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Userkaf (known in Greek as Usercherês, Ούσερχέρης) was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh, founder of the Fifth Dynasty and first king to build a sun temple between Abusir and Abu Gurab. Userkaf reigned for seven to eight years in the early 25th century BC. He constructed the pyramid of Userkaf complex for himself in Saqqara.


Parents and consort

The identity of Userkaf's parents is not known for certain, but he undoubtedly had family connections with the rulers of the preceding Fourth Dynasty.[21] The Egyptologist Miroslav Verner proposes that he was a son of Menkaure by one of his secondary queens, and even possibly a full brother to his predecessor and last king of the Fourth Dynasty, pharaoh Shepseskaf.[2]

Alternatively, the Egyptologist Nicolas Grimal, Peter Clayton and Michael Rice propose that Userkaf may have been the son of a Neferhetepes,[22][23] whom Grimal and Rice see as a daughter of Djedefre with queen Hetepheres II.[24][25] The identity of Neferhetepes' husband in this hypothesis is unknown, with Grimal conjecturing that he may have been the "priest of Ra, lord of Sakhebu", mentioned in Papyrus Westcar.[26] The Egyptologists Aidan Dodson and Dyan Hilton propose that Neferhetepes was buried in the pyramid next to that of Userkaf,[note 2] which is known to have belonged to a woman of the same name.[27]

The location of this pyramid however strongly suggests that Neferhetepes may instead have been Userkaf's wife and to be identified with the Neferhetepes mother of Userkaf's successor and likely son, Sahure.[28] Indeed, a relief from Sahure's causeway depicts this king and his queen together with the king's mother, identified as a Neferhetepes, which very likely makes her Userkaf's wife.[29] Like Grimal, the Egyptologist Jaromír Malek sees her as a daughter of Djedefre and Hetepheres II.[21] Against this hypothesis, Dodson and Hilton note that Neferhetepes is not given the title of king's wife in later documents pertaining to her mortuary cult, although they note that this absence is not necessarily conclusive.[27] They instead propose that Userkaf's queen was Khentkaus I, an hypothesis shared by the Egyptologist Selim Hassan.[27][30] Clayton concurs with this hypothesis as well, further positing that Khentkaus I was Menkaure's daughter.[28] As a descendant of Djedefre marring a woman from the main royal branch, the Egyptologist Bernhard Grdseloff argued that Userkaf could have unified rival factions within the royal family thus ending possible dynastic struggles.[11][31] Alternatively, Userkaf could have been the high priest of Ra prior to ascending the throne with sufficient influence to marry Shepseskaf's widow in the person of Khentkaus I.[note 3][38]

In the legend of the Westcar Papyrus, Userkaf is a son of Ra and a woman named Raddjedet, while two of his brothers are said to rise to the throne after him.[39]


Verner, Zemina and Baker believe that Sahure was Userkaf's son.[40] An argument in favour of this hypothesis is the location of Sahure's pyramid in close proximity to Userkaf's sun temple.[41]

A daughter of Userkaf, named Khamaat, has been identified from inscriptions uncovered in the mastaba of Ptahshepses.[42]


Cartouche of Userkaf on the Abydos king list.


The exact duration of Userkaf's reign is not known but there is a consensus among Egyptologists that he reigned seven to eight years based on historical and archeological evidences.[43][44][10][45] First, Userkaf is given a reign of seven years on the third column, row 17 of the Turin Royal Canon,[46] a document dating to the reign of Ramses II.[47] Second, an analysis of the nearly contemporarneous Old Kingdom royal annals shows that Userkaf's reign was recorded on eight compartements corresponding to at least seven full years but not much more.[note 4][50] The latest legible year recorded on the annals for Userkaf is that of his third cattle count. The cattle count was an important event aimed at evaluating the amount of taxes to be levied on the population. This event is believed to have been biennial during the Old Kingdom period, that is occurring once every two years, meaning that the third cattle count represents his sixth year of year. The same cattle count is also attested by a mason inscription found on a stone of Userkaf's sun temple.[note 5][51]

