United States Senate elections, 1990 and 1991

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United States Senate elections, 1990 and 1991
United States
← 1988 November 6, 1990[1] 1992 →

Class 2 (33 of the 100) seats in the United States Senate, along with three special elections.
51 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  GeorgeJMitchellPortrait.jpg Bob Dole, PCCWW photo portrait.JPG
Leader George Mitchell Bob Dole
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Maine Kansas
Seats before 55 45
Seats after 56 44
Seat change Increase 1 Decrease 1
Popular vote 17,907,544 16,494,624
Percentage 51.1% 47.1%
Swing Decrease 1.0% Increase 0.9%
Seats up 17 18
Races won 18 17

1990 Senate election map.svg
Results
     Democratic gain      Democratic hold
     Republican gain      Republican hold

Majority leader before election

George Mitchell
Democratic

Elected Majority leader

George Mitchell
Democratic

The United States Senate elections, 1990 were held on Tuesday, November 6, 1990. A special election was held November 5, 1991, and is included in this article as part of this cycle. The Democratic Party increased its majority with a net gain of one seat from the Republican Party. The election took place in the middle of President George H. W. Bush's term, and, as with most other midterm elections, the party not holding the presidency gained seats in Congress.

Only one seat changed parties in this election, as Democrat Paul Wellstone defeated incumbent Republican Rudy Boschwitz in Minnesota. Democrats would later gain a 57th seat after Democrat Harris Wofford was appointed to replace Pennsylvania Republican H. John Heinz III, who had died in a plane crash.

Results summary

56 44
Democratic Republican
Parties Total Seats Popular Vote
1988 1990 +/- Vote %
Democratic 55 56 Increase 1 17,907,544 51.12%
Republican 45 44 Decrease 1 16,494,624 47.09%
Independent - - - 222,534 0.64%
Libertarian - - - 142,003 0.41%
Others - - - 260,665 0.74%
Total 100 100 - 35,027,370 100.0%

Source: Clerk of the House of Representatives (1991). "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 6, 1990" (PDF). U.S. Government Printing Office. 

Gains, losses, and holds

Democratic gains

  1. Minnesota: Sen. Rudy Boschwitz (R-MN) lost to his Democratic opponent, college professor Paul Wellstone. Wellstone ran a campaign highlighted by a unique series of political advertisements that helped him pull from behind to defeat two-term incumbent Boschwitz.

Democratic re-elected

  1. New Jersey: The usually safe Sen. Bill Bradley (D-NJ) suddenly became very vulnerable in the face of an unpopular income tax hike. Bradley refused to take a stand on the tax hike, initiated by Democratic Governor James Florio, which helped his Republican opponent Christine Todd Whitman. Bradley narrowly held his seat, but Whitman used this momentum to defeat Governor Florio in the 1993 gubernatorial election.

Republican holds

  1. North Carolina: Conservative Sen. Jesse Helms (R-NC) narrowly won re-election over former Charlotte Mayor Harvey Gantt (D). The race featured a late-running ad attacking Gantt's support for affirmative action.

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40
Ran
D39 D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31
D41
Ran
D42
Ran
D43
Ran
D44
Ran
D45
Ran
D46
Ran
D47
Ran
D48
Ran
D49
Ran
D50
Ran
Majority → D51
Ran
R41
Ran
R42
Ran
R43
Retired
R44
Retired
R45
Retired
D55
Ran
D54
Ran
D53
Ran
D52
Ran
R40
Ran
R39
Ran
R38
Ran
R37
Ran
R36
Ran
R35
Ran
R34
Ran
R33
Ran
R32
Ran
R31
Ran
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29
Ran
R30
Ran
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10

After the general elections

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40
Re-elected
D39 D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31
D41
Re-elected
D42
Re-elected
D43
Re-elected
D44
Re-elected
D45
Re-elected
D46
Re-elected
D47
Re-elected
D48
Re-elected
D49
Re-elected
D50
Re-elected
Majority → D51
Re-elected
R41
Re-elected
R42
Hold
R43
Hold
R44
Hold
D56
Gain
D55
Re-elected
D54
Re-elected
D53
Re-elected
D52
Re-elected
R40
Re-elected
R39
Re-elected
R38
Re-elected
R37
Re-elected
R36
Re-elected
R35
Re-elected
R34
Re-elected
R33
Re-elected
R32
Re-elected
R31
Re-elected
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29
Re-elected
R30
Re-elected
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10

After the 1990 special elections

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40 D39 D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31
D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 D47 D48 D49 D50
Majority → D51
R41 R42 R43 R44
Appointee elected
D56
Appointee elected
D55 D54 D53 D52
R40 R39 R38 R37 R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10

After the 1991 special election

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40 D39 D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31
D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 D47 D48 D49 D50
Majority → D51
R41 R42 R43 D57
Appointee elected
D56 D55 D54 D53 D52
R40 R39 R38 R37 R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10
Key:
D# Democratic
R# Republican

Complete list of races

Special election during the 101st Congress

In these special elections, the winner was seated during 1990 or before January 3, 1991, sorted by election date, then state, then class.

State
(linked to
summaries below)
Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Hawaii
(Class 1)
Akaka, DanielDaniel Akaka Democratic [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Interim appointee elected November 6, 1990. Daniel Akaka (Democratic) 54.0%
Pat Saiki (Republican) 44.6%
Ken Schoolland (Libertarian) 1.4%
Indiana
(Class 3)
Coats, DanDan Coats Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Interim appointee elected November 6, 1990. Dan Coats (Republican) 53.7%
Baron Hill (Democratic) 46.3%

