University of Mannheim

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University of Mannheim
Universität Mannheim
Uni Mannheim Seal.png
Seal of the UMA
Motto In Omnibus Veritas Suprema Lex Esto (Latin)
Motto in English
Truth in everything should be the supreme law
Type Public
Established 1967
Budget €123 million[1]
Chancellor Barbara Windscheid
Rector Ernst-Ludwig von Thadden
Academic staff
907 (full time)[1]
Administrative staff
617 (full time)[1]
Students 12,001 (HWS 2017/18)[2]
Undergraduates 7,173[2]
Postgraduates 4,828[2]
793[2]
Location Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
49°29′00″N 8°27′53″E / 49.4832°N 8.4647°E / 49.4832; 8.4647Coordinates: 49°29′00″N 8°27′53″E / 49.4832°N 8.4647°E / 49.4832; 8.4647
Campus Urban (Mannheim Palace), 74 acres (0.3 km²)[3]
Colors Mannheim Blue and White
Affiliations AACSB; AMBA; CFA Institute; Council on Business & Society; DFG; EQUIS; ENTER; German Universities Excellence Initiative; IAU; IBEA
Website www.uni-mannheim.de
University of Mannheim.svg

The University of Mannheim (in German: Universität Mannheim), abbreviated UMA, is a public research university in Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Founded in 1967, the university has its origins in the Palatine Academy of Sciences, which was established by Elector Carl Theodor at Mannheim Palace in 1763, as well as the Handelshochschule (Commercial College Mannheim), which was founded in 1907.[4]

The university offers undergraduate and graduate programs in business administration, economics, law, social sciences, humanities, mathematics, computer science and information systems. The university's campus is located in the city center of Mannheim and its main campus is in the Mannheim Palace. In the academic year 2016/2017 the university had 12,000 full-time students, 907 academic staff, with 194 professors, and a total income of around €123 million.[2][1] It is organized into five schools and two graduate colleges.

History

The University of Mannheim has no clear foundation date. Its history can be dated back to the establishment of one of its predecessor institutions – the Kurpfälzische Akademie der Wissenschaften (Palatine Academy of Sciences) in Mannheim Palace, which was founded by Elector Carl Theodor in 1763. Further predecessors are the Municipal Commercial College Mannheim (1907-1933) which was reopened in 1946 as the State College for Economics Mannheim and renamed University of Mannheim in 1967.[4]

Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria, founder of the Palatine Academy of Sciences

20th century

Municipal Commercial College Mannheim (1907-1933)

Otto Beck, one of the Founding Fathers of the Handelshochschule Mannheim

In 1907, the Städtische Handelshochschule Mannheim (Municipal Commercial College) was founded on the initiative of Mannheim's senior mayor Otto Beck (1846–1908) and the economics professor Eberhard Gothein (1853–1923) as a college for future merchants. It conducted teaching and research in business administration, economics, pedagogy, psychology, law, languages and the humanities. From the beginning, women had a strong standing at the Handelshochschule.[5] In 1908, it was the first college of highher education in Germany to employ a female professor;[6] one quarter of all students were female.[5]

In 1933, the Handelshochschule was merged into the University of Heidelberg by the Nazi municipal adminsitration. Otto Selz, a German philosopher and psychologist with a Jewish background, who had been a professor at the Handelshochschule since 1923 and its rector in 1929/30, was discharged on April 6, 1933 – following the Badischen Judenerlass administered by NSDAP politician Robert Heinrich Wagner, a waiver designed to ban Jewish academics from German universities. In 1943, Selz was executed in Auschwitz concentration camp;[7] only 3 of the 14 Jewish docents at Mannheim's Handelshochschule survived the Holocaust. With the transfer of all institutes, inventory and staff to Heidelberg University the merging process was completed, the "Jews released" and the Handelshochschule closed.[8]

State College for Economics Mannheim (1946-1967)

In World War II, Mannheim was heavily bombed from December 1940 until the end of the war and saw more than 150 air raids.[9] The largest raid on Mannheim took place on the 5th and 6th of September 1943 when a major part of the city was destroyed. In May 1945, only around 30 percent of the building stock was left.[10] In 1944, the Mannheim Palace was almost entirely destroyed, leaving only one room undamaged out of over 500 – only its external walls survived.[11]

