United States presidential elections in Missouri

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Presidential elections in Missouri
Map of the United States with Missouri highlighted
No. of elections 50
Voted Democrat 29
Voted Republican 19
Voted Democratic-Republican 2
Voted other 0
Voted for winning candidate 37
Voted for losing candidate 13

The tables below list United States presidential elections in Missouri, ordered by year. Since 1904, Missouri has voted for the eventual winner of the presidential election, with three exceptions: the 1956 election, the 2008 election and the 2012 election; it is commonly viewed as a bellwether state, though the consecutive errors in 2008 and 2012 have begun doubts about its continued status as a bellwether. In 2016 however, the state was won by a margin of 18.04 points, indicating it to be a safe Republican state.

Table of winners

Year Winner National winner?
1820 James Monroe Yes
1824 Henry Clay No
1828 Andrew Jackson Yes
1832 Andrew Jackson Yes
1836 Martin Van Buren Yes
1840 Martin Van Buren No
1844 James K. Polk Yes
1848 Lewis Cass No
1852 Franklin Pierce Yes
1856 James Buchanan Yes
1860 Stephen Douglas No
1864 Abraham Lincoln Yes
1868 Ulysses S. Grant Yes
1872 Horace Greeley No
1876 Samuel Tilden No
1880 Winfield Hancock No
1884 Grover Cleveland Yes
1888 Grover Cleveland No
1892 Grover Cleveland Yes
1896 William Jennings Bryan No
1900 William Jennings Bryan No
1904 Theodore Roosevelt Yes
1908 William Taft Yes
1912 Woodrow Wilson Yes
1916 Woodrow Wilson Yes
1920 Warren G. Harding Yes
1924 Calvin Coolidge Yes
1928 Herbert Hoover Yes
1932 Franklin Roosevelt Yes
1936 Franklin Roosevelt Yes
1940 Franklin Roosevelt Yes
1944 Franklin Roosevelt Yes
1948 Harry S. Truman Yes
1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower Yes
1956 Adlai Stevenson No
1960 John F. Kennedy Yes
1964 Lyndon B. Johnson Yes
1968 Richard Nixon Yes
1972 Richard Nixon Yes
1976 Jimmy Carter Yes
1980 Ronald Reagan Yes
1984 Ronald Reagan Yes
1988 George H.W. Bush Yes
1992 Bill Clinton Yes
1996 Bill Clinton Yes
2000 George W. Bush Yes
2004 George W. Bush Yes
2008 John McCain No
2012 Mitt Romney No
2016 Donald Trump Yes