Elections leading to the next Congress

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning January 3, 1991; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State
(linked to
summaries below)
Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama Heflin, HowellHowell Heflin Democratic 1978
1984
Incumbent re-elected. Howell Heflin (Democratic) 60.7%
William J. Cabaniss (Republican) 39.3%
Alaska Stevens, TedTed Stevens Republican 1968 (Appointed)
1970
1972
1978
1984
Incumbent re-elected. Ted Stevens (Republican) 67.2%
Michael Beasley (Democratic) 32.8%
Arkansas Pryor, DavidDavid Pryor Democratic 1978
1984
Incumbent re-elected. David Pryor (Democratic)
Unopposed
Colorado Armstrong, William L.William L. Armstrong Republican 1978
1984
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Hank Brown (Republican) 55.7%
Josie Heath (Democratic) 41.6%
John Heckman (Concerns of People) 1.5%
Earl Dodge (Prohibition) 1.2%
Delaware Biden, JoeJoe Biden Democratic 1972
1978
1984
Incumbent re-elected. Joe Biden (Democratic) 62.7%
M. Jane Brady (Republican) 35.8%
Lee Rosenbaum (Libertarian) 1.5%
Georgia Nunn, SamSam Nunn Democratic 1972 (Special)
1972
1978
1984
Incumbent re-elected. Sam Nunn (Democratic)
Unopposed
Idaho McClure, James A.James A. McClure Republican 1972
1978
1984
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Larry Craig (Republican) 61.3%
Ron J. Twilegar (Democratic) 38.7%
Illinois Simon, PaulPaul Simon Democratic 1984 Incumbent re-elected. Paul Simon (Democratic) 64.9%
Lynn Morley Martin (Republican) 35.1%
Iowa Harkin, TomTom Harkin Democratic 1984 Incumbent re-elected. Tom Harkin (Democratic) 54.0%
Tom Tauke (Republican) 46.0%
Kansas Kassebaum, Nancy L.Nancy L. Kassebaum Republican 1978
1978 (Appointed)
1984
Incumbent re-elected. Nancy L. Kassebaum (Republican) 73.6%
Dick Williams (Democratic) 26.4%
Kentucky McConnell, MitchMitch McConnell Republican 1984 Incumbent re-elected. Mitch McConnell (Republican) 52.2%
Harvey I. Sloane (Democratic) 47.8%
Louisiana Johnston, J. BennettJ. Bennett Johnston Democratic 1972 (Appointed)
1972
1978
1984
Incumbent re-elected. Bennett Johnston Jr. (Democratic) 53%
David Duke (Republican) 44%
Maine Cohen, WilliamWilliam Cohen Republican 1972
1978
1984
Incumbent re-elected. William Cohen (Republican) 61.4%
Neil Rolde (Democratic) 38.6%
Massachusetts Kerry, JohnJohn Kerry Democratic 1984 Incumbent re-elected. John Kerry (Democratic) 56.9%
Jim Rappaport (Republican) 43.1%
Michigan Levin, CarlCarl Levin Democratic 1978
1984
Incumbent re-elected. Carl Levin (Democratic) 57.5%
Bill Schuette (Republican) 41.2%
Susan Farquhar (Workers World) 1.3%
Minnesota Boschwitz, RudyRudy Boschwitz Republican 1978
1978 (Appointed)
1984
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Paul Wellstone (Democratic) 50.4%
Rudy Boschwitz (Republican) 47.8%
Russell Bentley (Grassroots) 1.6%
Mississippi Cochran, ThadThad Cochran Republican 1978
1978 (Appointed)
1984
Incumbent re-elected. Thad Cochran (Republican)
Unopposed
Montana Baucus, MaxMax Baucus Democratic 1978
1978 (Appointed)
1984
Incumbent re-elected. Max Baucus (Democratic) 68.1%
Allen C. Kolstad (Republican) 29.4%
Westley Deitchler (Libertarian) 2.5%
Nebraska Exon, J. JamesJ. James Exon Democratic 1978
1984
Incumbent re-elected. J. James Exon (Democratic) 59.1%
Hal Daub (Republican) 40.9%
New Hampshire Humphrey, Gordon J.Gordon J. Humphrey Republican 1978
1984
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Bob Smith (Republican) 65.1%
John A. Durkin (Democratic) 31.3%
John Elsnau (Libertarian) 3.3%
New Jersey Bradley, BillBill Bradley Democratic 1978
1984
Incumbent re-elected. Bill Bradley (Democratic) 50.4%
Christine Todd Whitman (Republican) 47.4%
John L. Kucek (Populist) 1.0%
Louis M. Stefanelli (Libertarian) 0.7%
Don Mackle (Socialist Workers) 0.4%
New Mexico Domenici, PetePete Domenici Republican 1972
1978
1984
Incumbent re-elected. Pete Domenici (Republican) 72.9%
Tom R. Benavides (Democratic) 27.1%
North Carolina Helms, JesseJesse Helms Republican 1972
1978
1984
Incumbent re-elected. Jesse Helms (Republican) 52.6%
Harvey Gantt (Democratic) 47.4%
Oklahoma Boren, David L.David L. Boren Democratic 1978
1984
Incumbent re-elected. David L. Boren (Democratic) 83.2%
Stephen Jones (Republican) 17.8%
Oregon Hatfield, MarkMark Hatfield Republican 1966
1972
1978
1984
Incumbent re-elected. Mark Hatfield (Republican) 53.9%
Harry Lonsdale (Democratic) 46.1%
Rhode Island Pell, ClaiborneClaiborne Pell Democratic 1960
1966
1972
1978
1984
Incumbent re-elected. Claiborne Pell (Democratic) 61.8%
Claudine Schneider (Republican) 38.2%
South Carolina Thurmond, StromStrom Thurmond Republican 1954
1954 (Appointed)
1956 (Resigned)
1956 (Special)
1960
1966
1972
1978
1984
Incumbent re-elected. Strom Thurmond (Republican) 64.2%
Bob Cunningham (Democratic) 32.5%
William H. Griffin (Libertarian) 1.8%
Marion C. Metts (American) 1.4%
South Dakota Pressler, LarryLarry Pressler Republican 1978
1984
Incumbent re-elected. Larry Pressler (Republican) 52.4%
Ted Muenster (Democratic) 45.1%
Dean L. Sinclair (Independent) 2.5%
Tennessee Gore, AlAl Gore Democratic 1984 Incumbent re-elected. Al Gore (Democratic) 67.7%
William R. Hawkins (Republican) 29.8%
Bill Jacox (Independent) 1.4%
Charles Gordon Vick (Independent) 1.0%
Texas Gramm, PhilPhil Gramm Republican 1984 Incumbent re-elected. Phil Gramm (Republican) 60.2%
Hugh Parmer (Democratic) 37.4%
Gary Johnson (Libertarian) 2.3%
Virginia Warner, JohnJohn Warner Republican 1978
1979 (Appointed)
1984
Incumbent re-elected. John Warner (Republican) 80.9%
Nancy B. Spannaus (Independent) 18.2%
West Virginia Rockefeller, JayJay Rockefeller Democratic 1978
1984
Incumbent re-elected. Jay Rockefeller (Democratic) 68.5%
John Yoder (Republican) 31.5%
Wyoming Simpson, Alan K.Alan K. Simpson Republican 1978
1979 (Appointed)
1984
Incumbent re-elected. Alan K. Simpson (Republican) 66.4%
Kathy Helling (Democratic) 33.6%

Special elections during the 102nd Congress

In this special election, the winner was elected during this Congress after January 1991, sorted by election date, then state, then class.

State
(linked to
summaries below)
Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
Wofford, HarrisHarris Wofford Democratic 1991 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected November 5, 1991. Harris Wofford (Democratic) 55.0%
Dick Thornburgh (Republican) 45.0%

Alabama

Alabama election
Alabama
← 1984
1996 →
  Heflin.jpg William J Cabaniss Jr.jpg
Nominee Howell Heflin Bill Cabaniss
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 717,814 467,190
Percentage 60.6% 39.4%

U.S. Senator before election

Howell Heflin
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Howell Heflin
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Howell Heflin won re-election to a third term over Republican Bill Cabaniss, State Senator and former State Representative. As of 2016, this is the last time the Democrats have won the Class 2 Senate Seat from Alabama.

General election results[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Howell Heflin 717,814 60.67% -2.00%
Republican William J. Cabaniss 467,190 39.43% +3.00%

Alaska

Alaska election
Alaska
← 1984
1996 →
  Ted Stevens.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Ted Stevens Michael Beasley
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 125,806 61,152
Percentage 66.23% 32.19%

U.S. Senator before election

Ted Stevens
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Ted Stevens
Republican

Incumbent Republican United States Senator Ted Stevens sought re-election to a fourth term in the United States Senate, which he won easily, besting his opponents in a landslide.

