1848 and 1849 United States Senate elections

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United States Senate elections, 1848 and 1849

← 1846/47 Various dates 1850/51 →

19 of the 60 seats in the United States Senate (with special elections)
31 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic Whig
Last election 35 seats 19 seats
Seats before 38 21
Seats won 9 9
Seats after 33 25
Seat change Decrease 5 Increase 4
Seats up 14 5

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Independent Democratic Free Soil
Last election 1 seats
Seats before 0 New party
Seats won 0 1
Seats after 1 1
Seat change Steady Increase 1
Seats up 0

Majority Party before election

Democratic

Elected Majority Party

Democratic

The United States Senate elections of 1848 and 1849 were elections which had the Democratic Party lose seats but maintain control of the United States Senate.

As this election was prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results

Senate Party Division, 31st Congress (1849–1851)

  • Majority Party: Democratic (33–36)
  • Minority Party: Whig Party (25–24)
  • Other Parties: Free Soil (2)
  • Total Seats: 60–62

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25
Ran
D26
Ran
D27
Ran
D28
Ran
D29
Ran
D30
Ran
Majority → D31
Ran
W21
Unknown
ID1 D38
Retired
D37
Retired
D36
Retired
D35
Retired
D34
Unknown
D33
Ran
D32
Ran
W20
Ran
W19
Ran
W18
Ran
W17
Ran
W16 W15 W14 W13 W12 W11
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9 W10

As a result of the elections

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25
Re-elected
D26
Re-elected
D27
Re-elected
D28
Re-elected
D29
Re-elected
D30
Hold
Majority → D31
Hold
W21
Gain
W22
Gain
W23
Gain
W24
Gain
W25
Gain
ID1 FS1
Gain
D33
Gain
D32
Hold
W20
Hold
W19
Re-elected
W18
Re-elected
W17
Re-elected
W16 W15 W14 W13 W12 W11
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9 W10

Note: "Re-elected" includes incumbent appointee elected to the next term.

Beginning of the next Congress

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
Majority → D31
W21 W22 W23 W24 W25 FS2 FS1 D33 D32
W20 W19 W18 W17 W16 W15 W14 W13 W12 W11
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9 W10
Key:
D# Democratic
ID# Independent Democratic
FS# Free Soil
W# Whig
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Special elections during the 30th Congress

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1848 or in 1849 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Mississippi
(Class 1)
Jefferson Davis Democratic 1847 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 11, 1848.[1] Jefferson Davis (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Connecticut
(Class 1)
Roger S. Baldwin Whig 1847 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected May 1848. Roger S. Baldwin (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Maine
(Class 1)
Wyman B. S. Moor Democratic 1848 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired when successor elected June 7, 1848.
Democratic hold.
Hannibal Hamlin (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Wisconsin
(Class 1)
New State Wisconsin admitted to the Union May 29, 1848.
First senators elected June 8, 1848.
Democratic gain.
Henry Dodge (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Wisconsin
(Class 3)
New State Wisconsin admitted to the Union May 29, 1848.
First senators elected June 8, 1848.
Democratic gain.
Isaac P. Walker (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Alabama
(Class 3)
Arthur P. Bagby Democratic 1841 (Special)
1842
Incumbent resigned June 16, 1848 to become U.S. Minister to Russia.
Successor elected July 1, 1848.
Democratic hold.
William R. King (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Arkansas
(Class 2)
William K. Sebastian Democratic 1848 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected November 17, 1848.[2] William K. Sebastian (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Iowa
(Class 2)
New State Iowa was admitted to the Union December 28, 1846.
Legislature had failed to elect due to a three-way split that prevented any candidate from earning the required number of 30 legislators' votes.[3]
First senators elected December 7, 1848.
Democratic gain.
George Wallace Jones (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Iowa
(Class 3)
New State Iowa was admitted to the Union December 28, 1846.
Legislature had failed to elect due to a three-way split that prevented any candidate from earning the required number of 30 legislators' votes.[3]
First senators elected December 7, 1848.
Democratic gain.
Augustus C. Dodge (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky
(Class 2)
Thomas Metcalfe Democratic 1848 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 3, 1849.[4] Thomas Metcalfe (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Michigan
(Class 1)
Thomas Fitzgerald Democratic 1848 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
Successor elected January 20, 1849, but did not take his seat until March 4, 1849.
Democratic hold.
Lewis Cass (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Delaware
(Class 1)
John M. Clayton Whig 1829
1835
Incumbent resigned February 23, 1849 to become U.S. Secretary of State.
Successor elected February 23, 1849.
Whig hold.
John Wales (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Races leading to the 31st Congress