Eberhard Gothein, one of the Founders Fathers of the Handelshochschule Mannheim

In 1946, the Handelshochschule was reopened under its new name Staatliche Wirtschaftshochschule Mannheim (State College for Economics) with a student body of 586 students in the first year.[5] In 1955, the Wirtschafshochschule moved into the rebuilt East Wing of Mannheim Palace. In the same year, the seal, which is still in usage today, was created. It depicts the Mannheim Palace on top and the square-based outlay of Mannheim's downtown below; surrounded by In Omnibus Veritas, the university's official motto in a shortened version, which is based on a line in the constitution of Carl Theodor's Palatine Academy of Sciences: In Omnibus Veritas Suprema Lex Esto, translated as "Truth in everything should be the supreme law".[4]

University of Mannheim (1967)

In 1963, the Wirtschaftshochschule extended its faculties to a total of three – Business Administration and Social Sciences, Philosophy-Philological Sciences and Law. It subsequently gained the status of "university" on July, 4 in 1967. The University of Mannheim started out with around 3,000 registered students. During the growth phase of the university in the 1960s and 1970s the number of students and faculties increased. In 1969, the University of Mannheim expanded its faculty number to eight by adding the faculties of Economics, Geography and Political Sciences and by splitting the faculties of Business Administration and Social Sciences as well as Philosophy-Philological Sciences.[5]

21st century

The emphasis at the University of Mannheim has always remained on business and economics, although teaching was broadened to further disciplines. In 2000, its Business School received accreditation by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business.[12]

In 2008, the rectorate passed a reform to strengthen the core disciplines of the University of Mannheim, that is the economic and social sciences. This transformation, which started in 2002 with the closure of certain departments and the fusion of formerly independent faculties, did not go without protests.[13] In September 2006, around 1,000 students and professors demonstrated against the plans.[14] Two years later, a compromise was found and the reform passed the Senate as well as the University Council without votes against. In the wake of it, the number of schools decreased to five.[13]

In 2005, the Mannheim Business School (MBS) was founded. It offers MBA programmes for executive education. In 2018, it was ranked #1 in Germany in the international MBA Rankings by Businessweek, Financial Times, Forbes and The Economist. According to these rankings, the MBS also belongs to the Top 20 business schools in Europe and Top 60 in the world.[15]

From 2007 until 2017, the University of Mannheim was funded by the "Excellence Initiative" of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and the German Research Foundation. Under this initiative, the University of Mannheim established the Graduate School of Economic and Social Sciences (GESS) which offers Ph.D. programmes with a focus on empirical and quantitative methods and their interdisciplinary application in the economic and social sciences.[16]

Campus

The heart of the University of Mannheim's campus – the Palace in a 180 degrees panoramic view

The University of Mannheim is located in the city center of Mannheim. It consists of Campus East, reaching from Mannheim Palace to Mannheim Main Station, and Campus West, consisting of the squares A5 and B6 which are in walking distance to the palace. Around 800 meters southwest of the university lies the Rhine River.[17] Between 1955 and 1973, Mannheim Palace became the core of the UMA's campus.Today, it is home to the university's Business School, Law School, parts of the School of Humanities and the University Library.[6]

In 2000, the UMA initiated the Renaissance des Barockschlosses (Renaissance of Mannheim Palace), a campaign aimed at raising funds for renovating and extending the main campus. With the €53 million raised, the university renovated 24 lecture halls, the palace facade and built a new library inside the palace.[18] In 2007, a palace museum was opened in the central part of the building displaying the reconstructed historical halls and rooms of Elector Carl Theodor, who resided there from 1742 until 1777.[19] In 2017, the university opened a new research and teaching building on square B6[20] and the Study and Conference Center of the Mannheim Business School behind the palace's West Wing.[21]

Organisation and administration

Schools and Graduate Colleges

The University of Mannheim is organized into five schools (Fakultäten):

And two Graduate Colleges:

Governance

Rectors since the university's foundation[5]
Years Rector
1966–1967 Knut Borchardt
1967–1968 Rudolf Wildenmann
1968–1969 Rainer Gruenter
1969–1970 Hans-Martin Pawlowski
1970–1973 Gerhard Zeitel
1973–1976 Eduard Gaugler
1976–1979 Rudolf Wildenmann
1979–1982 Heinz König
1982–1985 Gerd Roellecke
1985–1988 Heinrich Chantraine
1988–1994 Otto H. Jacobs
1994–2001 Peter Frankenberg
2001–2012 Hans-Wolfgang Arndt
2012–2018 Ernst-Ludwig von Thadden