Open primary results[3]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Ted Stevens (Incumbent) 81,968 59.19%
Republican John Havelock 34,824 25.15%
Democratic Michael Beasley 12,371 8.93%
Democratic Tom Taggart 9,329 6.74%
Total votes 138,492 100.00%
United States Senate election in Alaska, 1990[4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Ted Stevens (Incumbent) 125,806 66.23% -4.94%
Democratic Michael Beasley 61,152 32.19% +3.71%
Write-ins 2,999 1.58%
Majority 64,654 34.04% -8.65%
Turnout 189,957
Republican hold Swing

Arkansas

Arkansas election
Arkansas
← 1984
1996 →
  AR Pryor David.jpg
Nominee David Pryor
Party Democratic
Popular vote 493,910
Percentage 99.83%

Arkansas D Sweep.svg
County Results

re-election before election

David Pryor
Democratic

Elected re-election

David Pryor
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat David Pryor won re-election uncontested.[4]

Arkansas United States Senate election, 1990
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic David Pryor 493,910 99.83%
Independent Betty White (write-in) 825 0.17%
Majority 493,085 99.67%
Voter turnout  %

Colorado

Colorado election
Colorado
← 1984
1996 →
  HankBrown.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Hank Brown Josie Heath
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 569,048 425,746
Percentage 55.68% 41.66%

U.S. Senator before election

William L. Armstrong
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Hank Brown
Republican

Incumbent Republican senator William L. Armstrong did not seek re-election to another term. Republican congressman Hank Brown won the open seat, defeating Democratic nominee Josie Heath, former Boulder County Commissioner[5]

General election results[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Hank Brown 569,048 55.68%
Democratic Josie Heath 425,746 41.66%
Concerns of People John Heckman 15,432 1.51%
Colorado Prohibition Earl F. Dodge 11,801 1.15%
Write-in Others 32 0.00%
Majority 143,302 14.02%
Voter turnout  %
Republican hold Swing

Delaware

Delaware election
Delaware
← 1984
1996 →
  Joebiden2.png No image.svg
Nominee Joe Biden M. Jane Brady
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 112,918 64,554
Percentage 62.68% 35.83%

Delaware Election Results by county, all Democrat.png
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Joe Biden
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Joe Biden
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Joe Biden won re-election to a fourth term, defeating Republican challenger M. Jane Brady, Deputy Attorney General of Delaware.

General election results[4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Joe Biden (Incumbent) 112,918 62.68% +2.57%
Republican M. Jane Brady 64,554 35.83% -4.06%
Libertarian Lee Rosenbaum 2,680 1.49%
Write-ins 5 0.00%
Majority 48,364 26.85% +6.62%
Turnout 180,157
Democratic hold Swing

Georgia

Georgia election
Georgia (U.S. state)
← 1984
1996 →
  Sam Nunn.jpg
Nominee Sam Nunn
Party Democratic
Popular vote 1,033,439
Percentage 100.0%

Georgia D Sweep.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Sam Nunn
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Sam Nunn
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Sam Nunn won re-election to a fourth term uncontested.[4]

General election results, 1990
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Sam Nunn 1,033,439 100.00% +20.06%
Majority 1,033,439 100.00% +40.12%
Turnout 1,033,439

Hawaii (Special)

Hawaii special election
Hawaii
← 1988
1994 →
  Daniel Akaka official photo.jpg Pat Saiki.jpg
Nominee Daniel Akaka Pat Saiki
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 188,901 155,978
Percentage 53.7% 44.3%

Hawaii Election Results by County, all Democratic.svg
County Results

U.S. Senator before election

Daniel Akaka
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Daniel Akaka
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Daniel Akaka was elected to finish the term ending in 1995 over Republican U.S. Representative Pat Saiki. Akaka had been appointed by Governor John Waihee in April 1990 to serve temporarily after the death of Spark Matsunaga.[7]

General election results
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Daniel Akaka 188,901 53.72
Republican Pat Saiki 155,978 44.35
Libertarian Ken Schoolland 6,788 1.93
Majority 32,923 9.36
Voter turnout  %

Idaho

Idaho election
Idaho
← 1984
1996 →
  Larry Craig official portrait - cropped.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Larry Craig Ron Twilegar
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 193,641 122,295
Percentage 61.29% 38.71%

U.S. Senator before election

Jim McClure
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Larry Craig
Republican

Republican Rep. Larry Craig defeated Democratic former state legislator Ron Twilegar for the seat of U.S. Senator Jim McClure, who did not seek re-election.

General election results[8]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Larry Craig 65,830 59.01%
Republican Jim Jones 45,733 40.99%
General election results[9]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Ron Twilegar 30,154 64.51%
Democratic David C. Steed 16,587 35.49%
General election results[10]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Larry Craig 193,641 61.29%
Democratic Ron Twilegar 122,295 38.71%

Illinois

Illinois election
Illinois
← 1984
1996 →
  PaulMartinSimon.jpg Lynn Morley Martin.jpg
Nominee Paul Simon Lynn Morley Martin
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 2,115,377 1,135,628
Percentage 65.07% 34.93%

90ILSenateCounties.PNG
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Paul Simon
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Paul Simon
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Paul Simon sought re-election to the United States Senate. Simon was opposed by Republican nominee Lynn Morley Martin, a United States Congresswoman from Illinois's 16th congressional district, whom he easily defeated to win a second and final term in the Senate.

United States Senate election in Illinois, 1990[4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Paul Simon (Incumbent) 2,115,377 65.07% +15.00%
Republican Lynn Morley Martin 1,135,628 34.93% -13.28%
Majority 979,749 30.14% +28.28%
Turnout 3,251,005
Democratic hold Swing

Indiana (Special)

Indiana special election
Indiana
← 1986
1992 →
  Dan Coats (R-IN).jpg Baron Hill, official 110th Congress photo.jpg
Nominee Dan Coats Baron Hill
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 806,048 696,639
Percentage 53.6% 46.4%

U.S. Senator before election

Dan Coats
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Dan Coats
Republican

Incumbent Republican Dan Coats, who was recently appointed to this seat two years prior, won election to serve out the remainder of the term, beating Democratic State RepresentativeBaron Hill.

During the 1988 presidential election, Republican nominee Vice President George H. W. Bush selected U.S. Senator Dan Quayle of Indiana as his vice presidential nominee. The Bush-Quayle ticket defeated the Dukakis-Bentsen ticket in the general election by a 53%-46% margin, capturing 40 states and 426 electoral votes.

In preparation for the pending vacancy, Governor Robert D. Orr appointed four-term U.S. Representative Dan Coats to fill Quayle's seat on December 12, 1988. Coats was a former aide to Quayle, whom he had succeeded as U.S. Representative for Indiana's 4th congressional district in 1981. Quayle eventually resigned his Senate seat on January 3, 1989, and Coats was immediately sworn into office.

Coats used television commercials that raised questions about Hill's consistency in opposing new taxes, and Hill gained notoriety for walking the length of the state to meet voters.

