United States Senate elections, 1796 and 1797

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United States Senate elections, 1796 and 1797

← 1794/95 Dates vary by state 1798/99 →

11 of the 32 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
17 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Federalist Democratic-Republican
Seats before 19 12
Seats after 20 10
Seat change Increase 1 Decrease 2
Seats up 8 3
Races won 9 1

Majority party before election

Federalist

Elected Majority party

Federalist

The United States Senate elections of 1796 and 1797 were elections for the United States Senate which, coinciding with John Adams's election as President, had the ruling Federalist Party gain one seat.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results summary

Senate Party Division, 5th Congress (1797–1799)

  • Majority Party: Federalist (21)
  • Minority Party: Democratic-Republican (10)
  • Vacant: 1 (later filled by Democratic-Republican)
  • Total Seats: 32

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

After the August 2, 1796 admission of Tennessee.

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9 DR10
Ran
DR11
Ran
DR12
Unknown
V1 F19
Resigned
F18
Resigned
F17
Ran
Majority →
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12
Ran
F13
Ran
F14
Ran
F15
Ran
F16
Ran
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Results of the elections

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9 DR10
Re-elected
V2
DR Loss
V1 F20
Gain
F19
Hold
F18
Hold
F17
Re-elected
Majority →
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12
Re-elected
F13
Re-elected
F14
Re-elected
F15
Re-elected
F16
Re-elected
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Beginning of the next Congress

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9 DR10
Hold
V2 F21
Gain
F20
Hold
F19
Hold
F18 F17
Majority →
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15 F16
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
Key:
DR# Democratic–Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Except if/when noted, the number following candidates is the whole number vote(s), not a percentage.

Special elections during the 4th Congress

In these special elections, the winner was seated before March 4, 1797; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Georgia
(Class 3)
George Walton Federalist 1795 (Appointed) Appointee retired when successor elected.
New senator elected February 20, 1796.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Josiah Tattnall (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Connecticut
(Class 1)
Oliver Ellsworth Federalist 1788
1791
Incumbent resigned to become Chief Justice of the United States.
New senator elected May 12, 1796.
Federalist hold.
James Hillhouse (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Massachusetts
(Class 1)
George Cabot Federalist 1790 Incumbent resigned June 9, 1796.
New senator elected June 11, 1796 on the second ballot.
Federalist hold.
Benjamin Goodhue (Federalist) 75
Edward H. Robbins 65[1]
Massachusetts
(Class 2)
Caleb Strong Federalist 1789
1793
Incumbent resigned June 1, 1796.
New senator elected June 11, 1796 on the second ballot.
Federalist hold.
Theodore Sedgwick (Federalist) 107
Edward H. Robbins 43
Levi Lincoln 2
Nathaniel Dane (Federalist) 1
Thompson J. Skinner 1[2]
Connecticut
(Class 3)
Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. Federalist 1794 or 1795 Incumbent resigned June 10, 1796 to become Lieutenant Governor of Connecticut.
New senator elected October 13, 1796.
Federalist hold.
Uriah Tracy (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Vermont
(Class 1)
Moses Robinson Federalist 1791 (New state) Incumbent resigned October 15, 1796.
New senator elected October 18, 1796.
Federalist hold.
Isaac Tichenor (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
New York
(Class 3)
Rufus King Federalist 1789
1795
Incumbent resigned May 23, 1796 to become U.S. Minister to Great Britain.
New senator elected November 9, 1796.
Federalist hold.
John Laurance (Federalist) 99
Zephaniah Platt 1[3]
Maryland
(Class 1)
Richard Potts Federalist 1793 (Special) Incumbent resigned October 24, 1796.
New senator elected November 28, 1796.
Federalist hold.
John Eager Howard (Federalist)
W. Spriggs (Federalist) 15[4]
South Carolina
(Class 2)
Pierce Butler Democratic-Republican 1789
1793
Incumbent resigned October 25, 1796.
New senator elected December 8, 1796.
Democratic-Republican hold.
John Hunter (Democratic-Republican) 72
John Chestnut 66[5]
New Jersey
(Class 2)
Frederick Frelinghuysen Federalist 1792 or 1793 Incumbent resigned November 12, 1796.
New senator elected November 12, 1796.
Federalist hold.
Richard Stockton (Federalist) Unanimous[6]