Elections from 1864 to present

Year Winner (nationally) Votes Percent Loser (nationally) Votes Percent Other national
candidates[a]
Votes Percent Electoral
Votes
Notes
2016 Donald Trump 1,585,753 56.88 Hillary Clinton 1,054,889 37.84 - - 10
2012 Barack Obama 1,223,796 44.38 Mitt Romney 1,482,440 53.76 - 10
2008 Barack Obama 1,441,911 49.29 John McCain 1,445,814 49.43 - 11
2004 George W. Bush 1,455,713 53.30 John Kerry 1,259,171 46.1 - 11
2000 George W. Bush 1,189,924 50.42 Al Gore 1,111,138 47.08 - 11
1996 Bill Clinton 1,025,935 47.54 Bob Dole 890,016 41.24 Ross Perot 217,188 10.06 11
1992 Bill Clinton 1,053,873 44.07 George H. W. Bush 811,159 33.92 Ross Perot 518,741 21.69 11
1988 George H. W. Bush 1,084,953 51.83 Michael Dukakis 1,001,619 47.85 - 11
1984 Ronald Reagan 1,274,188 60.02 Walter Mondale 848,583 39.98 - 11
1980 Ronald Reagan 1,074,181 51.16 Jimmy Carter 931,182 44.35 John B. Anderson 77,920 3.71 12
1976 Jimmy Carter 998,387 51.1 Gerald Ford 927,443 47.47 - 12
1972 Richard Nixon 1,154,058 62.29 George McGovern 698,531 37.71 - 12
1968 Richard Nixon 811,932 44.87 Hubert Humphrey 791,444 43.74 George Wallace 206,126 11.39 12
1964 Lyndon B. Johnson 1,164,344 64.05 Barry Goldwater 653,535 35.95 - 12
1960 John F. Kennedy 972,201 50.26 Richard Nixon 962,221 49.74 - 13
1956 Dwight D. Eisenhower 914,289 49.89 Adlai Stevenson II 918,273 50.11 - 13
1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower 959,429 50.71 Adlai Stevenson II 929,830 49.14 - 13
1948 Harry S. Truman 917,315 58.11 Thomas E. Dewey 655,039 41.49 Strom Thurmond 42 0.003 15
1944 Franklin D. Roosevelt 807,804 51.37 Thomas E. Dewey 761,524 48.43 - 15
1940 Franklin D. Roosevelt 958,476 52.27 Wendell Willkie 871,009 47.5 - 15
1936 Franklin D. Roosevelt 1,111,043 60.76 Alf Landon 697,891 38.16 - 15
1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt 1,025,406 63.69 Herbert Hoover 564,713 35.08 - 15
1928 Herbert Hoover 834,080 55.58 Al Smith 662,562 44.15 - 18
1924 Calvin Coolidge 648,486 49.58 John W. Davis 572,753 43.79 Robert M. La Follette Sr. 84,160 6.43 18
1920 Warren G. Harding 727,162 54.56 James M. Cox 574,799 43.13 Parley P. Christensen 3,291 0.25 18
1916 Woodrow Wilson 398,032 50.59 Charles E. Hughes 369,339 46.94 - 18
1912 Woodrow Wilson 330,746 47.35 Theodore Roosevelt 124,375 17.8 William H. Taft 207,821 29.75 18
1908 William H. Taft 347,203 48.5 William Jennings Bryan 346,574 48.41 - 18
1904 Theodore Roosevelt 321,449 49.93 Alton B. Parker 296,312 46.02 - 18
1900 William McKinley 314,092 45.94 William Jennings Bryan 351,922 51.48 - 17
1896 William McKinley 304,940 45.25 William Jennings Bryan 363,667 53.96 - 17
1892 Grover Cleveland 268,400 49.56 Benjamin Harrison 227,646 42.03 James B. Weaver 41,204 7.61 17
1888 Benjamin Harrison 236,252 45.31 Grover Cleveland 261,943 50.24 - 16
1884 Grover Cleveland 236,023 53.49 James G. Blaine 203,081 46.02 - 16
1880 James A. Garfield 153,647 38.67 Winfield S. Hancock 208,600 52.51 James B. Weaver 35,042 8.82 15
1876 Rutherford B. Hayes 145,027 41.36 Samuel J. Tilden 202,086 57.64 - 15
1872 Ulysses S. Grant 119,196 43.65 Horace Greeley 151,434 55.46 - 15
1868 Ulysses S. Grant 86,860 57 Horatio Seymour 65,628 43 - 11
1864 Abraham Lincoln 72,750 69.7 George B. McClellan 31,596 30.3 - 11

Election of 1860

The election of 1860 was a complex realigning election in which the breakdown of the previous two-party alignment culminated in four parties each competing for influence in different parts of the country. The result of the election, with the victory of an ardent opponent of slavery, spurred the secession of eleven states and brought about the American Civil War.

Year Winner (nationally) Votes Percent Loser (nationally) Votes Percent Loser (nationally) Votes Percent Loser (nationally) Votes Percent Electoral
Votes
1860 Abraham Lincoln 17,028 10.3 Stephen A. Douglas 58,801 35.5 John C. Breckinridge 31,362 18.9 John Bell 58,372 35.3 9

Elections from 1824 to 1856

Year Winner (nationally) Votes Percent Loser (nationally) Votes Percent Other national
candidates[a]
Votes Percent Electoral
Votes
Notes
1856 James Buchanan 57,964 54.43 John C. Frémont no ballots Millard Fillmore 48,522 45.57 9
1852 Franklin Pierce 38,817 56.42 Winfield Scott 29,984 43.58 John P. Hale no ballots 9
1848 Zachary Taylor 32,671 44.91 Lewis Cass 40,077 55.09 Martin Van Buren no ballots 7
1844 James K. Polk 41,322 56.98 Henry Clay 31,200 43.02 - 7
1840 William Henry Harrison 22,954 43.37 Martin Van Buren 29,969 56.63 - 4
1836 Martin Van Buren 10,995 59.98 Hugh Lawson White 7,337 40.02 various[b] no ballots - 4
1832 Andrew Jackson 5,192 100 Henry Clay no ballots William Wirt no ballots 4
1828 Andrew Jackson 8,232 70.64 John Quincy Adams 3,422 29.36 - 3