General election results[4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican 'Dan Coats (Incumbent)' 806,048 53.6% -6.93%
Democratic Baron Hill 696,639 46.4% +7.85%
Majority 109,409 7.28%
Turnout 1,502,687
Republican hold Swing

Iowa

Iowa election
Iowa
← 1984
1996 →
  Tom Harkin 1979 congressional photo.jpg Tom Tauke congressional portrait.jpg
Nominee Tom Harkin Tom Tauke
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 535,975 446,869
Percentage 54.47% 45.42%

U.S. Senator before election

Tom Harkin
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Tom Harkin
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Tom Harkin sought re-election to a second term in the United States Senate. Harkin was opposed by Republican United States Congressman Tom Tauke, from Iowa's 2nd congressional district, and both Harkin and Tauke won their primaries uncontested. Though Harkin performed slightly worse than he had six years earlier, he was successful in his re-election bid and defeated Tauke.

Democratic primary results[11]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Tom Harkin (Incumbent) 162,661 99.47
Democratic Write-ins 867 0.53
Total votes 163,528 100.00
Republican primary results[11]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Tom Tauke 91,798 99.81%
Republican Write-ins 172 0.19%
Total votes 91,970 100.00%
United States Senate election in Iowa, 1990[4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Tom Harkin (Incumbent) 535,975 54.47% -0.98%
Republican Tom Tauke 446,869 45.42% +1.76%
Write-ins 1,089 0.11%
Majority 89,106 9.06% -2.74%
Turnout 983,933
Democratic hold Swing

Kansas

Kansas election
Kansas
← 1984
1996 →
  LandonNancy.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Nancy Kassebaum Dick Williams
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 578,605 207,491
Percentage 73.6% 26.4%

U.S. Senator before election

Nancy Kassebaum
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Nancy Kassebaum
Republican

Incumbent Republican Nancy Kassebaum won re-election her third full term, over Democrat Dick Williams, an educator at Wichita State University[12]

General election results[13]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Nancy Kassebaum (Incumbent) 578,605 73.6%
Democratic Dick Williams 207,491 26.4%

Kentucky

Kentucky election
Kentucky
← 1984
1996 →
  Mitch McConnell official photo.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Mitch McConnell Harvey Sloane
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 478,034 437,976
Percentage 52.2% 47.8%

KY-USA 1990 Senate Results by County 2-color.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Mitch McConnell
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Mitch McConnell
Republican

Incumbent Republican Mitch McConnell won re-election to a second term over Democrat Harvey Sloane, former Mayor of Louisville

Democratic primary results[14]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Harvey I. Sloane 183,789 59.27%
Democratic John Brock 126,318 40.73%
Total votes 310,107 100.00%
Republican primary results[15]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Mitch McConnell (Incumbent) 64,063 88.52%
Republican Tommy Klein 8,310 11.48%
Total votes 72,373 100.00%
General election results[4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Mitch McConnell (Incumbent) 478,034 52.19% +2.28%
Democratic Harvey I. Sloane 437,976 47.81% -1.68%
Majority 40,058 4.37% +3.97%
Turnout 916,010
Republican hold Swing

Louisiana

Louisiana election
Louisiana
← 1984
1996 →
  J000189.jpg Rsz davidduke.jpg
Nominee J. Bennett Johnston David Duke
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 753,198 607,091
Percentage 53.95% 43.48%

U.S. Senator before election

J. Bennett Johnston, Jr.
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

J. Bennett Johnston, Jr.
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat J. Bennett Johnston, Jr. won re-election to a fourth term and avoided a runoff, beating Republican David Duke, State Representative and former Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan.

This election was viewed at the onset as potentially competitive, as Senator Johnston was viewed as vulnerable in light of Louisiana's economic troubles at the time and Senator Johnston's voting record viewed by Republicans as too liberal. The Republican Party leadership endorsed the candidacy of State Senator Ben Bagert, who was picked over Secretary of State Fox McKeithen, State Representative Quentin Dastugue and State Representative David Duke.[16] David Duke, however, continued his candidacy and slowly overtook Bagert in attention and in the polls. Duke attracted national attention to the race with his involvement with white supremacist groups and his appeals to white resentment over affirmative-action programs. With Bagert failing to gain traction, the National Republican Senatorial Committee tried to recruit former Governor David Treen to jump into the race. When Treen passed, the effort turned from supporting Bagert to stopping Duke.[17]

As the election drew near, polls showed Johnston firmly in first place, with Duke in second place and Bagert trailing far behind at third. National Republicans grew fearful that Bagert's candidacy would only serve to force a runoff and that a potential runoff election with Duke being the de facto Republican nominee would hurt the national brand. On October 4, eight Republican Senators endorsed Johnston, with Senator John Danforth saying at the press conference that "all of us would be embarrassed and mortified to have to serve in the United States Senate with David Duke masquerading as a Republican." Bagert dropped out of the race the next day, announcing that "it became more and more apparent, that instead of forcing a runoff between myself and Bennett Johnston, I might very well be forcing a runoff between somebody else and Bennett Johnston." He announced he would "reluctantly" vote for Johnston.[18] Bagert's name remained on the ballot, but under state law his votes could not be counted as part of the official tally.[19] After Bagert dropped out, HUD Secretary Jack Kemp endorsed Johnston, saying "there's no place in the Republican Party for someone who has practiced and practices racism, bigotry and anti-Semitism."[20]

United States Senate Election, 1990[21]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic J. Bennett Johnston, Jr. (Incumbent) 753,198 53.95%
Republican David Duke 607,091 43.48%
Democratic Nick Joseph Accardo 21,578 1.55%
Democratic Larry Crowe 14,345 1.03%
Majority 146,107 10.47%
Voter turnout  %
Total votes 1,396,212 100.00%
Democratic hold Swing

Maine

Maine election
Maine
← 1984
1996 →
  William Cohen, official portrait.jpg Neil for book.jpg
Nominee William Cohen Neil Rolde
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 319,167 201,053
Percentage 61.3% 38.6%

U.S. Senator before election

William Cohen
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

William Cohen
Republican

Incumbent Republican William Cohen won re-election to a third term over Democratic State Representative Neil Rolde.

General election results[22]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican William Cohen (Incumbent) 319,167 61.3%
Democratic Neil Rolde 201,053 38.6%

Massachusetts

Massachusetts election
Massachusetts
← 1984
1996 →
  JohnKerry.jpg No image.svg
Nominee John Kerry Jim Rappaport
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,321,712 992,917
Percentage 54.5% 41.0%

1990 MA Senate.png
Results by town. Red indicates towns carried by Jim Rappaport, blue indicates towns carried by John Kerry.

U.S. Senator before election

John Kerry
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

John Kerry
Democratic

Incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator John Kerry was re-elected to his second term over Republican real estate developer Jim Rappaport.

Massachusetts United States Senate Republican primary, 1990[23]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Jim Rappaport 265,093 66.12%
Republican Daniel W. Daly 135,647 33.38%
All others 202 0.05%
General election results[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John Kerry 1,321,712 54.51%
Republican Jim Rappaport 992,917 40.95%
Independent David Pover 109,950 4.54%
Voter turnout 100.00%%

Michigan

Michigan election
Michigan
← 1984
1996 →
  CarlLevin--100thCongress--.png Congressman Bill Schuette.png
Nominee Carl Levin Bill Schuette
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,471,753 1,055,695
Percentage 57.5% 41.2%

U.S. Senator before election

Carl Levin
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Carl Levin
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Carl Levin won re-election to a third term, beating Republican U.S. Representative Bill Schuette.

