Vegaphobia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Vegaphobia (or vegephobia[1][2][3]) is the aversion to and discrimination against vegetarian and vegan people.[4][5][6]

History

Some of the oldest episodes of aversion can be found in the 3rd and 4th centuries when Greek comedies are written where Pythagoras is despised of his choice of not eating meat.[7]

They then have episodes of persecution of vegetarians in China in the twelfth century as well as in the European medieval, where they were branded as heretics and persecuted by the Holy Inquisition.[8][9] These persecutions are also detailed in the essay Pythagora's Supper by Erica Joy Mannucci.

In recent times, Nazi Germany became the protagonist of the vegetarian persecution. When he came to power in 1933, Hitler infiltrated all vegetarian associations in Germany, detained executives, and closed the main vegetarian magazines published in Frankfurt. Nazi persecution forced vegetarians to leave the country or enter into secret. A German vegetarian, Edgar Kupfer-Koberwitz, fled to Paris and then to Italy where he was arrested by the Gestapo and sent to the Dachau concentration camp. During the war, Nazi Germany banned all vegetarians in the territories occupied by it, though vegetarian diets could have contributed to alleviating the famine of the war time.[10]

Using the term

It is in the 21st that it began to frame the phenomenon in the sociological sphere and makes its appearance "vegaphobia". In 2007, a survey called "Vegaphobia: disproportionate talk about veganism in British national newspapers" took place in the United Kingdom, which examined 397 articles containing the terms "vegan", "vegans" and "veganism". That's what the researchers found was that 74.3% of the items are classified as "negatives"; 20.2% "neutral" and only 5.5% "positive". Negative items were in order of frequency: ridiculing veganism; characterize veganism as asceticism; affirming that veganism is difficult or impossible to sustain; describe veganism as a fashion; portray vegans as sentimentalists; defining vegans as hostile.[11]

In 2010, the book "Some we love, some who hate, some who eat: because it is so hard to think directly about animals" is published by Hal Herzog. The fourth chapter focuses on vegaphobia entitled "Veganism, veganorexia and vegaphobia: women, choice, and eating policy".[12] The chapter's analysis is also reported in the book of 2015 "The Vegan Studies Project: Food, Animals and Gender in the Eternal of Terror "by Laura Wright.[13]

Other uses of the term vegaphobia can be found mainly in Europe during conferences such as that held in August 2011 by Sara Fergé, titled "Social Violence against Vegetarianism for Animals and Vegaphobia Analysis" during the "Summer Animal Issues" "held in Marlhes de la Loire, France.[14]

In 2012 Christophe Traïni in the scientific text "Between disgust and moral indignation: the socio-genesis of a practicing activist" speaks of vegans and anti-peoples become an "oppressed minority" rebelled against vegephobia.[15] In the same year he also talks about Kay Peggs in the book "Animal Consumption".[16]

At the Animal Rights Conference in Luxembourg in 2013, actress and producer Jola Cora, organizer of the first Vega International, exposed the phenomenon in an intervention called "Vegaphobia, what is it?"[17] Also in the same year spoke French philosopher Yves Bonnardel in his speech titled "Vegaphobia" at Veggie Pride International in Genoa, Switzerland.[18]

In 2014 they talk about Andrea Romeo and Ivonne Citarella in the text "The Network and the Spread of Anti-Species Culture" describing the phenomenon of vegaphobia as the "superficial and derisory" attitude of those who focus on vegan lifestyle rather than real motivations that lead to this choice. " It can also be noted that proliferation of "anti-veg" groups is called "specist".[19] In the same year, Queer Vegan Manifesto was published, where Rasmus R. Simonsen argues that vegaphobia is linked to homophobia because "homophobic speech feeds vegaphobia, since the choice of eating differently, for males in particular, is linked to 'effeminacy and lack of virility'.[20]

In 2016 Radio Radicale was broadcasting an interview with Silvia Molè on censorship of antispecism and vegephobia by Cristiana Pugliese.[21] In the same year, always in Italy, he also spoke of vegefobia also Radio Onda Rossa.[22]

In 2017, the "Plant-Based Nutrition: An Essential Component of Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Management" research is published where vegaphobia is described as the stereotypical attitude of vegans as "ascetics, fashionists, sentimentalists, and in some cases hostile extremists" .[23]

Episodes of Vegaphobia

Italy

One of the most striking episodes of vegafobia in Italy was staged by chef Gianfranco Vissani, guest in "In Onda" on La7, saying: "Vegans are a sect. I'll kill them all." [24]

The conductor Alessandro Cecchi Paone stated during the episode of 10 April 2017 of the TV show "Quinta Colonna" that those who grow without eating meat become "fat and ugly". This appears to be scientifically false and discriminatory, contradicting the positions of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.[25]

MP Maurizio Bianconi during the ECG Region format stated on Radio Cusano Campus: "Vegans are ill if I had a vegan grandchild kicks her parents."[26] The statement is intended to define anyone who follows a plant diet and contradicts the scientific positions already cited as it proves that the vegan diet is not intrinsically harmful. There is also an incitement to hatred and violence against other people.