The University of Mannheim is administrated by the Rectorate, which comprises the Rector (President), three Pro-Rectors (Vice Presidents) and the Chancellor, who is also head of the central administration. The main task of the rectorate as executive body is to implement the strategic aims concluded by the University Council (Universitätsrat).[22] Since October 2012 the UMA is headed by rector Ernst-Ludwig von Thadden.[23]

The Senate is the "legislative branch" of the university. The rector and the members of the rectorate are senators ex officio, as are also the deans of the faculties. Another 18 senators are elected for four-year terms, within the following quotas: nine university professors, three academic staff, three delegates of the student body, and three employees of the university administration. The University Council is the advisory board to the aforementioned entities.[22]

The Allgemeiner Studierendenausschuss of the University of Mannheim (AStA) is the student government of the university. It is elected by the Student Parliament (StuPa) which in turn is elected by the entire student body. Elections are held each year. The AStA's task is representing the interests of the UMA students.[22]

Academic profile

A3 Library that primarily hosts volumes of the humanities and social departments

The UMA offers undergraduate and graduate programs as well as Ph.D. degrees within business administration, economics, law, social sciences, humanities, mathematics, computer science and information systems. Many of the study programs combine non-economic subjects such as literature and cultural studies, law, mathematics and informatics with business studies and economics.[24]

As of 2016, Mannheim was the only German university with an international academic calendar, which means that the academic year is divided into a fall and a spring term.[25]

Since 2012, universities in the State of Baden-Württemberg do not charge any tuition fees.[26] Excluded from this rule are non-EU citizens who since 2017 have had to pay a tuition fee of 1,500 Euro per semester according to federal law. [27]

The University of Mannheim has a scholarship system of its own consisting of various types of scholarships serving different needs.[28]

Research institutes and affiliates

Rankings and reputation

University rankings
Global
Times World[34] 125
QS World[33] 388

The University of Mannheim was called "The Harvard of Germany" by the German newspaper Die Zeit.[35] The 2015 QS World University Rankings ranked the UMA among the best one hundred universities within the disciplines of Social Sciences & Management, Accounting & Finance, Business Administration & Management and Economics & Econometrics, as well as among the Top 50 universities within the discipline of Political Sciences.[citation needed]

Subject

In the 2018 Times Higher Education subject rankings the University of Mannheim was internationally ranked 20th in Business and Economics[36], 31st in Social Sciences[37], 90th in Psychology[38], and 151-175 in Computer Science[39]. Within Germany the university ranked first in both, Business and Economics, and Social Sciences[36][37].

The university's programs for social sciences, politics as well as business informatics rank nationwide within the Top 3 and its programs for law and computer science within the Top 10.[40][41][42]

In 2008, the Business School was the first German institution to receive the "Triple Crown", that is accreditations by the world's three largest business school accreditation associations AMBA (UK), AACSB International (USA) und EQUIS (Belgium).[24]

In the German CHE University Ranking 2017/2018, the psychology as well as the romance languages department were ranked highest in Germany, receiving more top scores than any other institution of their discipline nationwide.[43][44]

The university's Master in Management is ranked 14th in Europe by the FT.[45][46] The university's business school is ranked 1st in Germany by the Eduniversal ranking and 34th worldwide.[47]

Mannheim Centre for European Social Research (MZES)

Student life

Demographics of student body[48][49]
Student Body Germany Census
German 84.2% 80.5%
African 0.7% 0.7%
Asian 4.5% 2.5%
American 1.3% 0.5%
European 9.3% 14.3%
UMA students revising on Mannheim's Campuswiese

In the 2017/2018 academic year there were 12,000 full-time students, of which approximately 15% came from abroad (718 exchange students and 1,126 international full-time students).[2] 110 nationalities are represented in the UMA student body.[2]