General election results[24]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Carl Levin (Incumbent) 1,471,753 57.4%
Republican Bill Schuette 1,055,695 41.2%
Workers World Susan Farquhar 32,796 1.3%

Minnesota

Minnesota election
Minnesota
← 1984
1996 →
  Paul Wellstone.jpg RudyBoschwitz.jpg
Nominee Paul Wellstone Rudy Boschwitz
Party DFL Independent-Republican (Minn.)
Popular vote 911,999 864,375
Percentage 50.49% 47.86%

U.S. Senator before election

Rudy Boschwitz
Independent-Republican (Minn.)

Elected U.S. Senator

Paul Wellstone
DFL

Incumbent Republican Rudy Boschwitz was defeated by Democratic challenger Paul Wellstone in a tight race. Widely considered an underdog and outspent by a 7-to-1 margin, Wellstone, a professor at Carleton College and nominee for Minnesota State Auditor in 1982 was the only candidate to defeat an incumbent senator in the 1990 election cycle and gained national attention after his upset victory.

General election results[25]
Party Candidate Votes %
DFL Paul Wellstone 911,999 50.49%
Independent-Republican (Minn.) Rudy Boschwitz 864,375 47.86%
Grassroots Russell B. Bentley 29,820 1.65%

Mississippi

Mississippi election
Mississippi
← 1984
1996 →
  Thad Cochran official photo.jpg
Nominee Thad Cochran
Party Republican
Popular vote 274,244
Percentage 100.0%

U.S. Senator before election

Thad Cochran
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Thad Cochran
Republican

Incumbent Republican Thad Cochran won re-election to a third term.[4]

Mississippi United States Senate election, 1990
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Thad Cochran 274,244 100.00%
Majority 274,244 100.00%
Voter turnout  %

Montana

Montana election
Montana
← 1984
1996 →
  Max Baucus 2004.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Max Baucus Allen Kolstad
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 217,563 93,836
Percentage 68.13% 29.38%

U.S. Senator before election

Max Baucus
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Max Baucus
Democratic

Incumbent United States Senator Max Baucus, who was first elected in 1978 and was re-elected in 1984, ran for re-election. After winning the Democratic primary, he moved on to the general election, where he was opposed by Allen Kolstad, the Lieutenant Governor of Montana and the Republican nominee. Baucus ultimately ended up defeating Kolstad in a landslide, winning his third term with ease.

Democratic Party primary results[26]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Max Baucus (Incumbent) 80,622 82.60%
Democratic John Driscoll 12,616 12.93%
Democratic "Curly" Thornton 4,367 4.47%
Total votes 97,605 100.00%
Republican Primary results[26]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Allen Kolstad 38,097 43.59%
Republican Bruce Vorhauer 30,837 35.28%
Republican Bill Farrell 11,820 13.52%
Republican John Domenech 6,648 7.61%
Total votes 87,402 100.00%
United States Senate election in Montana, 1990[4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Max Baucus (Incumbent) 217,563 68.13% +11.24%
Republican Allen Kolstad 93,836 29.38% -11.31%
Libertarian Westley F. Deitchler 7,937 2.49% +0.07%
Majority 123,727 38.75% +22.55%
Turnout 319,336
Democratic hold Swing

Nebraska

Nebraska election
Nebraska
← 1984
1996 →
  Jim exon.jpg Hal Daub (2008).jpg
Nominee J. James Exon Hal Daub
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 349,779 243,013
Percentage 58.9% 40.9%

U.S. Senator before election

J. James Exon
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

J. James Exon
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat J. James Exon won re-election to a third term, beating Republican U.S. Representative Hal Daub.

General election results[4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic J. James Exon (Incumbent) 379,933 58.90% +6.97%
Republican Hal Daub 243,013 40.92% -7.09%
Write-ins 1,036 0.17%
Majority 106,766 17.98% +14.06%
Turnout 593,828
Democratic hold Swing

New Hampshire

New Hampshire election
New Hampshire
← 1984
1996 →
  Robert C Smith.jpg John A. Durkin.jpg
Nominee Bob Smith John A. Durkin
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 189,792 91,299
Percentage 65.1% 31.3%

New Hampshire R Sweep.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Gordon J. Humphrey
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Bob Smith
Republican

Incumbent Republican Gordon J. Humphrey decided to retire and not run for re-election to a third term. Republican Bob Smith won the open seat, beating Democratic former Senator John A. Durkin.

General election results[27]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Bob Smith 189,792 65.13%
Democratic John A. Durkin 91,299 31.33%
Libertarian John G. Elsnau 9,102 3.34%
Write-In Candidates 585 0.20%
Majority 98,493 33.80%
Voter turnout  %

New Jersey

New Jersey election
New Jersey
← 1984
1996 →
  Senator Bill Bradley (D-NJ).jpg WhitmanChristineTodd.jpg
Nominee Bill Bradley Christine Todd Whitman
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 977,810 918,874
Percentage 50.44% 47.40%

90NJSenateCounties.PNG
County Results

U.S. Senator before election

Bill Bradley
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Bill Bradley
Democratic

Democratic Senator Bill Bradley decided to seek re-election and narrowly edged out little-known Republican Christine Todd Whitman, President of the New Jersey Board of Public Utilities.[4]

Senator Bill Bradley didn't realize he was in trouble of winning re-election and the New Jersey voters' anger over taxes and economy until the week prior to the election.

The senator had a major image problem. In the early part of the campaign Bradley was winning easily in the polls, so his staffers told him to play it safe. He sent out television advertisements of himself walking on the beach, shooting a perfect shot on the court, and sitting back in his office with his basketball shoes onto his desk. The advertisements backfired as voters were turned off and thought that he hadn't taken his job as Senator seriously, at a time when New Jersey voters were suffering.

Another major problem with Bradley was how Democratic Governor Jim Florio implemented a $2.8 billion tax increase, hurting the state's economy. In addition, Bradley refused to answer questions pertaining to Florio's tax policies.

After Bradley realized he was in trouble he released negative advertisements. They attacked Whitman's own record on taxes, accusing her of favoring tax increases when she was a Somerset County Freeholder. Bradley's image may have been further damaged by his newer advertisements.[28]

New Jersey United States Senate election, 1990
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Bill Bradley (Incumbent) 977,810 50.4%
Republican Christine Todd Whitman 918,874 47.4%
Populist John Kucek 19,978 1.0%
Libertarian Louis Stefanelli 13,988 0.7%
Socialist Workers Don Mackle 7,804 0.4%
Total votes 1,938,454 100.0%
Democratic hold

New Mexico

New Mexico election
New Mexico
← 1984
1996 →
  Pete Domenici official portrait 2.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Pete Domenici Tom Benavidez
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 296,712 110,033
Percentage 72.9% 27.0%

U.S. Senator before election

Pete Domenici
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Pete Domenici
Republican

Incumbent Republican Pete Domenici won re-election to a fourth term over Democratic State Senator Tom Benavidez.[29]

General election results[30]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Pete Domenici 296,712 72.9%
Democratic Tom Benavidez 110,033 27.0%

North Carolina

North Carolina election
North Carolina
← 1984
1996 →
  JesseHelms.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Jesse Helms Harvey Gantt
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 1,089,012 981,573
Percentage 52.58% 47.4%

NC Senate Election County Results 1990.PNG
County Results

U.S. Senator before election

Jesse Helms
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Jesse Helms
Republican

The election was fought between the Republican incumbent Jesse Helms and the Democratic nominee Mayor of Charlotte Harvey Gantt. Helms won re-election to a fourth term by a slightly wider margin than the close election in 1984.