The only historical source favouring a longer reign is the Aegyptiaca, a history of Egypt written in the 3rd century BC during the reign of Ptolemy II (283–246 BC) by Manetho. No copies of the Aegyptiaca have survived to this day and it is now known only through later writings by Sextus Julius Africanus and Eusebius. The Byzantine scholar George Syncellus writes that Africanus relates that the Aegyptiaca mentioned the succession "Usercherês → Sephrês → Nefercherês" at the start of the Fifth Dynasty. Usercherês, Sephrês, and Nefercherês are believed to be the hellenized forms for Userkaf, Sahure and Neferirkare, respectively.[57] In particular, Manetho's reconstruction of the early Fifth Dynasty is in agreement with those given on the Abydos king list and the Saqqara Tablet, two lists of kings writen during the reigns of Seti I and Ramses II, respectively.[58] In constrast, Africanus' report of the Aegyptiaca credits Userkaf with 28 years of reign,[57] a figure substantially higher than the modern consensus.[43][44][10][45]

Founder of the Fifth Dynasty

Large papyrus full of cursive inscriptions in black and occasional red ink, riddled with small holes.
The Westcar Papyrus, on display in the Ägyptisches Museum, dates to the 17th Dynasty but its story was probably first written during the 12th Dynasty.[59]

The division of ancient Egyptian kings into dynasties is an invention of Manetho's Aegyptiaca, meant to adhere more closely to the expectations of Manetho's patrons, the Greek rulers of Ptolemaic Egypt. The rise of the Fifth Dynasty may nonetheless have been recognised by a much older Egyptian tradition,[21] as shown by the tale of the papyrus Westcar where Khufu is foretold of the demise of his line and the rise of three brothers, sons of Ra, to the throne of Egypt. The papyrus probably dates back to the 12th Dynasty.[59] In addition, the division between the Fourth and Fifth Dynasties might also reflects important changes in Egyptian religion taking place at the time, with the ascendency of Ra effectively becoming a kind of state-god[44] and changes in the king's role.[60].

Userkaf's position before ascending to the throne is unknown but his short reign suggests that he may have been an old man upon becoming pharaoh.[61]

Activities in Egypt

Cylinder seal of Userkaf reading "Userkaf beloved of the gods, beloved of Hathor".[note 6][63][64]

Beyond the constructions of his mortuary complex and sun temple, little is known of Userkaf's activities during his reign.[4] In Upper Egypt, he seems to have commissioned[4] or enlarged[43] the temple of Monthu at Tod, where he is the oldest attested pharaoh.[4] Due the later alterations of the temple in particular during the early Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom and Ptolemaic periods, little of Userkaf's original temple has survived: it seems to have been a small mud-brick chapel including a granite pillar,[65] inscribed with the name of the king.[66]

Further domestic activities may be inferred from the annals of the Old Kingdom, written during or shortly after Neferirkare's reign. The annals record that Userkaf gave endowments for the gods of Heliopolis[note 7] in his second and sixth years of reign as well as to the gods of Buto in his sixth year, both of which may have been destined to building projects on Userkaf's behalf.[4] One royal decree of Userkaf is known from the mastaba of the administration official Nykaankh buried at Tihna al-Jabal in Middle Egypt.[20] By this decree, Userkaf donates and reforms several royal domains for the maintenance of the cult of Hathor[68] and installs Nykaankh as priest of this cult.[69] The Old Kingdom royal annals also record donations of bread, oxen, gooses and land for Ra and Hathor.[70]

While Userkaf chose Saqqara to build his pyramid complex, officials at the time continued to build their tombs in the Giza necropolis, including the vizier Seshathotep Heti.[4]

Trade and military activities

Stone vessel from Kythira bearing the name of Userkaf's sun temple.[2]

Userkaf's reign might have witnessed a recrudescence of trade between Egypt and its Aegean neighbors as shown by a series of reliefs from his mortuary temple representing ships engaged in what may be a naval expedition.[35][71] A further evidence for such contacts is a stone vessel from his mortuary temple bearing his name that was uncovered on the Greek island of Kythira.[2] This vase is the earliest evidence of commercial contacts between Egypt and the Aegean world,[43] contacts which continued throughout the Fifth Dynasty as attested to by find dating to the reigns of Menkauhor Kaiu and Djedkare Isesi in Anatolia.[43]

South of Egypt, Userkaf launched a military expedition into Nubia,[2] while the Old Kingdom annals record that he received tribute from a region that is either the Eastern Desert or Canaan in the form of a workforce of one chieftain, 70 foreigners[72] likely women,[73][74][67] as well as 303 "pacified rebels" destined to work on Userkaf's pyramid.[75] These could be prisoners from another military expedition to the East of Egypt[4] or they may represent rebels exiled from Egypt prior to Userkaf's second year on the throne and now willing to reintegrate Egyptian society.[76] According to Hartwig Altenmüller we cannot exclude that these people were punished following Dynastic struggles connected with the end of the Fourth Dynasty.[72]


Fragment of an alabaster statue of Userkaf from his sun temple, now at the Egyptian Museum of Berlin.