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1849; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama William R. King Democratic 1848 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1848 or 1849. William R. King (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Arkansas Solon Borland Democratic 1848 (Appointed) Incumbent appointee elected to a full term in November 1848.[5] Solon Borland (Democratic)
Ambrose Sevier (Democratic)[5]
[Data unknown/missing.]
Connecticut John M. Niles Democratic 1842 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1848 or 1849.
Whig gain.
Truman Smith (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Florida James Westcott Democratic 1845 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1848.
Whig gain.
Jackson Morton (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Georgia Herschel Vespasian Johnson Democratic 1848 (Appointed) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1847.[6]
Whig gain.
William Crosby Dawson (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Illinois Sidney Breese Democratic 1843 Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected January 13, 1849.
Democratic hold.
James Shields (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Indiana Edward A. Hannegan Democratic 1842 Incumbent lost renomination.
Winner elected in 1848.
Democratic hold.
James Whitcomb (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky Thomas Metcalfe Whig 1848 (Appointed)
? (Special)
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1849.
Whig hold.
Henry Clay (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Louisiana Henry Johnson Whig 1844 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1848.
Democratic gain.
Pierre Soulé (Democratic)
Henry Johnson (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Maryland James Pearce Whig 1843 Incumbent re-elected in 1849. James Pearce (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Missouri David Rice Atchison Democratic 1843 (Appointed)
1843 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in 1849. David Rice Atchison (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
New Hampshire Charles G. Atherton Democratic 1843 (Special) Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1848 or 1849.
Democratic hold.
Moses Norris, Jr. (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
New York John Adams Dix Democratic 1845 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election as a Free Soiler.
Winner elected February 6, 1849.
Whig gain.
William H. Seward (Whig)
John Adams Dix (Free Soil)
Reuben H. Walworth (Democratic)
Daniel D. Barnard (Whig)
North Carolina George Badger Whig 1846 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1849. George Badger (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Ohio William Allen Democratic 1837
1842
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1849.
Free Soil gain.
Salmon P. Chase (Free Soil)
Thomas Ewing
William Allen (Democratic)
Joshua Reed Giddings
Reuben Hitchcock
Emery D. Potter
David T. Disney
John C. Vaughn
Pennsylvania Simon Cameron Democratic 1845 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected January 10, 1849.
Whig gain.
James Cooper (Whig) 49.62%
Richard Brodhead (Democratic) 46.62%
Thaddeus Stevens (Free Soil) 2.26%
South Carolina Andrew Butler Democratic 1846 (Appointed)
? (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in 1848. Andrew Butler (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Vermont William Upham Whig 1843 Incumbent re-elected in 1848. William Upham (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Wisconsin Isaac P. Walker Democratic 1848 Incumbent re-elected in 1849. Isaac P. Walker (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Elections during the 31st Congress

In these elections, the winners were elected in 1849 after March 4.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Illinois
(Class 3)
James Shields Democratic 1848 or 1849 Senate voided election March 15, 1849 as incumbent was not to a U.S. citizen long enough as required by the U.S. Constitution.
Incumbent was re-elected October 27, 1849, having by then qualified.
Democratic hold.
James Shields (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Alabama
(Class 2)
Benjamin Fitzpatrick Democratic 1848 (Appointed) Unknown if interim appointee retired when successor elected or lost election to finish the term.
Winner elected November 30, 1849.
Democratic hold.
Jeremiah Clemens (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
California
(Class 1)
New state California admitted as a new state on September 9, 1850.
New senator elected December 20, 1849 and later seated upon statehood.
Democratic gain.
John C. Frémont (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
California
(Class 3)
New state California admitted as a new state on September 9, 1850.
New senator elected December 20, 1849 and later seated upon statehood.
Democratic gain.
William M. Gwin (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Individual elections

New York

The New York election was held February 6, 1849. Barnburner John Adams Dix had been elected in 1845 to this seat after the resignation of Silas Wright, and Dix's term would expire on March 3, 1849. In November 1848, Dix was the Barnburners/Free-Soilers candidate for Governor of New York, but was defeated by Whig Hamilton Fish.

At this time New York Democratic Party was split in two fiercely opposing factions: the Barnburners" and the "Hunkers". The Barnburners organized the Free Soil Party in 1848 and nominated Martin Van Buren for U.S. President. Due to the split, the Whig Party won most of the elective offices by pluralities.