Helms drew controversy for airing what became known as the "Hands" ad produced by Alex Castellanos. It showed a pair of white hands with the voiceover saying You wanted this job, but because of a law they had to give it to a minority. The ad prompted allegations of racism.[31]

1990 North Carolina U.S. Senate Republican primary election[32]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Jesse Helms (Incumbent) 157,345 84.32% -6.33%
Republican L. C. Nixon 15,355 8.23% N/A
Republican George Wimbish 13,895 7.45% -1.90%
Turnout 186,595
1990 North Carolina U.S. Senate Democratic primary election – First round[32]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Harvey Gantt 260,179 37.52% N/A
Democratic Mike Easley 209,934 30.27% N/A
Democratic John Ingram 120,990 17.45% -8.78%
Democratic R. P. Thomas 82,883 11.95% N/A
Democratic Lloyd Gardner 11,528 1.66% N/A
Democratic Robert Hannan 7,982 1.15% N/A
Turnout 693,496
1990 North Carolina U.S. Senate Democratic primary election – Second round[32]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Harvey Gantt 273,567 56.89% +19.37%
Democratic Mike Easley 207,283 43.11% +12.84%
Turnout 480,850
1990 North Carolina U.S. Senate election[32]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Jesse Helms (Incumbent) 1,089,012 52.58% +0.92%
Democratic Harvey Gantt 981,573 47.39% -0.42%
Socialist Workers Rich Stuart 681 0.03% -0.08%
Turnout 2,071,266

Oklahoma

Oregon

Oregon election
Oregon
← 1984
1996 →
  Mark hatfield.jpg Harry Lonsdale.jpg
Nominee Mark Hatfield Harry Lonsdale
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 590,095 507,743
Percentage 53.7% 46.2%

Oregon Senate 1990.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Mark Hatfield
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Mark Hatfield
Republican

Republican Mark Hatfield was re-elected to a fifth term, defeating Democratic businessman Harry Lonsdale.

The front-runners emerged quickly: for the Republicans, Hatfield was in his fourth term and was the 8th most senior U.S. Senator, having previously served as Governor of Oregon for two terms and Oregon Secretary of State. For the Democrats, Harry Lonsdale, who had founded the biotechnology company Bend Research, announced in early 1990 that he intended to aggressively challenge Hatfield over the incumbent's ties to special interests, and his positions on abortion rights and timber management.[33]

In the Republican primary, Hatfield received a token challenge from Randy Prince, an environmentalist and former Eugene mayoral candidate who had once protested old-growth forest logging by tree sitting for 40 days.[34] Despite an early miscue by Hatfield in which he missed the deadline for submitting a photograph for the primary voter's guide,[34] Hatfield handily defeated Prince to move on to the general election.[35]

Republican primary for the United States Senate from Oregon, 1990[35]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Mark Hatfield 220,449 78.29%
Republican Randy Prince 59,970 21.30%
Republican miscellaneous 1,167 0.41%
Total votes 281,586 100.00%

U.S. Congressman Ron Wyden considered challenging Hatfield, but decided against it.[36] Lonsdale, who was unknown as a politician, announced his campaign in March, and came out swinging directly at Hatfield and mostly ignored his primary challengers. Lonsdale's main campaign themes were abortion rights, which Hatfield opposed; and timber management, in which Lonsdale opposed exporting timber from Oregon forests and wanted to restrict logging in old-growth forests.[33] Lonsdale also criticized Hatfield as being out-of-touch with Oregonians after so many years in the Senate. Lonsdale announced that he would refuse to take special-interest contributions in his campaign, and would finance the campaign himself with the millions he had made from Bend Research.[33] Lonsdale easily defeated his competition: Salem attorney Steve Anderson, Pleasant Hill computer programmer Neale S. Hyatt, Milwaukie retired truck driver Brooks Washburne, Eugene activist Bob Reuschlein, and Frank A. Clough, also of Eugene.[33][37][38]

Democratic primary for the United States Senate from Oregon, 1990[38]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Harry Lonsdale 162,529 64.13%
Democratic Steve Anderson 34,305 13.54%
Democratic Neale S. Hyatt 20,684 8.16%
Democratic Brooks Washburne 13,766 5.43%
Democratic Bob Reuschlein 12,383 4.89%
Democratic Frank Clough 8,235 3.25%
Democratic miscellaneous 1,535 0.61%
Total votes 253,437 100.00%

Once the primaries concluded, Hatfield, who had been first elected U.S. Senator in 1966, rolled out his usual campaign honed from his decades of experience: he refused debates, never engaged his opponent directly, and focused on small, friendly campaign appearances that stressed the influence he wielded as a U.S. Senator with seniority and influence.[36]

Lonsdale's self-financed campaign made heavy use of TV attack ads, criticizing Hatfield as being out of step with Oregonians on every issue, but primarily in terms of timber and abortion. He also made use of a nationwide anti-incumbency sentiment, and tore into Hatfield for being too closely tied to Washington special interests, and attempted to tie Hatfield to the Savings and loan crisis of the mid-1980s through his advisor Gerry Frank of the Meier & Frank chain of Oregon department stores, who had ties to a Salem savings and loan.[36] By early October, polls showed the gap closing from 25 down to about 4 points in an early October poll conducted by The Oregonian newspaper, and by the end of October, some polls showed Lonsdale in the lead.[39]

With the polls running against him and time running out, Hatfield, who had not been seriously challenged since first being elected in 1966 and had never lost an election,[40] abandoned his tactic of staying above the fray and not engaging Lonsdale directly. In the media and in television ads, he charged Lonsdale with hypocrisy in his environmental stand, alleging that Lonsdale had allowed his company to illegally dump toxic chemicals into the environment.[41] Lonsdale vigorously denied the charges, which were later shown to have violated no laws, but the tactic may have stalled Lonsdale's momentum.[42] Hatfield went on to win in all but Multnomah, Jackson, Baker, and Lincoln counties to win by more than 7 percentage points statewide.[40]

United States Senate election in Oregon, 1990[43]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Mark Hatfield 590,095 53.68%
Democratic Harry Lonsdale 507,743 46.19%
Write-In Misc. 1,417 0.13%
Total votes 1,099,255 100.00%
Republican hold

Pennsylvania (Special)

Pennsylvania special election
Pennsylvania
← 1988 November 5, 1991 1994 →
  Harriswofford.jpg Dick Thornburgh.jpg
Nominee Harris Wofford Dick Thornburgh
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,860,760 1,521,986
Percentage 55.0% 45.0%

Pennsylvania Senatorial Election Results by County, 1991.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Harris Wofford
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Harris Wofford
Democratic

The special election was held November 5, 1991. Incumbent Democratic appointee and former Pennsylvania Secretary of Labor Harris Wofford won the special election that was held because of the death of Republican Senator John Heinz on April 4 of that year. He beat Republican Dick Thornburgh, the former Governor and U.S. Attorney General. Wofford was appointed by Governor Robert P. Casey Sr. to serve until the special election which he subsequently won here. Major-party candidates for this election were chosen by party committees, as the vacancy had happened too late for a primary to be held.

