1892 United States presidential election in Florida

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United States presidential election in Florida, 1892

← 1888 November 8, 1892 1896 →
  StephenGroverCleveland.png Weaver-James-1870s.jpg
Nominee Grover Cleveland James B. Weaver
Party Democratic Populist
Home state New York Iowa
Running mate Adlai Stevenson I James G. Field
Electoral vote 4 0
Popular vote 30,153 4,843
Percentage 85.01% 13.65%

President before election

Benjamin Harrison
Republican

Elected President

Grover Cleveland
Democratic

The 1892 United States presidential election in Florida took place on November 8, 1892. All contemporary 44 states were part of the 1892 United States presidential election. Florida voters chose four electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.

Background

This election marks the end of Reconstruction and the beginning of Jim Crow-era politics in Florida. This change had been proposed as early as 1884, but the anti-Southern animus of the Harrison regime meant that Florida‘s large landowners felt the disfranchisement of blacks had become urgent.[1] A poll tax was introduced in 1889[2] as were the so-called “Myers” and “Dortch” laws which required voters in more populous settlements to register their voting precincts.[3] This dramatically cut voter registration amongst blacks and poorer whites, almost halving the number of votes cast. Since Florida completely lacked upland or German refugee whites opposed to secession, its Republican Party between 1872 and 1888 was entirely dependent upon black votes. Thus this disfranchisement of blacks and poor whites by a poll tax introduced in 1889[4] left Florida as devoid of Republican adherents as Louisiana, Mississippi or South Carolina.[5]

Thus, Florida’s few remaining Republicans decided not to put up presidential electors and urged their supported to back Populist James B. Weaver,[6] creating the first case where an incumbent President standing for re-election has not been on all state’s ballots.[a] Weaver thought he had “magnificent” chances in the impoverished South,[7] and campaigned heavily there.[7] but as it turned out the halving of the electorate meant he could gain very little support. Weaver was not helped by his controversial decision to take a woman – Mary Lease – on his campaigns, as the South thought any political involvement degraded womanhood.[8] Weaver did nonetheless win counties in Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Texas.

Vote

Florida was won in a landslide by the Democratic nominees, former President Grover Cleveland of New York and his running mate Adlai Stevenson I of Illinois. Weaver took what remained of the Negro Republican vote, but gained less than fourteen percent; nonetheless this is one of only five times in Florida that a candidate other than a Republican or Democrat got over ten percent of the vote.[b]

Results

United States presidential election in Florida, 1892[9]
Party Candidate Votes Percentage Electoral votes
Democratic Grover Cleveland 30,153 85.01% 4
People's James Weaver 4,843 13.65% 0
Prohibition John Bidwell 475 1.34% 0
Totals 35,471 100.00% 4
Voter turnout