American Football team of the University, the Mannheim Knights

Student organizations

In 2018, there were about 50 active student organizations at the University of Mannheim. Among them are groups of different NGOs, such as the Amnesty International Student Initiative 1388 Mannheim, the UNICEF Student Initiative Mannheim, Model United Nations Mannheim or Enactus Mannheim, several departments of European and global student organizations, such as AEGEE Mannheim or AIESEC Mannheim, business or economics related student groups[50] as well as initiatives focusing on community life, from helping deprived school children in Mannheim[51] to welcoming refugees or incoming exchange students at the university.[52]

The official organization of former students of the University of Mannheim is ABSOLVENTUM Mannheim, which was founded in 1995.[53]

The Mannheim Forum is an economic congress organized by students.[54]

Sports and athletics

The university offers courses in 82 different athletic disciplines. For students most of the courses are free of charge.[55] The sports programme includes ball sports, body fitness, self-defence and martial arts, outdoor sports, yoga, dance courses, water sports and E-Sports.[56] The University of Mannheim also offers a sports scholarship for top-athletes at the university. In 2017, 55 students were funded[57], e.g., Lisa Hattemer (Artistic Cycling UCI World Champion 2016)[58], Alexandra Burghardt (World Relay Champion 2017), Sarah Brüßler (U23 Kayak Vice World Champion 2017)[59] and Cécile Pieper (Indoor Hockey World Champion 2018)[60].

Traditions

Schlossfest

The Arena of Pop in 2007 on University of Mannheim's Ehrenhof

Each year the University of Mannheim hosts the Schlossfest (Palace Festival), a festival at which the Mannheim Palace campus is open to visitors and introduces the university to incoming freshmen. During the Schlossfest several arts, science and music events take place. The science events include live experiments and academic speeches regarding specific subjects, while the arts events include art exhibitions, workshops, dance acts, museum guides as well as guides through the old, non-public areas within the Mannheim Palace.[61] In 2016, the Schlossfest counted about 20,000 visitors.[62]

Schneckenhof Parties

Besides the Schlossfest the University has a long-established tradition of weekly Schneckenhof parties that usually take place Thursdays on UMA's quadrangle "the Schneckenhof" during the summer terms and in UMA's catacombs during the winter terms. The parties are regularly organized by the Fachschaften (student councils) of the different faculties. The tradition of conducting parties on the Schneckenhof dates back to the early 1970s. The first party was organized by the Norwegian students at the University of Mannheim, who were the largest group of international students until the late 1980s.[6] The Norweger Parties (Norwegian Parties) still exist today. Normally, the event takes place during the academic summer at the Schneckenhof and is organized and hosted by Norwegian exchange students or Mannheim students with Norwegian background, in conjunction with international UMA societies. During the event the Schneckenhof is decorated in Norwegian themes and offers traditional beverages and food from Norway.[63]

Another famous party is the "BWLer Fete" hosted by the Fachschaft BWL (Student Council of Business Administration) once each academic term.[64] Each party usually ends with the refrain of the song "Meine Stadt" by the Söhne Mannheims:

"Meine Stadt holt ihren Mann Heim, Ganz egal wo er auch ist.

Diesen Reim schickt ihr der Mann Heim, der sie so oft vermisst."[65]

Notable Mannheim alumni and faculty members

In business: Stefan Lippe, CEO of Swiss Re; Claus E. Heinrich, board member of SAP;[66] Henning Kagermann, former CEO of SAP; Claus Wellenreuther, co-founder of SAP; Jens Weidmann, economist and President of the Deutsche Bundesbank; Hans-Peter Wild, CEO of Rudolf Wild & Co.;[67] Bruno Sälzer, CEO of Hugo Boss, CEO of Escada.

In economics: the President of the Ifo Institute for Economic Research Hans-Werner Sinn,[68] the President of the ZEW Clemens Fuest,[69] the President of the RWI Essen Christoph M. Schmidt,[70] economists Axel Dreher,[71] Isabel Schnabel[72] and Horst Siebert,[73] as well as the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize winners Roman Inderst[74] and Knut Borchardt.

In computer science: the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize winners Joachim Weickert[75] , as well as Hans Meuer, chairman of the International Supercomputing Conference.