House Majority Whip William H. Gray was a potential candidate for the Democrats, but he declined to run and surprisingly resigned from Congress in 1991 to serve as President of the United Negro College Fund from 1991 to 2004. The move was considered a complete surprise and prompted questions as to why he had done so. There was widespread speculation that he had been the subject of an investigation into alleged campaign finance irregularities and a grand jury investigation into his church's financial dealings. He was reported to have struck a deal with Republican Dick Thornburgh, the United States Attorney General and former Governor of Pennsylvania, that he would not run in the special election and in return Thornburgh would drop the investigation into him. Thornburgh went on to run but lost in an upset to Democrat Harris Wofford.[44][45][46][47][48]

Wofford's win was impressive because as little as 5 months before the election, polling showed him to be trailing Thornburgh by upwards of 40 points. Both the state and national Democratic establishment was tepid toward Wofford's campaign, feeling that Governor Casey had missed a prime opportunity to select a top tier candidate and had instead created a situation where Republicans would take back the seat just months after losing it. In conjunction with his fundraising issues, Wofford also had difficulty communicating his message to the voters; because he had a bureaucratic as opposed to a political background, he spoke in a somewhat long-winded manner that received criticism in the media. With his large lead in the polls, Thornburgh laid back to avoid mistakes, which allowed Wofford to gain traction. Despite his elite upbringing, Wofford connected well with working class voters as he made access to healthcare a huge plank of his campaign. He also successfully derided Thornburgh for his connections to the president, as Bush's popularity was steeply declining due to a recession.[49]

Thornburgh was unable to mount credible attacks against Wofford until after the Democrat had already established himself. As a result, Wofford was not only victorious in traditionally Democratic areas, such as Philadelphia city, Scranton, and metro Pittsburgh, but he also ran well in GOP strongholds. Wofford won three of the four suburban Philadelphia counties, which, although socially liberal, were strongly aligned with Republicans; the "roll-up-your-sleves" style campaign ran by Wofford also allowed him to perform stronger than most Democrats in rural regions and to even win several usually Republican counties with a strong labor base.[49]

Democrats did very well across the state including in Allegheny County (Pittsburgh) and Philadelphia County (Philadelphia).

Special general election results
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Harris Wofford (Incumbent) 1,860,760 55.01% +22.56%
Republican Dick Thornburgh 1,521,986 44.99% -21.46%
Majority 338,774 10.01% -23.99%
Totals 3,382,746 100.00%

Rhode Island

Rhode Island election
Rhode Island
← 1984
1996 →
  Claiborne Pell.jpg Schneiderclaudine.jpg
Nominee Claiborne Pell Claudine Schneider
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 225,105 138,947
Percentage 61.8% 38.2%

Rhode Island Election Results by County, all Democratic.svg
County Results

U.S. Senator before election

Claiborne Pell
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Claiborne Pell
Democratic

Democratic Incumbent Claiborne Pell defeated Republican Representative Claudine Schneider in a landslide.[50]

United States Senate election in Rhode Island, 1990[4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Claiborne Pell (Incumbent) 225,105 61.83% -10.83%
Republican Claudine Schneider 138,947 38.17% +10.83%
Majority 86,158 23.67% -21.65%
Turnout 364,062
Democratic hold Swing

South Carolina

South Carolina election
South Carolina
← 1984
1996 →
  Strom Thurmond.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Strom Thurmond Bob Cunningham
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 482,032 244,112
Percentage 64.2% 32.5%

U.S. Senator before election

Strom Thurmond
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Strom Thurmond
Republican

Popular incumbent Republican Strom Thurmond cruised to re-election against Democratic challenger Bob Cunningham.

Senator Strom Thurmond faced no opposition from South Carolina Republicans and avoided a primary election. The state Democrats saw this as an unwinnable race so when Bob Cunningham sought the Democratic nomination, he was unopposed in his bid.

Cunningham, a retired intelligence officer, had little chance of defeating Strom Thurmond and the election was never a serious contest. Thurmond overwhelmingly outspent Cunningham in his re-election campaign.

South Carolina U.S. Senate Election, 1990
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Strom Thurmond 482,032 64.2% -2.6%
Democratic Bob Cunningham 244,112 32.5% +0.7%
Libertarian William H. Griffin 13,804 1.8% +0.4%
American Marion C. Metts 10,317 1.4% +1.4%
No party Write-Ins 464 0.1% +0.1%
Majority 237,920 31.7% -3.3%
Turnout 750,729 55.2% -13.5%
Republican hold

South Dakota

Tennessee

Tennessee election
Tennessee
← 1984
1994 →
  Sengore.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Al Gore William R. Hawkins
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 529,914 233,324
Percentage 67.72% 29.82%

TNDemSweep.png
Results by county

U.S. Senator before election

Al Gore
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Al Gore
Democratic Pa rty (United States)

Democratic Senator Al Gore won re-election to a second term over Republican William R. Hawkins, a conservative author. As of 2016, this is the last Senate election in Tennessee that was won by a Democrat and the last time they won the state's Class 2 Senate Seat.

Democratic primary results
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Al Gore (Incumbent) 302,768 100.00%
Total votes 302,768 100.00%
United States Senate election in Tennessee, 1990[51]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Al Gore (Incumbent) 529,914 67.72%
Republican William R. Hawkins 233,324 29.92%
Independent Bill Jacox 11,172 1.43%
Independent Charles Gordon Vick 7,995 1.02%
Write-ins 109 0.01%
Democratic hold

Texas

Texas election
Texas
← 1984
1996 →
  PhilGramm.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Phil Gramm Hugh Parmer
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 2,302,357 1,429,986
Percentage 60.2% 37.4%

90TXSenateCounties.PNG
County Results

U.S. Senator before election

Phil Gramm
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Phil Gramm
Republican

Incumbent Republican Phil Gramm won re-election to a second term, beating Hugh Parmer, State U.S. Senator and former Mayor of Fort Worth[52]

Gramm, a popular incumbent who switched parties a few year prior, had over $5 million on hand.[53]

General election results[54]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Phil Gramm 2,302,357 60.2%
Democratic Hugh Parmer 1,429,986 37.4%
Libertarian Gary Johnson 89,089 2.4%
Write In Ira Calkins 725 0.0%

Virginia

Virginia election
Virginia
← 1984
1996 →
Turnout 25.5% (voting eligible)[55]
  Warner(R-VA).jpg No image.svg
Nominee John Warner Nancy Spannaus
Party Republican Independent
Popular vote 876,782 196,755
Percentage 80.9% 18.2%

2002 virginia senate election map.png
U.S. Senate election results map. Red denotes counties/districts won by Warner.

U.S. Senator before election

John Warner
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

John Warner
Republican

Incumbent Republican John W. Warner won re-election to a third term. No Democrat filed to run against him as he won every single county and city in the state with over 60% of the vote. Independent Nancy B. Spannaus (an affiliate of the controversial Lyndon LaRouche) got 18% of the vote, as she was the only other candidate on the ballot besides Warner.

