1820 and 1821 United States Senate elections

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1820 and 1821 U.S. Senate elections

← 1818/19 Dates vary by state 1822/23 →

15 of the 46 seats in the U.S. Senate (plus special elections)
24 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Last election 30 seats 9 seats
Seats before 37 9
Seats won 11 1
Seats after 38 5
Seat change Increase 1 Decrease 4
Seats up 10 5

Majority party before election

Democratic-Republican

Elected Majority party

Democratic-Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1820 and 1821 were elections for the United States Senate that, corresponding with James Monroe's landslide re-election, had the Democratic-Republican Party gain one-to-five seats (in the general and special elections), assuming almost complete control of the Senate.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, senators were chosen by state legislatures.

Results summary

Senate Party Division, 17th Congress (1821–1823)

  • Majority Party: Democratic-Republican (39–43)
  • Minority Party: Federalist (4)
  • Vacant: (3–1)
  • Total Seats: 46–48

Change in composition

Before the elections

Composition after the June 13 and 14, 1820 elections in Maine.

DR1
Maine
New seat
DR2 DR3
DR13 DR12 DR11 DR10 DR9 DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4
DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18 DR19 DR20 DR21 DR22 DR23
Majority → DR24
DR33
N.Y.
Ran
DR32
N.J.
Ran
DR31
Miss.
Ran
DR30
Md.
Ran
DR29
Maine
New seat
Ran
DR28
Ind.
Ran
DR27 DR26 DR25
DR34
Ohio
Ran
DR35
Va.
Ran
DR36
Pa.
Unknown
DR37
Tenn.
Unknown
F9
Vt.
Retired
F8
Del.
Retired
F7
R.I.
Unknown
F6
Mass.
Ran
F5
Conn.
Ran
F4
F1 F2 F3

Result of the general elections

DR1 DR2 DR3
DR13 DR12 DR11 DR10 DR9 DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4
DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18 DR19 DR20 DR21 DR22 DR23
Majority → DR24
DR33
Va.
Re-elected
DR32
Ohio
Re-elected
DR31
Miss.
Re-elected
DR30
Md.
Re-elected
DR29
Maine
Re-elected
DR28
Ind.
Re-elected
DR27 DR26 DR25
DR34
N.J.
Hold
DR35
N.Y.
Hold
DR36
Conn.
Gain
DR37
R.I.
Gain
DR38
Vt.
Gain
V1
Pa.
DR loss
V2
Tenn.
DR loss
V3
Del.
F loss
F5
Mass.
Re-elected
F4
F1 F2 F3

Result of the special elections in the next Congress

DR1
Mo.
New seat
DR2
Mo.
New seat
DR3 DR4
Ga.
Hold
DR14 DR13 DR12 DR11 DR10 DR9 DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5
DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18 DR19 DR20 DR21 DR22 DR23 DR24
Majority → DR25
DR34 DR33 DR32 DR31 DR30 DR29 DR28 DR27 DR26
DR35 DR36 DR37 DR38 DR39 DR40 DR41
Pa.
Gain
DR42
Tenn.
Gain
V1 F5
F1 F2 F3 F4
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Bold states link to specific election articles.

Special elections during the preceding Congress

In these special elections, the winner was elected during 1820 or before March 4, 1821; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
New York
(Class 3)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect in 1818/1819.
Previous incumbent was elected January 8, 1820.
Federalist gain.
Massachusetts
(Class 1)
Prentiss Mellen Federalist 1820 (Special) Incumbent resigned to become Chief Justice of Maine.
New senator elected June 12, 1820.
Winner was also elected to the next term.
Federalist hold.
Maine
(Class 1)
New state New senator elected June 13, 1820 on the second ballot.
Winner was also elected to the next term.
Democratic-Republican gain.
First ballot:

Second ballot:
Maine
(Class 2)
New state New senator elected June 14, 1820.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY John Chandler (Democratic-Republican)
  • [Data unknown/missing.]
Mississippi
(Class 1)
Walter Leake Democratic-
Republican
1817 Incumbent resigned May 15, 1820.
New senator elected August 30, 1820.
Winner was also elected to the next term.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY David Holmes (Democratic-Republican)
  • [Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky
(Class 3)
William Logan Democratic-
Republican
1818 Incumbent resigned May 28, 1820 to run for Governor of Kentucky.
New senator elected October 19, 1820.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY Isham Talbot (Democratic-Republican)
  • [Data unknown/missing.]
Rhode Island
(Class 2)
James Burrill Jr. Federalist 1816 Incumbent died December 25, 1820.
New senator elected January 9, 1821.
Democratic-Republican gain.