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c d "Rechenschaftsbericht 2016/2017". www.uni-mannheim.de (in German). 2018-02-15. Retrieved 2018-02-15. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "Studierendenstatistik 2017/2018". www.uni-mannheim.de (in German). 2018-02-15. Retrieved 2018-02-15. 
  3. ^ "Planimeter: Measurement of University of Mannheim's campus". Acme.com. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  4. ^ a b c Günther, Rosemarie (2012). Zu Gast bei Carl Theodor. Mannheim. pp. 7,8. ISBN 978-3-9393-52-22-8. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Cloer, Bruno; Jentsch, Christoph (1982). Die Universität Mannheim in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart. Mannheim: University Press. pp. 306 f. ISBN 3-87455-043-5. 
  6. ^ a b c "Von Zeit zu Zeit (History of the University of Mannheim)" (PDF). 
  7. ^ Beckmann, Herbert (December 2001). "Selz in Amsterdam. Der Denkpsychologe Otto Selz (1881-1943) im niederländischen Exil" (PDF). Pschologie und Geschichte. 
  8. ^ Bischoff, Helmuth (2007). Barockschloss Mannheim - Kurfürstliche Residenz in neuem Glanz. Mannheim: MIC GmbH. pp. 62 f. 
  9. ^ Friedrich, Jörg (2002). Der Brand. Deutschland im Bombenkrieg 1940–1945. Propyläen Verlag. ISBN 978-3549071656. 
  10. ^ Ragge, Peter W. "Verbotene Aufnahmen aus dem Krieg". Mannheimer Morgen (in German). Retrieved 2018-03-07. 
  11. ^ Boog, Horst (2015). Germany and the Second World War: The Global War. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198738305. 
  12. ^ "MANAGEMENT-TÜV FÜR MANNHEIM". UniSPIEGEL 2/2000. Retrieved 17 May 2014. 
  13. ^ a b Storbeck, Olaf (April 2008). "Mannheim: Unter Schmerzen zur Wirtschaftsuni". Handelsblatt. 
  14. ^ Weisenburger, Katrin. "Uni-Reform: Machtlos in Mannheim". ZEIT Online. 
  15. ^ "Businessweek-Ranking: INSEAD mit bestem internationalen MBA • MBA Journal - NEWS über Business Schools und Executive Education". MBA Journal - NEWS über Business Schools und Executive Education (in German). 2018-01-09. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  16. ^ Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation). "Exzellenzinitiative auf einen Blick" (PDF). 
  17. ^ "Google Maps". Google Maps. Retrieved 2018-02-20. 
  18. ^ Schulze Pals, Jonas. "Wirtschaft als Namensgeber". Mannheimer Morgen (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  19. ^ Ragge, Peter W. "Das Schloss sinnlich erleben". Mannheimer Morgen (in German). Retrieved 2018-03-07. 
  20. ^ Berlinghof, Harald. "Neuer Raum für die Uni - Weitere Projekte geplant". Rhein-Neckar-Zeitung. Retrieved 2018-03-07. 
  21. ^ Brohm, Heiko. "Business School zieht in den Kohle-Keller". Mannheimer Morgen (in German). Retrieved 2018-03-07. 
  22. ^ a b c GmbH, juris. "Landesrecht BW LHG | Landesnorm Baden-Württemberg | Gesamtausgabe | Gesetz über die Hochschulen in Baden-Württemberg (Landeshochschulgesetz - LHG) vom 1. Januar 2005 | gültig ab: 09.04.2014". www.landesrecht-bw.de (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-20. 
  23. ^ "Neuer Rektor mit Plänen - Mannheimer Morgen" (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-20. 
  24. ^ a b Bode, Christian; Habbich, Claudius; Kathöfer, Thomas (2015). Universitäten in Deutschland - Universities in Germany. Munich: PRESTEL. pp. 208, 209. ISBN 978-3-7913-5029-5. 
  25. ^ Latimer, J. (September 12, 2016). "Your new study-abroad destination? The University of Mannheim". Concordia News. 
  26. ^ "Studiengebühren: So beerdigt Baden-Württemberg die Campusmaut". Spiegel Online. 2011-07-26. Retrieved 2018-02-23. 
  27. ^ "Baden-Württemberg: Stuttgarter Landtag beschließt Studiengebühren für Ausländer". Die Zeit (in German). 2017-05-03. ISSN 0044-2070. Retrieved 2018-02-23. 
  28. ^ Brohm, Heiko. "Jetzt kann ich meine Träume verwirklichen". Mannheimer Morgen (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-23. 
  29. ^ Blaue, Carsten. "Uni Mannheim: App erinnert an "Auf Achse"". Rhein-Neckar-Zeitung. Retrieved 2018-03-01. 
  30. ^ "Leibniz Gemeinschaft: Forschung / Leibniz-WissenschaftsCampi / MannheimTax: Steuerpolitik der Zukunft". www.leibniz-gemeinschaft.de (in German). Retrieved 2018-03-01. 
  31. ^ "Erste Hilfe bei Gründerfragen - Mannheimer Morgen" (in German). Retrieved 2018-03-01. 
  32. ^ "CIMH: ZI Mannheim". www.zi-mannheim.de. Retrieved 2018-03-01. 
  33. ^ "QS World University Rankings 2018". 5 June 2017. 
  34. ^ "World University Rankings". 18 August 2017. 
  35. ^ Deutsches Harvard | ZEIT ONLINE. Zeit.de (18 September 2013).