Results by county

Stephen Grover Cleveland[10]
Democratic
James Baird Weaver[11]
People’s
John Bidwell[12]
Prohibition
Margin Total votes cast
County # % # % # % # % #
Alachua 1,447 84.27% 234 13.63% 36 2.10% 1,213 70.65% 1,717
Baker 187 54.84% 154 45.16% 0 0.00% 33 9.68% 341
Bradford 551 79.39% 139 20.03% 4 0.58% 412 59.37% 694
Brevard 449 88.74% 36 7.11% 21 4.15% 413 81.62% 506
Calhoun 155 73.46% 56 26.54% 0 0.00% 99 46.92% 211
Citrus 316 80.82% 71 18.16% 4 1.02% 245 62.66% 391
Clay 404 85.41% 68 14.38% 1 0.21% 336 71.04% 473
Columbia 822 94.16% 49 5.61% 2 0.23% 773 88.55% 873
Dade 109 95.61% 1 0.88% 4 3.51% 105[c] 92.11% 114
De Soto 566 68.61% 256 31.03% 3 0.36% 310 37.58% 825
Duval 1,442 95.18% 68 4.49% 5 0.33% 1,374 90.69% 1,515
Escambia 2,616 95.37% 127 4.63% 0 0.00% 2,489 90.74% 2,743
Franklin 304 100.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 304 100.00% 304
Gadsden 522 91.90% 46 8.10% 0 0.00% 476 83.80% 568
Hamilton 605 79.19% 159 20.81% 0 0.00% 446 58.38% 764
Hernando 227 73.23% 81 26.13% 2 0.65% 146 47.10% 310
Hillsborough 2,718 95.60% 58 2.04% 67 2.36% 2,660 93.56% 2,843
Holmes 285 66.28% 145 33.72% 0 0.00% 140 32.56% 430
Jackson 1,091 79.12% 288 20.88% 0 0.00% 803 58.23% 1,379
Jefferson 1,533 100.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 1,533 100.00% 1,533
Lafayette 258 90.53% 27 9.47% 0 0.00% 231 81.05% 285
Lake 1,137 85.68% 105 7.91% 85 6.41% 1,032 77.77% 1,327
Lee 153 96.23% 5 3.14% 1 0.63% 148 93.08% 159
Leon 634 100.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 634 100.00% 634
Levy 436 71.59% 172 28.24% 1 0.16% 264 43.35% 609
Liberty 84 54.19% 71 45.81% 0 0.00% 13 8.39% 155
Madison 855 95.64% 39 4.36% 0 0.00% 816 91.28% 894
Manatee 348 83.25% 62 14.83% 8 1.91% 286 68.42% 418
Marion 1,133 67.32% 533 31.67% 17 1.01% 600 35.65% 1,683
Monroe 767 90.98% 67 7.95% 9 1.07% 700 83.04% 843
Nassau 597 98.84% 7 1.16% 0 0.00% 590 97.68% 604
Orange 1,142 92.10% 39 3.15% 59 4.76% 1,083[c] 87.34% 1,240
Osceola 259 94.18% 13 4.73% 3 1.09% 246 89.45% 275
Pasco 471 83.22% 92 16.25% 3 0.53% 379 66.96% 566
Polk 801 80.66% 168 16.92% 24 2.42% 633 63.75% 993
Putnam 885 78.74% 174 15.48% 65 5.78% 711 63.26% 1,124
Santa Rosa 452 83.86% 87 16.14% 0 0.00% 365 67.72% 539
St. Johns 589 95.46% 28 4.54% 0 0.00% 561 90.92% 617
Sumter 444 59.28% 305 40.72% 0 0.00% 139 18.56% 749
Suwannee 648 71.52% 258 28.48% 0 0.00% 390 43.05% 906
Taylor 125 52.30% 114 47.70% 0 0.00% 11 4.60% 239
Volusia 785 85.14% 91 9.87% 46 4.99% 694 75.27% 922
Wakulla 173 94.54% 10 5.46% 0 0.00% 163 89.07% 183
Walton 313 53.05% 274 46.44% 3 0.51% 39 6.61% 590
Washington 315 82.25% 66 17.23% 2 0.52% 249 65.01% 383
Totals 30,153 85.01% 4,843 13.65% 475 1.34% 25,310 71.35% 35,471

Notes

  1. ^ This has occurred three times since. William Howard Taft in 1912 was not on the ballot in either California or South Dakota, whilst Harry S. Truman in 1948 and Lyndon Johnson in 1964 were both kept off the Alabama ballot.
  2. ^ The others are Constitutional Unionist John Bell in 1860, States’ Rights Democrat Strom Thurmond in 1948, American Independent George Wallace in 1968 and Ross Perot in 1992.
  3. ^ a b In this county where Bidwell ran second ahead of Weaver, margin given is Cleveland vote minus Bidwell vote and percentage margin Cleveland percentage minus Bidwell percentage.

References

  1. ^ Perman, Michael; Struggle for Mastery: Disfranchisement in the South, 1888-1908, pp. 67-68
  2. ^ Brooker, Russell; The American Civil Rights Movement 1865-1950: Black Agency and People of Good Will, p. 61 ISBN 0739179926
  3. ^ Ogden, Frederick D. (1958); The Poll Tax in the South, p. 118
  4. ^ Silbey, Joel H. and Bogue, Allan G.; The History of American Electoral Behavior, p. 210 ISBN 140087114X
  5. ^ Phillips, Kevin P.; The Emerging Republican Majority, pp. 208, 210 ISBN 9780691163246
  6. ^ Knowles, George Harmon (1942); The Presidential Campaign and Election of 1892, p. 242
  7. ^ a b Richardson, Darcy G.; Others: Third Parties During the Populist Period, p. 138 ISBN 0595443044
  8. ^ Kauffman, Gina; More Than Petticoats: Remarkable Kansas Women, p. 36 ISBN 0762776331
  9. ^ Dave Leip’s U.S. Election Atlas; Presidential General Election Results – Florida
  10. ^ Géoelections; Presidential election of 1892 Popular Vote (.xlsx file for €15)
  11. ^ Géoelections; Popular Vote for John Bidwell (.xlsx file for €15)
  12. ^ Géoelections; Popular Vote for James B. Weaver (.xlsx file for €15)
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