Hallingmål-Valdris

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Hallingmål-Valdris
Region Hallingdal, Valdres
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog None
Hallingdal og Valdres.png
Administrative map of Hallingdal and Valdres
  Valdres

Hallingmål-Valdris (also known by the individual names Halling, Hallingdøl, or Valdresmål) is a group of Norwegian dialects traditionally spoken in the traditional districts Hallingdal, Buskerud and Valdres, Oppland.[a]

Phonology

Consonants

  • /rn/ is usually realized as a prestopped nasal [dn̩], while the allophone [ɳ] only occurs in words like baren ([bɑːɳ])[3] "the bar".[4][b]
  • /rl/ also has a prestopped realization [dl].[4]
  • The phoneme which is commonly called thick L (written /ɽ/ in IPA), exists in words that had either ⟨l⟩ or ⟨rð⟩ in Old Norse. In Vang, /ɽ/ occurs only in the first case.[6]
  • The consonant clusters ⟨sk⟩, ⟨skj⟩, and ⟨sj⟩ were not pronounced as [ʂ], only ⟨-rs-⟩ was.[7] Sørbygdi in Flå pronounces ⟨sj⟩ as [ʂ], while Gulsvik pronounces it as [ʂj].[8]
  • The consonant clusters ⟨sl⟩ and ⟨tl⟩ were mostly assimilated to [sl]. Hol and Ål assimilated these to [l̥],[9][10] and Sørbygdi in Flå assimilated ⟨sl⟩ to [ʂl].[8]
  • The clusters ⟨-ld⟩, ⟨-nd⟩ and ⟨-mb⟩ are pronounced as spelled.[11][12][13]
  • The Old Norse cluster ⟨-fn⟩ is pronounced as assimilated [bdn] or [bn].[12]

Vowels

  • The back vowels [ʊ, uː] and [ɔ, oː] in older Hallingmål-Valdris were pronounced as in Old Norse, without the vowel shift to, respectively, [ʉ, ʉː] and [ʊ, uː] that is found in most other Norwegian dialects.[14][15]
  • The short Old Norse vowels ⟨o⟩ and ⟨ö⟩ are pronounced as central [ɞ] almost everywhere, except for Ål (but not Torpo), where these are back [ɔ].[6][16][17] In Valdres (except for Vang), the schwa /ə/ can also be realized as [ɞ].[6]
  • Traditionally, /æ, æː/ were pronounced as open-mid [ɛ, ɛː].[18]
  • The words pronounced [e(ː)] and [ɛ(ː)] mean "I" and "am", respectively.[18]
  • Itacism is found in southern Hallingdal (Flå, Nes and some in Gol), making the vowel /yː/ to be unrounded to [].[19]
  • The Old Norse diphthongs ⟨ei⟩, ⟨ey⟩ and ⟨au⟩ are traditionally pronounced as [aɪ̯], [ɔʏ̯] ([eɪ̯] in southern Hallingdal)[19] and [aʊ̯]. This is occurs today especially in upper Valdres and Hol and Ål.[6][7]

Grammar

Declension of nouns[20][21][c]
Gender Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Dative Indefinite Definite Dative
Feminine Strong
(with i-
declension)
[suːɽ] [suːɽɛ] [suːɳ] [ˈsuːˈɽɛ],[d]
[ˈsuːˈɽi][e]
[ˈsuːɽˈidn̩] [ˈsuːˈɽu]
Strong
(with a-decl.)
[jaɪ̯t] [ˈjaɪ̯ˈtɛ] [ˈjaɪ̯ˈtn̩] [jaɪ̯ta] [ˈjaɪ̯ˈtadn̩] [ˈjaɪ̯ˈtu]
Weak
(with u-decl.)
[ˈjɛnˈtɛ] [ˈjɛnˈta] [ˈjɛnˈtʉn] [ˈjɛnˈtʉ] [ˈjɛnˈtʉdn̩] [ˈjɛnˈtu]
Masculine Strong
(with a-decl.)
[gʉːt] [gʉːtn̩] [gʉːta] [ˈgʉːˈta] [ˈgʉːˈtadn̩] [ˈgʉːˈtu]
Strong
(with i-decl.)
[griːs] [griːsn̩] [ˈgriːˈsɛ] [ˈgriːˈsɛ],[d]
[ˈgriːˈsi][e]
[ˈgriːˈsidn̩] [griːsu]
Weak
(with a-decl.)
[ˈbakˈkɛ] [ˈbakˈkin] [ˈbakˈka] [ˈbakˈka] [ˈbakˈkadn̩] [ˈbakˈku]
Neutrum Strong [hʉːs] [hʉːsɛ] [ˈhʉːˈsɛ] [hʉːs] [hʉːsɛ]
Weak [aʊ̯ga] [aʊ̯ga(ə)] [aʊ̯gaɛ] [aʊ̯gʉ],[f] [aʊ̯gu][d] [aʊ̯gu],[f]
[aʊ̯gʉdn̩][d]
[aʊ̯gu]
Personal pronouns[22][23][c]
Person Subjective
case
Objective
case
Dative
case
Possessive
Feminine Masculine Neuter
Subj./Obj. Dative Subj./Obj. Dative Subj./Obj. Dative
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
1st p. sg. [eː] [meː] [meː] [miː] [ˈmiːˈnə] [ˈmiːˈnə] [miː] [mɪn] [ˈmiːˈnə] [ˈmiːˈnə] [miː] [mɪt] [ˈmiːˈnə] [ˈmiːˈnə] [miː]
2nd person sg. [dʉː] [deː] [deː] [diː] [ˈdiːˈnə] [ˈdiːˈnə] [diː] [dɪn] [ˈdiːˈnə] [ˈdiːˈnə] [diː] [dɪt] [ˈdiːˈnə] [ˈdiːˈnə] [diː]
3rd p. sg. f. [huː],
[ˈhuːˈna]
[huː],
[ˈhuːˈna]
[ˈhɛnˈnɛ],
[n]
[ˈhɛnˈnɛ(r)] ([ˈhɛnˈnar]),[g] [ˈhɛnˈnɛs][h]
3rd p. sg. m. [han], [n] [han], [n] [huːnu], [u] [has]
3rd p. sg. n. [dɛ] [dɛ] [di] [siː] [ˈsiːˈnə] [ˈsiːˈnə] [siː] [sɪn] [ˈsiːˈnə] [ˈsiːˈnə] [siː] [sɪt] [ˈsiːˈnə] [ˈsiːˈnə] [siː]
1st p. pl. [meː], [mɞː][i] [ʉs], [ɞs][j] [ʉs], [ɞs][j] [voːr] [voʈ] [ˈvoːˈre][k] [ˈvoːˈru]
2nd p. pl. [deː], [dɞː][i] [ˈdikˈka(n)],
[ˈdikˈku(n)][l]
[ˈdikˈka(n)],
[ˈdikˈku(n)][l]
[ˈdikˈka(n)], [ˈdikˈku(n)][l]
3rd p. pl [daɪ̯] [daɪ̯] [daɪ̯] [ˈdaɪ̯ˈris], [ˈdeːˈris], [ˈdeːˈres][j]