Election of 1824

The election of 1824 was a complex realigning election following the collapse of the prevailing Democratic-Republican Party, resulting in four different candidates each claiming to carry the banner of the party, and competing for influence in different parts of the country. The election was the only one in history to be decided by the House of Representatives under the provisions of the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution after no candidate secured a majority of the electoral vote. It was also the only presidential election in which the candidate who received a plurality of electoral votes (Andrew Jackson) did not become President, a source of great bitterness for Jackson and his supporters, who proclaimed the election of Adams a corrupt bargain.

Year Winner (nationally) Votes Percent Loser (nationally) Votes Percent Loser (nationally) Votes Percent Loser (nationally) Votes Percent Electoral
Votes
1824 Andrew Jackson 1,166 33.97 John Quincy Adams 159 4.63 Henry Clay 2,042 59.50 William H. Crawford 32 0.93 3

Election of 1820

In the election of 1820, incumbent President James Monroe ran effectively unopposed, winning all electoral votes except one vote in New Hampshire. The popular vote was primarily directed to filling the office of Vice President.

Missouri's participation in the election was a point of political dispute. On March 9, 1820, Congress had passed a law directing Missouri to hold a convention to form a constitution and a state government. This law stated that "the said state, when formed, shall be admitted into the Union, upon an equal footing with the original states, in all respects whatsoever."[1] However, when Congress reconvened in November 1820, the admission of Missouri became an issue of contention. Proponents claimed that Missouri had fulfilled the conditions of the law and therefore was a state; detractors contended that certain provisions of the Missouri Constitution violated the United States Constitution.

By the time Congress was due to meet to count the electoral votes from the election, this dispute had lasted over two months. The counting raised a ticklish problem: if Congress counted Missouri's votes, that would count as recognition that Missouri was a state; on the other hand, if Congress failed to count Missouri's vote, it would count as recognition that Missouri was not a state. Knowing ahead of time that Monroe had won in a landslide and that Missouri's vote would therefore make no difference in the final result, the Senate passed a resolution on February 13, 1821 stating that if a protest were made, there would be no consideration of the matter unless the vote of Missouri would change who would become president. Instead, the President of the Senate would announce the final tally twice, once with Missouri included and once with it excluded.[2]

The next day this resolution was introduced in the full House. After a lively debate, it was passed. Nonetheless, during the counting of the electoral votes on February 14, 1821, an objection was raised to the votes from Missouri by Representative Arthur Livermore of New Hampshire. He argued that since Missouri had not yet officially become a state, it had no right to cast any electoral votes. Immediately, Representative John Floyd of Virginia argued that Missouri's votes must be counted. Chaos ensued, and order was restored only with the counting of the vote as per the resolution and then adjournment for the day.[3]

Popular candidates

Excluding two-campaign two-term presidents, including candidates who eventually lost

  • Franklin Roosevelt - 4 times (4 terms)
  • Grover Cleveland - 3 times (2 terms)
  • Martin Van Buren - 2 times (1 term)
  • William Jennings Bryan - 2 times (0 terms)

References

  1. ^ United States Congress (1820). United States Statutes at Large. Act of March 6, ch. 23, vol. 3. pp. 545–548. Retrieved August 9, 2006. 
  2. ^ United States Congress (1821). Senate Journal. 16th Congress, 2nd Session, February 13. pp. 187–188. Retrieved July 29, 2006. 
  3. ^ Annals of Congress. 16th Congress, 2nd Session, February 14, 1821. Gales and Seaton. 1856. pp. 1147–1165. Retrieved July 29, 2006. 

External links

  • County-by-county results since 1860

Notes

  1. ^ a b For purposes of these lists, other national candidates are defined as those who won at least one electoral vote, or won at least ten percent of the vote in multiple states.
  2. ^ Three other candidates ran and received electoral votes nationally as part of the unsuccessful Whig strategy to defeat Martin Van Buren by running four candidates with local appeal in different regions of the country. The others were William Henry Harrison, Daniel Webster, and Willie Person Mangum. None of these candidates appeared on the ballot in Missouri.
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