Several fragmentary statues of Userkaf have been uncovered. First is a bust discovered in his sun temple at Abusir, and now on display at the Egyptian Museum. The head of Userkaf is 45 cm high and carved from greywacke stone. The sculpture is considered particularly important as it is among the very few sculptures in the round from the Old Kingdom that show the monarch wearing the Deshret of Lower Egypt.[note 8] The head was uncovered in 1957 during the joint excavation expedition of the German and Swiss Institutes of Cairo. Another head, which might belong to Userkaf, this time wearing the Hedjet of Upper Egypt and made of painted limestone is known, it is currently on display at the Cleveland Museum of Art.[note 9][14]

The head of a larger-than-life statue of Userkaf, now in the Egyptian Museum, was found in the temple courtyard of his mortuary complex at Saqqarah by Cecil Mallaby Firth in 1928.[78] This colossal head of pink granite[28] shows the king wearing the nemes headdress. It is the largest surviving head dating to the Old Kingdom period beyond that of the Giza Sphinx.[28] Many fragments of statues of the king made of diorite and granite have been found at the same site.[78]

Sun temple

Layout of Userkaf's sun temple after his completion by Sahure or Neferirkare Kakai; 1 = obelisk, 2 = obelisk pedestal, 3 = statue shrines, 4 = court open to the sun, 5 = altar, 6 = outbuilding, 7 = causeway, 8 = valley temple.[79]


Userkaf is the first[2][4] pharaoh to build a dedicated temple to the sun god Ra in the Memphite necropolis north of Abusir, on a promontory on the desert edge[13] just south of the modern locality of Abu Gurab.[80] His successors followed the same course of action over a period of 80 years[61] and sun temples were built by all subsequent Fifth Dynasty pharaohs until Menkauhor Kaiu, with the possible[81] exception of Shepseskare whose reign might have been too short to build one.[82] The choice of Abusir on Userkaf's behalf for the construction of his sun temple has not been satisfactorily explained,[83] the site being of no particular significance up to that point.[note 10][79] Yet, Userkaf's choice may[note 11] have influenced subsequent kings of the Fifth Dynasty who made Abusir the royal necropolis until the reign of Menkauhor Kaiu.[86]

For the Egyptologist Hans Goedicke, Userkaf's decision to build a temple for the setting sun separated from his own mortuary complex is the manifestation of and response to social-political tensions, if not turmoil, which happened at the end of the Fourth Dynasty.[60] The construction of the sun temple permitted a distinction between the king's personal afterlife and religious issues pertaining to the setting sun, which had been so closely intertwined in the pyramid complexes of Giza and in the pharaohs of the Fourth Dynasty.[87] Thus, Userkaf's pyramid would be isolated in Saqqara, not even surrounded by a wider cemetery for his contemporaries, while the sun temple would serve the social need for a solar cult, which while represented by the king, would not be exclusively embodied by him anymore.[87] Malek similarly sees the construction of sun temples as marking a shift from the royal cult, that was so preponderant during the early Fourth Dynasty, to the cult of the sun god Ra.[44] The king was not revered directly as a god anymore but rather as the son of Ra and this, in turn, changed the royal mortuary cult.