Citations

Notes

  1. ^ The southern villages Begnadalen and Hedalen in Sør-Aurdal, Valdres don't speak Valdris,[1] as their dialect is closer to the Ringerike dialect.[2]
  2. ^ It may also be realized as [tn̩] in Hemsedal, Gol and the southern villages in Valdres, although this only occurs in plural definite form.[5][4]
  3. ^ a b The IPA used here is with the traditional diphthongs, and the vowel shift.
  4. ^ a b c d Only used in Valdres.[21]
  5. ^ a b Only used in Hallingdal and the southern villages in Valdres.[21]
  6. ^ a b Only used in Hallingdal.[21]
  7. ^ These forms are used interchangeably,[24] though Hallingdal only uses the first, without the r.[25]
  8. ^ Only used in Aurdal and Etnedal.[24]
  9. ^ a b Only used in Valdres, except for Vang.[24]
  10. ^ a b c Only used in Sør-Aurdal.[24]
  11. ^ In the older dialects of Vang and Slidre, [ˈvoːˈra] has been used for feminine, but is not used today.[26]
  12. ^ a b c Only used in Hol and Ål.[27]

References

  1. ^ Kvåle 1999, p. 7.
  2. ^ Jahr 1990, p. 57.
  3. ^ Kvåle 1999, p. 12.
  4. ^ a b c Skjekkeland 1997, p. 116.
  5. ^ Kvåle 1999, p. 19, 21.
  6. ^ a b c d Jahr 1990, p. 58.
  7. ^ a b Kvåle 1999, p. 17.
  8. ^ a b Venås 1977, p. 36.
  9. ^ Ross 1907, p. 20.
  10. ^ Venås 1977, p. 16.
  11. ^ Kvåle 1999, p. 18.
  12. ^ a b Skjekkeland 1997, p. 216.
  13. ^ Venås 1977, p. 48.
  14. ^ Kvåle 1999, p. 15.
  15. ^ Skjekkeland 1997, p. 47.
  16. ^ Kvåle 1999, p. 16.
  17. ^ Venås, Kjell. "dialekter i Hallingdal". snl.no. Retrieved 8 July 2015. 
  18. ^ a b Kvåle 1997, p. 15.
  19. ^ a b Jahr 1990, p. 56.
  20. ^ Kvåle 1999, p. 20-25.
  21. ^ a b c d Ross 1907, p. 22.
  22. ^ Kvåle 1999, p. 32-34.
  23. ^ Venås 1977, p. 127-133.
  24. ^ a b c d Kvåle 1999, p. 32.
  25. ^ Venås 1977, p. 127-128.
  26. ^ Kvåle 1997, p. 34.
  27. ^ Venås 1977, p. 129.

Literature

  • Jahr, Ernst Håkon (1990). Den Store dialektboka (in Norwegian). Oslo: Novus. ISBN 8270991678. 
  • Kvåle, Karen Marie (1999). Dè è'kji gøtt veta ko dai saia: talemålsendring i Valdres (in Norwegian). Oslo: Valdreslaget i Oslo. ISBN 8299538505. 
  • Ross, Hans (1907). Norske bygdemaal. 3-6: Oust-telemaal o numedalsmaal; Hallingmaal o valdresmaal; Gudbrandsdalsmaal; Upplandsmaal (in Norwegian). Christiania: I kommision hos Jacob Dybwad. 
  • Skjekkeland, Martin (1997). Dei norske dialektane: tradisjonelle særdrag i jamføring med skriftmåla (in Norwegian). Kristiansand: Høyskoleforlaget. ISBN 8276341039. 
  • Strand, Thea Randina (2009). Varieties in Dialogue: Dialect Use and Change in Rural Valdres, Norway. The University of Arizona: ProQuest. ISBN 1109104251. 
  • Venås, Kjell (1977). Hallingmålet (in Norwegian). Oslo: Samlaget. ISBN 8252107176. 


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