Anna Oliverio Ferraris, a professor of psychology at La Sapienza University in Rome, said during an interview that veganism can be considered a "mental disorder". The motivation is that it causes "fractures among people" while the allegation to vegans is that they "feel pure and often despise those who do not like them."[27] This seems to be an obvious simplification of the phenomenon and a generalization not supported by any scientific data, which results in discrimination of those who follow a vegan diet.

A woman in Grosseto was physically assaulted by her daughter's classmates' parents because she was accused of bad influence, precisely because of the diet followed by her mother and daughter. In fact, the latter explained to his companions the ethical reasons of his diet, triggering the reaction of their parents.[28]

In Rome, a woman who opened a vegan activity at the open market in Testaccio was physically assaulted by butchers and fisherman and her banquet was overthrown.[29][30]

In 2016, a politician proposed a decree to ban the vegan diet to children and arrest their parents.[31]

France

A decree was issued to ban the children from eating vegan. The decree was severely criticized by the animalist associations and the singing Paul McCartney.[32] The reasons given for the protection of children's health contradict scientific positions on the absence of intrinsic harmfulness of the vegan diet.

In October 2008, MEP Yves Cochet, proposing to the National Assembly for measures to reduce the consumption of meat, felt compelled to reassure the interlocutors by saying, "I am not a vegetarian integralist."[33]

In 2013, a child of only 7 months was taken away from his parents by social services because his mother is vegan.[34] The case created a great stir in France and started petitions. It was also reported by actress and producer Jola Cora during the Animal Rights Conference of 2013 held in Luxembourg during the "Vegafobia, what is it?".[17] Once again, action is generated by the ignorance of scientific positions about it, fueling the commonplace that sees the vegan diet as intrinsically damaging.

United Kingdom

In Hatfield, a 12-year-old vegan student who has been bullied has committed suicide. His companions insulted him by throwing him on pieces of meat.[35]

Greece

A couple on the island of Crete was prevented from adopting a baby because of their vegetarian diet.[36]

Georgia

In Tiblisi was destroyed a vegan restaurant. Employees, who were beaten, said: "The fact of not eating meat is considered out of the world."[37]

Poland

Foreign Minister Witold Waszczykowski said: "Vegetarians are the symbol of a marching Europe against which we must fight."[38][39]

Australia

One student in Melbourne was forced to leave the campus after repeated harassment. They left her a horse's heart in front of the door, spread the chicken on the window and dumped raw meat in her room while she slept.[40]

Bibliography

  • Guadagnucci, Lorenzo (2012). Restiamo animali. Terre di mezzo. ISBN 978-88-6189-224-8. 
  • Charles Patterson (2003). Un'eterna Treblinka. Il massacro degli animali e l'Olocausto. Editori Riuniti. ISBN 978-8835953241. 
  • Mannucci, Erica Joy (2008). La cena di Pitagora. Storia del vegetarianismo dall'antica Grecia a Internet. Carocci editore. ISBN 978-88-430-4574-7. 
  • Cole, Matthew (2011). Vegafobia: discorsi dispregiativi sul veganismo nei giornali nazionali britannici. 
  • Sigler, Pierre. L'exploitation animale est une question de société. 
  • Oliver, David. Vegephobia is Speciesism. 
  • Romeo, Andrea (2014). La rete e la diffusione della cultura antispecista. [19]
  • Traïni, Christophe (2012). Between disgust and moral indignation: The socio-genesis of an activist practice. Presses de Sciences Po. ISBN 978-27-2463-260-6. [41]
  • Herzog, Hal (2011). Some We Love, Some We Hate, Some We Eat: Why It's So Hard to Think Straight About Animals. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-00-6173-085-6. [12]
  • Filippi, Massimo (2014). Manifesto Queer Vegan. Ortica Editrice. [20]