United States Senate election in Virginia, 1990[4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican John Warner (Incumbent) 876,782 80.91% +10.86%
Independent Nancy Spannaus 196,755 18.16%
Write-ins 10,153 0.94% +0.93%
Majority 680,027 62.75% +22.65%
Turnout 1,083,690
Republican hold Swing

West Virginia

Wyoming

See also

Notes

  1. ^ There was also a special election in November 1991.
  2. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=3306
  3. ^ http://www.elections.alaska.gov/results/90PRIM/90prim.pdf
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Clerk of the House of Representatives (1991). "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 6, 1990" (PDF). U.S. Government Printing Office. 
  5. ^ Associated Press (August 16, 1990). "Colorado Voters Pick Candidates for Senate Race". New York Times. Retrieved January 22, 2014. 
  6. ^ Leip, David. "1992 U.S. Senatorial General Election Results - Colorado". U.S. Election Atlas. Retrieved February 27, 2013. 
  7. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=2520
  8. ^ "ID US Senate- R Primary Race - May 22, 1990". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 4, 2014. 
  9. ^ "ID US Senate- D Primary Race - May 22, 1990". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 4, 2014. 
  10. ^ "ID US Senate Race - Nov 06, 1990". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 4, 2014. 
  11. ^ a b http://sos.iowa.gov/elections/pdf/results/90s/1990primcanv.pdf
  12. ^ https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=zQIgAAAAIBAJ&sjid=cAEFAAAAIBAJ&pg=6223,374376&dq=nancy+kassebaum+dick+williams&hl=en
  13. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=167
  14. ^ http://www.elect.ky.gov/NR/rdonlyres/E334BE0F-44D1-46FE-9E1F-5C3421133F1A/6239/res_ussenate1.txt
  15. ^ http://www.elect.ky.gov/NR/rdonlyres/E334BE0F-44D1-46FE-9E1F-5C3421133F1A/6239/res_ussenate1.txt
  16. ^ http://articles.latimes.com/1990-01-14/news/mn-284_1_david-duke
  17. ^ http://articles.latimes.com/1990-10-07/news/mn-2993_1_david-duke
  18. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1990/10/05/us/republican-quits-louisiana-race-in-effort-to-defeat-ex-klansman.html
  19. ^ http://articles.latimes.com/1990-10-07/news/mn-2989_1_david-duke
  20. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1990/10/07/us/former-klan-figure-loses-to-incumbent-in-louisiana-voting.html
  21. ^ http://staticresults.sos.la.gov/10061990/10061990_Congressional.html Election Results
  22. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=3534
  23. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=251507
  24. ^ Parker, Randy; Reporting for Duty (April 9, 2005). "Our Campaigns: MI U.S. Senate". Our Campaigns. 
  25. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=3513
  26. ^ a b "Report of the Official Canvass of the Vote Cast at the Primary Election Held in the State of Montana, June 5, 1990" (PDF). Montana Secretary of State. Retrieved July 2, 2014. 
  27. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=3533
  28. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1990/11/08/nyregion/1990-elections-what-went-wrong-bradley-says-he-sensed-voter-fury-but-it-was-too.html?pagewanted=1
  29. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/CandidateDetail.html?CandidateID=3922
  30. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=179
  31. ^ http://www.thenation.com/blog/169138/apparently-real-racists-are%E2%80%A6-anti-racists#
  32. ^ a b c d "North Carolina DataNet #46" (PDF). University of North Carolina. April 2008. Retrieved June 12, 2009. 
  33. ^ a b c d Attle, Rick (March 5, 1990). "Lonsdale blast launches Senate campaign". The Bulletin. Retrieved March 31, 2011. 
  34. ^ a b "If you're looking for Hatfield...". The Register-Guard. March 16, 1990. Retrieved March 31, 2011. 
  35. ^ a b "Oregon US Senate Republican Primary Race, May 15, 1990". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved March 31, 2011. 
  36. ^ a b c Walth, Brent (October 21, 1990). "Hatfield shifts gears in race". The Register-Guard. Retrieved March 31, 2011. 
  37. ^ Boyd, Jim (March 9, 1990). "2nd Eugene man enters Senate race". The Register-Guard. Retrieved March 31, 2011. 
  38. ^ a b "Oregon US Senate Democratic Primary Race, May 15, 1990". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved March 31, 2011. 
  39. ^ Walth, Brent (October 23, 1990). "Lonsdale leads race, poll shows". The Register-Guard. Retrieved March 31, 2011. 
  40. ^ a b "Hatfield overcomes Lonsdale, anti-incumbent mood to win". The Bulletin. November 7, 1990. Retrieved March 31, 2011. 
  41. ^ "State will look at claims of Bend Research dumping". The Register-Guard. October 19, 1990. Retrieved March 31, 2011. 
  42. ^ Walth, Brent (March 21, 1992). "Lonsdale Firm's Hazardous Waste Violated No Rules". The Register-Guard. Retrieved March 31, 2011. 
  43. ^ "Oregon US Senate Race, Nov 6, 1990". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved March 31, 2011. 
  44. ^ "Did Dick Cut Bill A Deal? Book: Thornburgh Had Goods On Gray - Philly.com". Articles.philly.com. March 25, 2011. Retrieved July 26, 2013. 
  45. ^ Moore, Alexis (June 20, 1991). "Why Would Gray Resign? Several Ideas Are Floated - Philly.com". Articles.philly.com. Retrieved July 26, 2013. 
  46. ^ "Thornburgh Aide Linked to Gray Leak : Congress: A Justice Department probe says the chief spokesman and an ex-FBI official confirmed a damaging report on House Democratic leader. - Los Angeles Times". Articles.latimes.com. April 20, 1990. Retrieved July 26, 2013. 
  47. ^ Stone, Chuck (June 13, 1990). "Editorials & Opinion | The Conniving Ways Of Dick Thornburgh | Seattle Times Newspaper". Community.seattletimes.nwsource.com. Retrieved July 26, 2013. 
  48. ^ Black Americans in Congress, 1870-2007 - Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. August 27, 2012. Retrieved July 26, 2013. 
  49. ^ a b Kennedy, John J. (2006). Pennsylvania elections : statewide contests from 1950-2004. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America. pp. 68–70. ISBN 0761832793. 
  50. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=3531
  51. ^ http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/state.php?year=1990&fips=47&off=3&class=2&elect=0&f=1
  52. ^ "Archives | Austin American-Statesman | Statesman.com". Nl.newsbank.com. July 1, 1990. Retrieved January 9, 2011. 
  53. ^ "dallasnews.com | Archives". Nl.newsbank.com. October 17, 1990. Retrieved January 9, 2011. 
  54. ^ "TX US Senate Race - Nov 06, 1990". Our Campaigns. Retrieved January 9, 2011. 
  55. ^ Dr. Michael McDonald (March 25, 2013). "Turnout 1980-2012". George Mason University. Retrieved April 3, 2013. 

References

  • State Election Commission (1991). South Carolina Election Commission Annual Report 1990-1991. Columbia, SC: The Commission. p. 91. 
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