  36. ^ a b "World University Rankings 2018 by subject: business and economics". Times Higher Education (THE). 2017-09-12. Retrieved 2018-03-11. 
  37. ^ a b "World University Rankings 2018 by subject: social sciences". Times Higher Education (THE). 2017-09-12. Retrieved 2018-03-11. 
  38. ^ "World University Rankings 2018 by subject: psychology". Times Higher Education (THE). 2017-09-27. Retrieved 2018-03-11. 
  39. ^ "World University Rankings 2018 by subject: computer science". Times Higher Education (THE). 2017-09-12. Retrieved 2018-03-11. 
  40. ^ "CHE Uni-Ranking Politiksozialwissenschaften". Studentenpilot.de. Retrieved 2014-01-11. 
  41. ^ "Die besten Unis und Fachhochschulen". Wirtschaftswoche. Retrieved 2014-01-11. 
  42. ^ "Universitätranking". Lto.de. Retrieved 2013-12-18. 
  43. ^ "Fakultät für Sozialwissenschaften an der Uni Mannheim". CHE Hochschulranking (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-26. 
  44. ^ "Philosophische Fakultät an der Uni Mannheim". CHE Hochschulranking (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-26. 
  45. ^ University Ranking FTRanking
  46. ^ "Personaler ranken Hochschulen". E-Campus. Retrieved 2013-10-21. 
  47. ^ "University and business school ranking in 5 Palmes". Archived from the original on 29 July 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2015. 
  48. ^ "Universität Mannheim: Studierendenstatistik - Herbst-/Wintersemester 2013" (PDF). University of Mannheim. Retrieved 2014-04-25. 
  49. ^ See Demographics of Germany for references.
  50. ^ "Student Organizations". www.uni-mannheim.de. 2018-02-26. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  51. ^ "Kinderhelden – Uni-Cleverlinge²". www.kinderhelden.info (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  52. ^ Austauschdienst, DAAD - Deutscher Akademischer. "Vielfältige Angebote für Flüchtlinge an der Universität Mannheim - DAAD - Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst". www.daad.de (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  53. ^ Deutschland, Alumniportal. "ABSOLVENTUM MANNHEIM". www.alumniportal-deutschland.org (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-22. 
  54. ^ "Mannheim Forum - Official webpage". Mannheim Forum. Retrieved 2013-12-11. 
  55. ^ ""Wir kämpfen immer neu" - Mannheimer Morgen" (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-20. 
  56. ^ "Sports Programme 2018" (PDF). 
  57. ^ "Rechenschaftsbericht 2016/2017". www.uni-mannheim.de (in German). 2018-02-15. p. 29. Retrieved 2018-02-15. 
  58. ^ "Artistic cycling: Lisa Hattemer's final rainbow jersey appearance". www.uci.ch. Retrieved 2018-02-20. 
  59. ^ ka-news (2017-08-05). "Karlsruher "Rheinschwestern" landen bei Kanu-WM auf Spitzenrängen | ka-news". ka-news.de (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-20. 
  60. ^ "Cécile Pieper freut sich über WM-Krone - Schwetzinger Zeitung / Hockenheimer Zeitung" (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-20. 
  61. ^ Metropolnews, Redaktion. "Mannheim: Schlossfest der Universität Mannheim am 9. September - Metropolnews.info". www.metropolnews.info (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-22. 
  62. ^ ": Mannheimer Schlossfest: Philosophie zum Kaltgetränk". Retrieved 2018-02-22. 
  63. ^ "Aufmarsch der Wikinger im Schneckenhof". Schneckenhof.net. Retrieved 18 May 2014. 
  64. ^ "Schneckenhof: BWLer Fete". Schneckenhof.de. Retrieved 1 May 2014. 
  65. ^ "Meine Stadt". Residential Education. Söhne Mannheims. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  66. ^ "Curriculum Vitae Claus E. Heinrich". Sovanta.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-09. Retrieved 2013-11-18. 
  67. ^ Hans-Peter Wild, on bloomberg.com, May 25, 2017.
  68. ^ https://genealogy.repec.org/pages/psi146.html
  69. ^ "ZEW Press Release: Clemens Fuest Will Become Next ZEW President". 27 Jan 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2012. 
  70. ^ http://en.rwi-essen.de/schmidt
  71. ^ https://genealogy.repec.org/pages/pdr9.html
  72. ^ https://www.finance.uni-bonn.de/members/prof-dr-isabel-schnabel/vita/
  73. ^ http://nyustern.imodules.com/s/1068/GroupBus/3col.aspx?sid=1068&gid=2&verbiagebuilder=1&pgid=1066
  74. ^ "Prof. Roman Inderst erhält Leibniz Preis". University of Frankfurt. Archived from the original on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 2013-11-19. 
  75. ^ "Joachim Weickert, Professor of Mathematics and Computer Science". Mathematical Image Analysis Group, Saarland University, Germany. 