Races leading to the 5th Congress

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1797; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut James Hillhouse Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1797. James Hillhouse (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Delaware Henry Latimer Federalist 1795 (Special) Incumbent re-elected January 6, 1797. Henry Latimer (Federalist) 16
David Hall (Democratic-Republican) 6[7]
Maryland John Eager Howard Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent re-elected December 9, 1796. John Eager Howard (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Massachusetts George Cabot Federalist 1790 Incumbent resigned June 9, 1796.
New senator elected June 11, 1796 on the third ballot.
Federalist hold.
Winner also elected to finish the current term, see above.
Benjamin Goodhue (Federalist) 73
Edward H. Robbins[8]
New Jersey John Rutherfurd Federalist 1790 Incumbent re-elected in 1796. John Rutherfurd (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
New York Aaron Burr Democratic-Republican 1791 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 24, 1797.
Federalist gain.
Philip Schuyler (Federalist) 85
James Kent (Federalist) 1[9]
Pennsylvania James Ross Federalist 1794 (Special) Incumbent re-elected February 16, 1797. James Ross (Federalist) 56
William Irvine (Democratic-Republican) 38[10]
Rhode Island Theodore Foster Federalist 1790
1791
Incumbent re-elected in 1797. Theodore Foster (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Tennessee William Cocke Democratic-Republican 1796 Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic-Republican loss.
Incumbent later appointed to continue term.[11]
None
Vermont Moses Robinson Federalist 1791 (New state) Incumbent resigned October 15, 1796.
New senator elected October 18, 1796.
Federalist hold.
Winner also elected to finish the current term, see above.
Isaac Tichenor (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Virginia Stevens Mason Democratic-Republican 1794 (Special) Incumbent re-elected November 29, 1796. Stevens Mason (Democratic-Republican) 114
James Breckenridge (Federalist) 60[12]

Special elections during the 5th Congress

In these special elections, the winners were seated after March 4, 1797, the beginning of the next Congress.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Tennessee
(Class 1)
William Cocke Democratic-Republican 1796
1797 (Appointed)
Interim appointee lost re-election.
New senator elected September 26, 1797.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Andrew Jackson (Democratic-Republican) 20
William Cocke (Democratic-Republican) 13[13]
Tennessee
(Class 2)
William Blount Democratic-Republican 1796 Incumbent expelled July 8, 1797.[14]
New senator elected September 26, 1797.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Joseph Anderson (Democratic-Republican) 33
Unopposed[13]
Vermont
(Class 1)
Isaac Tichenor Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent resigned October 17, 1797 to become Governor of Vermont.
New senator elected October 17, 1797.
Federalist hold.
Nathaniel Chipman (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Rhode Island
(Class 2)
William Bradford Federalist 1793 Incumbent resigned in October 1797.
New senator elected November 13, 1797.
Federalist hold.
Ray Greene (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Maryland
(Class 3)
John Henry Federalist 1788
1795
Incumbent resigned July 10, 1797 to become Governor of Maryland.
New senator elected December 8, 1797.
Federalist hold.
James Lloyd (Federalist) Unopposed[15]

See also

References

  • Party Division in the Senate, 1789-Present, via Senate.gov
  1. ^ "Massachusetts 1796 U.S. Senate, Special, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing The Hampshire and Berkshire Chronicle (Springfield, MA). June 21, 1796.
  2. ^ "Massachusetts 1796 U.S. Senate, Special, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing Political Gazette (Newburyport, MA). June 16, 1796.
  3. ^ "New York 1796 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing Journal of the New York Assembly, 1796. 18. Journal of the New York State Senate, 1796. 12.
  4. ^ "Maryland 1796 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing Charles Carroll to James McHenry. Nov. 28, 1796. Reel 2, Item 990. Charles Carroll Papers. Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore.
  5. ^ "South Carolina 1796 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing Aurora. General Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). December 30, 1796.
  6. ^ "New Jersey 1796 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing The Albany Gazette (Albany, NY). November 21, 1796.
  7. ^ "Delaware 1797 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing Journal of the Delaware State Senate, 1797. 18.
  8. ^ "Massachusetts 1796 U.S. Senate, Ballot 3". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing Hampshire and Berkshire Chronicle (Springfield, MA). June 21, 1796.
  9. ^ "New York 1797 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing Journal of the New York Assembly, 1797. 68. Journal of the New York State Senate, 1797. 43-44.
  10. ^ "Pennsylvania 1797 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing The New World (Philadelphia, PA). February 17, 1797.
  11. ^ United States Congress. "William Cocke (id: C000572)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
  12. ^ "Virginia 1796 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing The Virginia Argus (Richmond, VA). December 2, 1796.
  13. ^ a b "Tennessee 1797 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018., citing Commercial Advertiser (New York, NY). November 11, 1797.
  14. ^ United States Congress. "William Blount (id: B000570)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
  15. ^ "Maryland 1797 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing Aurora. General Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). December 13, 1797.
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