of a Narrative Tradition in South Asia, ed. by Paula Richman. University of California Press, 1991.
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