At the State election in November 1847, 24 Whigs and 8 Democrats were elected for a two-year term (1848-1849) in the State Senate. At the State election in November 1848, 106 Whigs, 15 Free Soilers and 7 Hunkers were elected to the Assembly for the session of 1849. The 72nd New York State Legislature met from January 2 to April 11, 1849, at Albany, New York.

Ex-Governor of New York William H. Seward was nominated by a caucus of Whig State legislators on February 1, 1849. The vote was 88 for Seward, 12 for John A. Collier, 18 scattering and 4 blanks. The incumbent U.S. Senator John Adams Dix ran for re-election supported by the Free Soilers. Ex-Chancellor Reuben H. Walworth was the candidate of the Hunkers. Walworth had been third place in the last gubernatorial election, behind Fish and Dix. Ex-Congressman Daniel D. Barnard (Whig) received 2 scattering votes in the Senate. William H. Seward was the choice of both the Assembly and the Senate, and was declared elected.

House Whig Free Soil Dem./Hunker also ran
State Senate (32 members) William H. Seward 19 John Adams Dix 6 Reuben H. Walworth 2 Daniel D. Barnard 2
State Assembly (128 members) William H. Seward 102 John Adams Dix 15 Reuben H. Walworth 7

Ohio

The two houses of the Ohio General Assembly met in joint session February 22, 1849, with 72 representatives and 35 senators present to elect a Senator (Class 3) to succeed incumbent Wiliam Allen. On the fourth ballot, Salmon P. Chase was elected with a majority of the votes cast, as follows:[7]

Ballot William Allen Thomas Ewing Joshua Reed Giddings Salmon P. Chase Reuben Hitchcock Emery D. Potter David T. Disney John C. Vaughn blank ballots total votes cast
1 27 41 9 14 1 2 1 0 11 106
2 1 41 8 52 0 0 0 0 4 108
3 0 39 9 53 0 0 0 2 2 105
4 0 39 11 55 0 0 0 1 0 106

The second ballot was declared a nullity by Speaker of the Senate Brewster Randall, because there were one more ballots cast than members present.

Pennsylvania

The Pennsylvania election was held January 10, 1849. James Cooper was elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly.[8]

Incumbent Democrat Simon Cameron, who was elected in 1845, was not a candidate for re-election to another term. The Pennsylvania General Assembly, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate, convened on January 10, 1849, to elect a new Senator to fill the term beginning on March 4, 1849. Three ballots were recorded. The results of the third and final ballot of both houses combined are as follows:

State Legislature Results[8]
Party Candidate Votes %
Whig James Cooper 66 49.62
Democratic Richard Brodhead 62 46.62
Free Soil Thaddeus Stevens 3 2.26
N/A Not voting 2 1.50
Totals 133 100.00%

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Byrd, p. 129.
  2. ^ Byrd, p. 164.
  3. ^ a b Clark, pp. 17–46, 72–79.
  4. ^ Byrd, p. 112.
  5. ^ a b http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?search=1&entryID=1595
  6. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=p90RAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA427&dq=%22william+c.+dawson%22&lr=&as_brr=1&ei=CsTkR7TALI-kswO9g9ncBA#v=onepage&q=%22william%20c.%20dawson%22&f=false
  7. ^ Taylor, William Alexander; Taylor, Aubrey Clarence (1899). Ohio statesmen and annals of progress: from the year 1788 to the year 1900 ... State of Ohio. p. 232.
  8. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 10 January 1849" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved 22 December 2013.

References

  • "Party Division in the Senate, 1789-Present". via Senate.gov.
  • Clark, Dan Elbert (1913). History of Senatorial Elections in Iowa. Iowa City, Iowa.
  • Byrd, Robert C. (October 1, 1993). Wolff, Wendy, ed. The Senate, 1789-1989: Historical Statistics, 1789-1992. United States Senate Historical Office (volume 4 Bicentennial ed.). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
  • The New York Civil List compiled in 1858 (see: pg. 63 for U.S. Senators; pg. 136 for State Senators 1849; pg. 236ff for Members of Assembly 1849)
  • Members of the 31st United States Congress
  • Result State election, 1847: The Whig Almanac and United States Register for 1848
  • Result Whig caucus: The American Whig Review, Vol. 11 by George Hooker Colton & James Davenport Whelpley (page 638)
  • Result U.S. Senate election, State Senate: Journal of the Senate (72nd Session) (1849; pg. 167)
  • Result U.S. Senate election, State Assembly: Journal of the Assembly (72nd Session) (1849; pg. 355f)
  • Pennsylvania Election Statistics: 1682-2006 from the Wilkes University Election Statistics Project
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