Userkaf's sun temple was called Nekhenre by the Ancient Egyptians, Nḫn Rˁ.w, which has been variously translated as "The fortress of Ra", "The stronghold of Ra", "The residence of Ra",[4] "Ra's storerooms" and "The birthplace of Ra".[88] According to Janák, Vymazalová, Coppens, Verner, Zemina and Wilkinson, Nḫn here might actually refer to the town of Nekhen also known as Hierakonpolis,[13][88][79] a stronghold and seat of power for the late predynastic kings who unified Egypt. They propose that Userkaf may have chosen this name to emphasise the victorious and unifying nature of the cult of Ra[79] or, at least, to represent some symbolic meaning in relation to kingship.[88] In consequence, it might be better to translate the name as "Ra's Nekhen", that is "The Hierakonpolis of Ra".[88]


The sun temple of Userkaf first[89] appears in Karl Richard Lepsius' pioneering list of pyramids as pyramid XVII in the mid-19th century.[90] Its true nature was recognised by Ludwig Borchardt in the early 20th century but it was only thoroughly excavated from 1954 until 1957 by a team including Hanns Stock, Werner Kaiser, Peter Kaplony, Wolfgang Helck, and Herbert Ricke.[91][90] According to the royal annals, the construction of the temple started in Userkaf's fifth year on the throne and, on that occasion, he donated 24 royal domains for the maintenance of the temple.[92]

Userkaf's sun temple covered an area of 44 × 83 m.[91] In this context, the sun temple, oriented to the west, was a place of worship for the setting (i.e. dying) sun and was thought of as a part of the royal mortuary complex. For this reason, the sun temple shares many architectural elements with the pyramid complex itself: it comprises a high temple build around a large obelisk and a causeway leads to a rectangular valley temple, close to the Nile. However, the valley temple is not oriented to any cardinal point and the causeway is not aligned with the axis of the high temple, both features being highly unusual. The view that the sun temple and pyramid complex were nonetheless considered similar is supported by the Abusir Papyri[93][94] which indicate that the cultic activities taking place in the sun temples were closely related to those of the royal mortuary complexes. This new ideology of kingship lasted for most of the fifth dynasty since six out of seven of Userkaf's immediate successors constructed sun temples in Abusir as well.

Pyramid complex

The ruined pyramid of Userkaf at Saqqara.

Pyramid of Userkaf

Contrary to his probable immediate predecessor, Shepseskaf, as well as the other pharaohs of the Fourth Dynasty, Userkaf built a modest[20] pyramid for himself at Saqqarah-North, at the north-eastern edge of the wall surrouding Djoser's pyramid complex.[87][95] This decision, probably political,[3] may be connected to the return to city of Memphis as center of government,[87] of which Saqqara to the west is the necropolis, as well as desire to rule according to principles and methods closer to Djoser's.[87] In particular, like Djoser's and contrary to the pyramid complexes of Giza, Userkaf's mortuary complex is not surrounded by a necropolis for his followers.[87] For Goedicke, the wider religious role played by Fourth Dynasty pyramids was now to be played by the sun temple, while the king's mortuary complex was to serve only the king's personal funerary needs.[87] Hence, Userkaf's choice of Saqqara is a manifestation of a return to a "harmonious and altruistic"[87] notion of kingship which Djoser seemed to have symbolized, against that of a Khufu who had almost personally embodied the sun-god.[note 12][84]

Reproduction of the monumental head of Userkaf discovered in his mortuary complex.

Userkaf's pyramid complex was called Wab-Isut Userkaf, meaning "Pure are the places of Userkaf".[96] The pyramid originally reached an height of 49 m (161 ft) for a base-side of 73.3 m (240 ft),[97] making it the second smallest built during the Fifth Dynasty after that of Unas.[98] The pyramid was built following techniques established during the Fourth Dynasty, with a core made of large stones rather than employing rubble as in subsequent pyramids of the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties.[99]

The funerary complex accompanying the pyramid is peculiar in that Userkaf's mortuary temple is located on the pyramid southern side rather than the eastern one as is usually the case, a fact which might be due to the presence of a large moat surrouding Djoser's pyramid and running to the east of the pyramid.[100] This means that Userkaf chose to be buried in close proximity to Djoser even though this implied that he could not use the normal layout for his temple.[100] Alternatively, Userkaf's choice for the temple location on the pyramid southern side may be motivated by religious reasons, with the archeologist Richard H. Wilkinson proposing that it could have ensured its year-round exposition to the sun.[101]

The walls of Userkaf's mortuary temple were extensively adorned in numerous fine raised-reliefs.[101]


Funerary cult

Relief from a Saqqara tomb dating to the Ramesside Period showing, from left to right, Sekhemket, Teti and Userkaf.[102]

