Uvular flap

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Uvular flap
ɢ̆
ʀ̆
IPA number 112 505
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɢ​̆
Unicode (hex) U+0262 U+0306

The uvular flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. There is no dedicated symbol for this sound in the IPA. It can specified by adding a 'short' diacritic to the letter for the uvular plosive, ⟨ɢ̆⟩, but normally it is covered by the unmodified letter for the uvular trill, ⟨ʀ⟩,[1] since the two have never been reported to contrast.

The uvular flap is not known to exist as a phoneme in any language.

More commonly, it is said to vary with the much more frequent uvular trill, and is most likely a single-contact trill [ʀ̆] rather than an actual flap [ɢ̆] in these languages. (The primary difference between a flap and a trill is the airstream, not the number of contacts.)

Features

Features of the uvular flap:

  • Its manner of articulation is flap, which means it is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (usually the tongue) is thrown against another.
  • Its place of articulation is uvular, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the uvula.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch[2] rood [ʀ̆oːt] 'red' More common than a uvular trill.[3] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
German Standard[4] Ehre [ˈʔeːʀ̆ə] 'honor' Common intervocalic realization of uvular trill.[4] See Standard German phonology
Hiu[5] [βɔ̞ʀ̆] 'hibiscus'
Ibibio[6] ufʌk [úfʌ̟̀ɢ̆ɔ̞] [translation needed] Intervocalic allophone of /k/; may be a velar approximant [ɰ] instead.[6]
Limburgish Hasselt dialect[7] weuren [ˈβ̞øːʀ̆ən] '(they) were' Possible intervocalic allophone of /r/; may be alveolar [ɾ] instead.[7]
Okanagan Southern[8] ʕaləp [ɢ̆àlə́p] 'lose' Allophone of /ʕ/; corresponds to [ʕ] in other dialects.[8]
Supyire[9] tadugugo [taduɢ̆uɢ̆o] 'place to go up' May be in free variation [ɡ].[9]
Wahgi[10] [example needed] Allophone of /ʟ̝/.[10]
Yiddish Standard[11] בריק [bʀ̆ɪk] 'bridge' Less commonly a trill [ʀ]; can be alveolar [ɾ ~ r] instead.[11] See Yiddish phonology

Notes

  1. ^ Bruce Connell, Lower Cross Wordlist
  2. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), pp. 42 and 199.
  3. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), pp. 42.
  4. ^ a b Lodge (2009), p. 46.
  5. ^ François (2005), p. 44.
  6. ^ a b Urua (2004), p. 106.
  7. ^ a b Peters (2006), p. 118.
  8. ^ a b Kinkade (1967), pp. 232.
  9. ^ a b Carlson (1994), p. 10.
  10. ^ a b Phillips (1976), p. ?.
  11. ^ a b Kleine (2003), p. 263.

References

  • Carlson, Robert (1994). A Grammar of Supyire. Walter de Gruyter.
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (PDF) (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004103406
  • François, Alexandre (2005), "Unraveling the history of the vowels of seventeen northern Vanuatu languages", Oceanic Linguistics, 44 (2)
  • Kinkade, M. Dale (1967). "Uvular-Pharyngeal Resonants in Interior Salish". International Journal of American Linguistics. 33 (3): 228–234. doi:10.1086/464965.
  • Kleine, Ane (2003), "Standard Yiddish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 261–265, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001385
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 117–124, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002428
  • Phillips, Donald J. (1976). Wahgi Phonology and Morphology.
  • Urua, Eno-Abasi E. (2004), "Ibibio", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 105–109, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001550
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