Further reading

  • Gaugler, Eduard. Die Universität Mannheim in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart, Mannheim, 1976. ISBN 978-3-874-55043-7
  • Enzenauer, Markus. Wirtschaftsgeschichte in Mannheim, Mannheim, 2005. ISBN 978-3-938-03113-1
  • AStA der Universität Mannheim. Was nicht im Rektoratsbericht stand: Wirtschaftshochschule, Universität Mannheim geheim: Annotationen zur Geschichte der Wirtschaftshochschule/Universität Mannheim im Kalten Krieg und danach, Universität Mannheim: Schriftenreihe des AStA der Universität Mannheim; Bd.
  • Degner, Marius. Entwicklung von Professuren im Fach Betriebswirtschaftslehre, Universität Mannheim: Forschungsberichte / Universität Mannheim, Fakultät für Betriebswirtschaftslehre, Mannheim, 2009. ISSN 0340-1650
  • Hamann, Horst. Universität Mannheim, Ed Panorama, Mannheim, 2007. ISBN 978-3-89823-330-9
  • Grüb, Birgit. Gründung von Universitätsverlagen am Beispiel der Universität Mannheim, Mannheim Univ. Press, Mannheim, 2006. ISBN 978-3-939352-01-3
  • Bauer, Gerhard; Budde, Kai; Kreutz, Wilhelm; Schäfer, Patrick. (Published for Academia Domitor - Studienforum Johann Jakob Hemmer e.V.): „Di fernunft siget". Der kurpfälzische Universalgelehrte Johann Jakob Hemmer (1733-1790) und sein Werk (= Jahrbuch für internationale Germanistik. Reihe A, Kongressberichte, Band 103). Peter Lang, Bern 2010, p. 149–174. Online. ISBN 978-3-0343-0445-0
  • Eid, Ludwig. Die gelehrten Gesellschaften der Pfalz, Verlag der Jägerschen Buchhandlung, Speyer, 1926.
  • Ebersold, Guenther. Rokoko, Reform und Revolution. Ein politisches Lebensbild des Kurfürsten Karl Theodor. Frankfurt a. M. 1985. ISBN 978-3820454-86-4
  • Fuchs, Peter. Kurfürst Karl Theodor von Pfalzbayern (1724−1799). In: Pfälzer Lebensbilder, Publisher. Kurt Baumann, Band 3, Speyer 1977, p. 65−105.
  • Mörz, Stefan. Aufgeklärter Absolutismus in der Kurpfalz während der Mannheimer Regierungszeit des Kurfürsten Karl Theodor 1742−77. Stuttgart 1991. ISBN 978-3-1701118-68

External links

  • Official website
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