Like other pharaohs of the Fourth and Fifth Dynasties, Userkaf benefitted from a funerary cult following his death. This state-sponsored cult relied on goods for the offerings that were produced in dedicated agricultural estates established during the king's lifetime. The cult flourished in the early to mid-Fifth Dynasty, as shown by the tombs and seals of priests and officials who participated in it. These include Tepemankh[103] and Senuankh,[104] who served in the cults of both Userkaf and Sahure; Pehenukai a vizier under Sahure and Neferirkare Kakai[105] and Nykuhor, a judge, inspector of scribes, privy councillor, and priest of funerary cults of Userkaf and Neferefre.[106][107]

On a longer term, the relative importance of Userkaf's official cult may be judged by the fact that it was abandonned at the end of the Fifth Dynasty.[43] In comparison, the official funerary cult of some of Userkaf's successors such as Nyuserre Ini lasted until the Middle Kingdom period.[108] The mortuary temple of Userkaf must have been in ruins or dismantled by the time of the Twelfth Dynasty, as some of its decorated blocks depicting the king undertaking a ritual were re-used as building material in the pyramid of Amenemhat I.[109] Userkaf was not the only king whose mortuary temple met this fate, Nyuserre's own temple was targeted even though its last priests were serving in it around this time. These facts hint at a lapse of royal interest in the state-sponsored funerary cults of Old Kingdom rulers.[110]

Examples of personal devotions on behalf of pious individuals perdured much longer: for example Userkaf is depicted on a tomb relief from Saqqara dating to the much later Ramesside period.[111]

In contemporary literature

Egyptian Nobel Prize for Literature-winner Najīb Maḥfūẓ published a short story in 1945 about Userkaf entitled Afw al-malik Usirkaf: uqsusa misriya. This short story was translated by Raymond Stock as King Userkaf's Forgiveness in the collection of short stories Sawt min al-ʻalam al-akhar that is Voices from the other world : Ancient Egyptian tales.[112]

Notes, references and sources


  1. ^ Proposed dates for Userkaf's reign: 2560—2553 BC,[1] 2513—2506 BC,[2][3][4] 2504—2496 BC,[5] 2498—2491 BC,[6] 2494—2487 BC[7][8] 2479—2471 BC,[9] 2466—2458 BC[10] 2465—2458 BC,[11][12][13]} 2454—2447 BC,[14] 2454—2446 BC,[5] 2435—2429 BC,[15][16] 2392—2385 BC[17]
  2. ^ This queen is referred to as Neferhetepes Q in modern Egyptology to distinguish here from preceding women of the same name.[27]
  3. ^ Ludwig Borchardt expanded on the theory according to which Khentkaus I was Userkaf's spouse by positing that Userkaf managed to take the throne at the unexpected death of Shepseskaf and before the legitimate heirs Sahure and Neferirkare were old enough to rule.[31] This hypothesis has been conclusively invalidated by recent research which shows that there were two queens Khentkaus, the second one being the mother of Nyuserre Ini,[32][33][34] and that Sahure is Userkaf's son,[35][36] while Neferirkare is Sahure's.[37]
  4. ^ Older analyses of the document by Breasted and Daressy had already established that Userkaf reigned 12 to 14 years[48] or 12 to 13 years[49] respectively.
  5. ^ Four mentions of the "year of the fifth cattle count" were also discovered on stone tablets from Userkaf's sun temple,[51] which could possibly indicate that Userkaf reigned for 10 years. However, these inscriptions are incomplete, in particular the name of the king's to whose reign they belong is lost, and they might thus instead refer to Sahure's rule[52] or to Neferirkare's[53] rather than that of Userkaf.[54][55] The attribution of these inscriptions to either Sahure or Neferirkare is paramount in determining who completed Userkaf's sun temple, which was unfinished at his death.[51] The tablets detail the division of labour during works on the Nekhenre.[56]
  6. ^ The seal is now in the British Museum.[62]
  7. ^ More precisely to the "Bas of Heliopolis".[67]
  8. ^ With catalog number JE 90220.[77]
  9. ^ The head measures 17.2 cm (6.8 in) in height with a width of 6.5 cm (2.6 in) and a depth of 7.2 cm (2.8 in). Its catalog number is 1979.2.[14]
  10. ^ Verner and Zemina report that some Egyptologists, whom they do not name, have proposed that Abusir was chosen as the southernmost point from which one may have been able to glimpse the sun above the obelisk of the religious center of Ra in Heliopolis.[79] This observation is contested by Goedicke[84] and Voß for whom "the supposed proximity to Heliopolis for the choice of the site hardly played a role".[85] Grimal instead conjectures that Abusir was chosen for its proximity to Sakhebu, a locality some 10 km (6.2 mi) north of Abu Rawash, which is mentioned in various sources such as the Westcar Papyrus as a cult center of Ra and which may have been the home town of Userkaf's father, in the hypothesis that he was a grandson of Djedefre.[20] The hypothesis of the relation between the origins of the Fifth Dynasty and Sakhebu was first proposed by Flinders Petrie, who noted that in Egyptian hieroglyphs the name of Sakhebu resembles that of Elephantine, the city which Manetho's gives as the craddle of the Fifth Dynasty. Positing that the Papyrus Westcar recorded a tradition which remembered the origins of the Fifth Dynasty, this observation would explain Manetho's records.[63]
  11. ^ Verner and Zemina are convinced that the presence of Userkaf's sun temple in Abusir explains the subsequent development of the necropolis,[41] but Goedicke sees this only as a "vague association" leaving the choice of Abusir as royal necropolis "inexplicable".[83]
  12. ^ Goedicke notes furthermore that the line passing through Userkaf's pyramid and sun temple also passes through the apex of Khufu's pyramid in Giza, an alignment which he believes must be intentional, yet cannot explain.[87]