Races leading to the next Congress

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1821; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Connecticut Samuel Dana Federalist 1810 (Special)
1814
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected March 4, 1821.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Delaware Outerbridge Horsey Federalist 1810 (Special)
1815
Incumbent retired.
Legislature failed to elect.
Federalist loss.
A Democratic-Republican was later elected in 1822.
  • [Data unknown/missing.]
Indiana James Noble Democratic-
Republican
1816 Incumbent re-elected in 1821.
  • Green tickY James Noble (Democratic-Republican)
  • [Data unknown/missing.]
Maine John Holmes Democratic-
Republican
1820 Incumbent re-elected January 31, 1821.
  • Green tickY John Holmes (Democratic-Republican)
  • [Data unknown/missing.]
Maryland William Pinkney Democratic-
Republican
1819 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1820 or 1821.
Massachusetts Elijah H. Mills Federalist 1820 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1820.[1]
Mississippi David Holmes Democratic-
Republican
1820 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1820 or 1821.
New Jersey James J. Wilson Democratic-
Republican
1815 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected November 11, 1820.[2]
Democratic-Republican hold.
Incumbent then resigned January 8, 1821 and winner was appointed to finish the term.
New York Nathan Sanford Democratic-
Republican
1809 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected February 6, 1821.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Ohio Benjamin Ruggles Democratic-
Republican
1815 Incumbent re-elected in 1820 or 1821.
Pennsylvania Jonathan Roberts Democratic-
Republican
1814 (Special)
1814
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic-Republican loss.
New senator would later be elected in 1821.
[Data unknown/missing.]
Rhode Island William Hunter Federalist 1811 (Special)
1814
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1820 or 1821.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Tennessee John H. Eaton Democratic-
Republican
1818 (Appointed)
1819 (Special)
Legislature failed to elect
Democratic-Republican loss.
New senator would later be elected September 27, 1821, see below.[3]
[Data unknown/missing.]
Vermont Isaac Tichenor Federalist 1796 (Special)
1796
1797 (Resigned)
1814
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1821.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Virginia James Barbour Democratic-
Republican
1814 (Special)
1814
Incumbent re-elected in 1821.
  • Green tickY James Barbour (Democratic-Republican)
  • [Data unknown/missing.]

Special elections during the next Congress

In this special election, the winner was elected in 1821 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Missouri
(Class 1)
New state New senator elected August 10, 1821.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Missouri
(Class 3)
New state New senator elected August 10, 1821.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY David Barton (Democratic-Republican)
  • [Data unknown/missing.]
Tennessee
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
New senator re-elected late September 27, 1821.[3]
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY John H. Eaton (Democratic-Republican)
  • [Data unknown/missing.]
Georgia
(Class 2)
Freeman Walker Democratic-
Republican
1819 (Special) Incumbent resigned August 6, 1821.
New senator elected November 10, 1821.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY Nicholas Ware (Democratic-Republican)
  • [Data unknown/missing.]
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
New senator elected December 10, 1821.
Democratic-Republican gain.

Connecticut

Delaware

Georgia (Special)

Indiana

Kentucky (Special)

Maine

John Holmes (Democratic-Republican) was elected as one of the new states first pair of senators whose terms began with June 13, 1820 statehood. He was elected to the class 1 seat's short term, which ended March 3, 1821, and was re-elected January 31, 1821 to the term starting March 4, 1821.

John Chandler (Democratic-Republican) as elected to the class 2 seat's long term, and his term would end March 3, 1823.

Maryland

Massachusetts

Massachusetts (Special)

Mississippi (Special)

Mississippi

Missouri

New Jersey

New York

New York (Special)

Ohio

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island (Special)

Rhode Island

Tennessee

Tennessee (Special)

Vermont

Virginia

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ a b "Massachusetts 1820 U.S. Senate". A New Nation Votes. Tufts University Digital Collections and Archives. November 11, 1820. Retrieved June 5, 2019.
  2. ^ a b c "New Jersey 1820 U.S. Senate". A New Nation Votes. Tufts University Digital Collections and Archives. November 11, 1820. Retrieved June 9, 2015.
  3. ^ a b "EATON, John Henry, (1790 - 1856)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved June 9, 2015.
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