References

  1. ^ "Brochure «La végéphobie...» - Yves Bonnardel". yves-bonnardel.info. 
  2. ^ "Les végétariens de France se battent contre « l'holocauste animal »". vice.com. 23 May 2014. 
  3. ^ "Vegephobia is Speciesism". wordpress.com. 13 January 2014. 
  4. ^ Cole, Matthew; Morgan, Karen (1 March 2011). "Vegaphobia: derogatory discourses of veganism and the reproduction of speciesism in UK national newspapers1". The British Journal of Sociology. 62 (1): 134–153. doi:10.1111/j.1468-4446.2010.01348.x – via Wiley Online Library. 
  5. ^ "Repetita juvant: cos'è la vegefobia". www.veggiepride.it. 
  6. ^ "Vegephobia, what is it? Why is it important to fight it? (Jola Cora) [IARC2013]". ar-conference.org. 
  7. ^ "Fish, Flesh, and Foul: The Anti-Vegetarian Animus". ResearchGate. 
  8. ^ "Resolving the Meat-Paradox: A Motivational Account of Morally Troublesome Behavior and Its Maintenance". ResearchGate. 
  9. ^ "Meat traditions. The co-evolution of humans and meat". ResearchGate. 
  10. ^ "Hitler e la carne: la evitava ma faceva arrestare i vegetariani". ilgiornale.it. 
  11. ^ "Vegaphobia: media eats veganism". thescavenger.net. 
  12. ^ a b Herzog, Hal (9 August 2011). "Some We Love, Some We Hate, Some We Eat: Why It's So Hard to Think Straight About Animals". Harper Collins – via Google Books. 
  13. ^ Wright, Laura (1 October 2015). "The Vegan Studies Project: Food, Animals, and Gender in the Age of Terror". University of Georgia Press – via Google Books. 
  14. ^ http://brigitte-bardot.over-blog.net/archive/2011-07/5
  15. ^ Traïni, Christophe; Throssell, Katharine. "Between disgust and moral indignation". Revue française de science politique. Vol. 62 (4) – via cairn-int.info. 
  16. ^ Peggs, Kay (6 October 2017). Animals and Sociology. Palgrave Macmillan, London. pp. 90–106. doi:10.1057/9780230377271_6 – via link.springer.com. 
  17. ^ a b VeganKanal (12 September 2013). "Vegephobia, what is it? Jola Cora at IARC 2013 Luxembourg" – via YouTube. 
  18. ^ "News". www.veggiepride.it. 
  19. ^ a b Romeo, Andrea; Citarella, Ivonne (1 August 2014). "La rete e la diffusione della cultura antispecista". goWare – via Google Books. 
  20. ^ a b https://works.bepress.com/rasmus_simonsen/3/download/
  21. ^ Radicale, Radio (5 September 2016). "Intervista a Silvia Molè sulla censura verso l'antispecismo e sulla vegefobia". radioradicale.it. 
  22. ^ "vegefobia - Radio Onda Rossa". www.ondarossa.info. 
  23. ^ Patel, Hena; Chandra, Sonal; Alexander, Sarah; Soble, Jeffrey; Williams, Kim Allan (1 October 2017). "Plant-Based Nutrition: An Essential Component of Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Management". Current Cardiology Reports. 19 (10): 104. doi:10.1007/s11886-017-0909-z. PMID 28887684 – via link.springer.com. 
  24. ^ "Gianfranco Vissani: "I vegani sono una setta. Li ammazzerei tutti"". ilgiornale.it. 
  25. ^ "Vegetarian Diets". www.eatrightpro.org. 
  26. ^ Fotia, Filomena (30 March 2016). "Show del deputato Bianconi: "I vegani sono malati, se avessi un nipotino vegano prenderei a calci i suoi genitori"". meteoweb.eu. 
  27. ^ "La psicologia del vegetariano - Wired". wired.it. 18 April 2014. 
  28. ^ "Una mamma denuncia: Io, aggredita perché mia figlia è vegetariana - Cronaca - il Tirreno". gelocal.it. 23 March 2017. 
  29. ^ "Mercato Testaccio: "Io aggredita perché ho un banco vegano"". romatoday.it. 
  30. ^ "La Lav: "Al mercato di Testaccio una banchista vegana aggredita da una pescivendola"". repubblica.it. 6 November 2015. 
  31. ^ "Vegan parents targeted by Italy bill". 10 August 2016 – via www.bbc.com. 
  32. ^ http://www.icdv.info/index.php?post/2011/12/02/Déclaration-de-Paul-McCartney-au-sujet-du-décret-français
  33. ^ "Séance en hémicycle du 9 octobre 2008 à 21h45 : NosDeputes.fr". 2007-2012.nosdeputes.fr. 
  34. ^ "« Moi Joachim, 7 mois, condamné à la détention, privé de mes parents depuis le 11 juin car ma mère est végétarienne - Mille Babords". www.millebabords.org. 
  35. ^ "Schoolboy found hanged after 'class bullies threw meat at him for being vegan'". mirror.co.uk. 28 September 2017. 
  36. ^ "Vegetarian couple barred from adopting". news.com.au. 
  37. ^ "Attacco a colpi di salsiccia a un caffè vegano di Tbilisi, in Georgia. "Sono neonazisti, ci considerano fuori dal mondo"". huffingtonpost.it. 1 June 2016. 
  38. ^ "Foreign Minister In "Cyclists & Vegetarians" Slur". wroclawuncut.com. 
  39. ^ "Poland's new government dislikes critical media, vegetarians and cyclists". economist.com. 
  40. ^ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4951930/Vegan-student-raw-meat-thrown-her.html
  41. ^ Traïni, Christophe; Throssell, Katharine. "Between disgust and moral indignation". Revue française de science politique. Vol. 62 (4). 
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