  1. ^ Hayes 1978, p. 58.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Verner 2001b, p. 588.
  3. ^ a b Verner 2001c, p. 91.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Altenmüller 2001, p. 598.
  5. ^ a b von Beckerath 1997, p. 188.
  6. ^ Clayton 1994, p. 60.
  7. ^ Malek 2000a, p. 98 & 482.
  8. ^ Rice 1999, p. 215.
  9. ^ von Beckerath 1999, p. 285.
  10. ^ a b c Helck 1981, p. 63.
  11. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica 2018.
  12. ^ Arnold 1999.
  13. ^ a b c Wilkinson 2000, p. 121.
  14. ^ a b c CMA 2018.
  15. ^ Strudwick 1985, p. 3.
  16. ^ Hornung 2012, p. 491.
  17. ^ Dodson & Hilton 2004, p. 288.
  18. ^ a b c d e Leprohon 2013, p. 38.
  19. ^ Digital Egypt 2018.
  20. ^ a b c d e f Grimal 1992, p. 75.
  21. ^ a b c Malek 2000a, p. 98.
  22. ^ Grimal 1992, p. 68, Table 2.
  23. ^ Rice 1999, p. 131.
  24. ^ Rice 1999, pp. 67—68.
  25. ^ Grimal 1992, p. 72 & 75.
  26. ^ Grimal 1992, p. 72—75.
  27. ^ a b c d Dodson & Hilton 2004, p. 65.
  28. ^ a b c d Clayton 1994, p. 61.
  29. ^ Archaeogate Egittologia 2018.
  30. ^ Verner & Zemina 1994, p. 118.
  31. ^ a b Verner & Zemina 1994, p. 119.
  32. ^ Verner 1980a, p. 161, fig. 5.
  33. ^ Baud 1999a, p. 234.
  34. ^ Verner & Zemina 1994, p. 126.
  35. ^ a b Labrousse & Lauer 2000.
  36. ^ Baud 1999b, p. 494.
  37. ^ El-Awady 2006, pp. 208–213.
  38. ^ Verner & Zemina 1994, p. 102 & 118.
  39. ^ Grimal 1992, p. 70 & 72.
  40. ^ Verner & Zemina 1994, p. 68 & 85.
  41. ^ a b Verner & Zemina 1994, p. 68.
  42. ^ Dorman 2002, p. 101 & 107.
  43. ^ a b c d e f Grimal 1992, p. 76.
  44. ^ a b c d Malek 2000a, pp. 98—99.
  45. ^ a b von Beckerath 1997, p. 155.
  46. ^ Verner 2001a, p. 385.
  47. ^ Hornung 2012, p. 136.
  48. ^ Breasted 1906, pp. 68–69, § 153–160.
  49. ^ Daressy 1912, p. 206.
  50. ^ Hornung 2012, p. 484.
  51. ^ a b c Verner 2001a, p. 386.
  52. ^ Verner 2001a, p. 388—390.
  53. ^ Kaiser 1956, p. 108.
  54. ^ Verner 2001a, p. 386—387.
  55. ^ Strudwick 2005, p. 158.
  56. ^ Strudwick 2005, p. 158, see also footnote 2.
  57. ^ a b Waddell 1971, p. 51.
  58. ^ Daressy 1912, p. 205.
  59. ^ a b Burkard, Thissen & Quack 2003, p. 178.
  60. ^ a b Goedicke 2000, pp. 405—406.
  61. ^ a b Malek 2000a, p. 99.
  62. ^ Petrie 1897, p. 71.
  63. ^ a b Petrie 1897, p. 70.
  64. ^ Petrie 1917, pl. IX.
  65. ^ Wilkinson 2000, p. 200.
  66. ^ Arnold 1996, p. 107.
  67. ^ a b Strudwick 2005, p. 69.
  68. ^ Breasted 1906, pp. 100–106, § 216–230.
  69. ^ Breasted 1906, § 219.
  70. ^ Daressy 1912, p. 172.
  71. ^ Allen et al. 1999, p. 324.
  72. ^ a b Altenmüller 1995, p. 48.
  73. ^ Daressy 1912, p. 171.
  74. ^ Goedicke 1967, p. 63, n. 34.
  75. ^ Baud & Dobrev 1995, p. 33, footnote f.
  76. ^ Altenmüller 1995, pp. 47—48.
  77. ^ Stadelmann 2007.
  78. ^ a b Allen et al. 1999, p. 315.
  79. ^ a b c d e Verner & Zemina 1994, p. 102.
  80. ^ Quirke 2001, p. 127.
  81. ^ Kaplony 1981, A. Text p. 242 and B. pls. 72,8.
  82. ^ Verner 2000, pp. 588–589, footnote 30.
  83. ^ a b Goedicke 2000, p. 408.
  84. ^ a b Goedicke 2000, p. 407.
  85. ^ Voß 2004, p. 8.
  86. ^ Verner & Zemina 1994, p. 53, 102 & 111.
  87. ^ a b c d e f g h i Goedicke 2000, p. 406.
  88. ^ a b c d Janák, Vymazalová & Coppens 2011, p. 432.
  89. ^ Voß 2004, p. 7.
  90. ^ a b Verner & Zemina 1994, p. 217.
  91. ^ a b Edel, Ricke & 1965—1969.
  92. ^ Breasted 1906, p. 68, § 156.
  93. ^ #ArchAb1
  94. ^ #ArchAb2
  95. ^ Verner & Zemina 1994, p. 50.
  96. ^ Grimal 1992, p. 116.
  97. ^ Arnold 2001, p. 427.
  98. ^ Grimal 1992, pp. 76—78.
  99. ^ El-Khouly 1978, p. 35.
  100. ^ a b Verner & Zemina 1994, p. 53.
  101. ^ a b Wilkinson 2000, p. 126.
  102. ^ Gauthier 1906, p. 42.
  103. ^ Sethe 1903, Ch.1 § 19.
  104. ^ Sethe 1903, Ch.1 § 24.
  105. ^ Sethe 1903, Ch.1 § 30.
  106. ^ Rice 1999, p. 141.
  107. ^ Mariette 1889, p. 313.
  108. ^ Morales 2006, p. 336.
  109. ^ Strudwick 2005, p. 83.
  110. ^ Malek 2000b, p. 257.
  111. ^ Gauthier 1906, pp. 41—42.
  112. ^ Mahfouz 2006.


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Further reading

  • Hawass, Zahi, "The Head of Userkaf" in "The Splendour of the Old Kingdom" in The Treasures of the Egyptian Museum, Francesco Tiradritti (editor), The American University in Cairo Press, 1999, p. 72-73.
  • Magi, Giovanna. Saqqara: The Pyramid, The Mastabas and the Archaeological Site, Casa Editrice Bonechi, 2006
  • Verbrugghe, Gerald and Wickersham, John. Berossos and Manetho, University of Michigan Press 2001 (ISBN 0-472-08687-1)

Preceded by
Pharaoh of Egypt
Fifth Dynasty
Succeeded by
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