United States Senate elections, 1984

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United States Senate elections, 1984

← 1982 November 6, 1984 1986 →

Class 2 (33 of the 100) seats in the United States Senate
51 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Howard baker jr.jpg Robert C. Byrd – 1977.jpg
Leader Howard Baker
(retired)
Robert Byrd
Party Republican Democratic
Leader since March 5, 1980 January 3, 1977
Leader's seat Tennessee West Virginia
Seats before 55 45
Seats won 53 47
Seat change Decrease 2 Increase2
Popular vote 22,850,493 23,079,278
Percentage 49.3% 49.8%
Swing Increase5.9% Decrease 4.3%
Seats up 19 14
Races won 17 16

1984 Senate election map.svg
Results
     Democratic gain      Democratic hold
     Republican gain      Republican hold

Majority Leader before election

Howard Baker
Republican

Elected Majority Leader

Bob Dole
Republican

The United States Senate elections, 1984 coincided with the landslide re-election of President Ronald Reagan in the presidential election. In spite of the lopsided presidential race, Reagan's Republican Party suffered a net loss of two Senate seats to the Democrats, although it retained control of the Senate and gained seats in the House.

Results summary

Parties Incum
bents
This
election
Result +/- Popular Vote
Not up Won Vote %
Democratic 45 31 16 47 Increase 2 23,079,278 49.82%
Republican 55 36 17 53 Decrease 2 22,850,493 49.33%
Libertarian 0 0 0 0 Steady 160,798 0.35%
Others 0 0 0 0 Steady 232,231 0.50%
Total 100 67 33 100 Steady 46,322,800 100.0%

Source: Election Statistics - Office of the Clerk

53 47
Republican Democratic

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40
Ran
D39
Ran
D38
Ran
D37
Ran
D36
Ran
D35
Ran
D34
Ran
D33
Ran
D32
Ran
D31
D41
Ran
D42
Ran
D43
Ran
D44
Retired
D45
Retired
R55
Retired
R54
Retired
R53
Ran
R52
Ran
R51
Ran
Majority →
R41
Ran
R42
Ran
R43
Ran
R44
Ran
R45
Ran
R46
Ran
R47
Ran
R48
Ran
R49
Ran
R50
Ran
R40
Ran
R39
Ran
R38
Ran
R37
Ran
R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10

After the elections

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40
Re-elected
D39
Re-elected
D38
Re-elected
D37
Re-elected
D36
Re-elected
D35
Re-elected
D34
Re-elected
D33
Re-elected
D32
Re-elected
D31
D41
Re-elected
D42
Re-elected
D43
Re-elected
D44
Hold
D45
Hold
D46
Gain
D47
Gain
R53
Gain
R52
Hold
R51
Re-elected
Majority →
R41
Re-elected
R42
Re-elected
R43
Re-elected
R44
Re-elected
R45
Re-elected
R46
Re-elected
R47
Re-elected
R48
Re-elected
R49
Re-elected
R50
Re-elected
R40
Re-elected
R39
Re-elected
R38
Re-elected
R37
Re-elected
R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10
Key:
D# Democratic
R# Republican

Race summary

Special elections during the 98th Congress

There were no special elections during 1984 or before January 3, 1985.

Elections leading to the next Congress

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning January 3, 1985; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State
(linked to
summaries below)
Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama Howell Heflin Democratic 1978 Incumbent re-elected. Howell Heflin (Democratic) 62.7%
Albert L. Smith, Jr. (Republican) 36.4%
Yana Davis (Libertarian) 0.9%
Alaska Ted Stevens Republican 1968 (Appointed)
1970
1972
1978
Incumbent re-elected. Ted Stevens (Republican) 71.2%
John E. Havelock (Democratic) 28.5%
Arkansas David Pryor Democratic 1978 Incumbent re-elected. David Pryor (Democratic) 57.3%
Ed Bethune (Republican) 42.7%
Colorado William L. Armstrong Republican 1978 Incumbent re-elected. William L. Armstrong (Republican) 64.2%
Nancy E. Dick (Democratic) 34.6%
Craig Green (Libertarian) 0.9%
David Martin (Socialist Workers) 0.2%
Earl Higgerson (Prohibition) 0.1%
Delaware Joe Biden Democratic 1972
1978
Incumbent re-elected. Joe Biden (Democratic) 60.1%
John M. Burris (Republican) 39.1%
Georgia Sam Nunn Democratic 1972 (Special)
1972
1978
Incumbent re-elected. Sam Nunn (Democratic) 79.9%
Jon M. Hicks (Republican) 20.1%
Idaho James A. McClure Republican 1972
1978
Incumbent re-elected. James A. McClure (Republican) 72.2%
Peter M. Busch (Democratic) 26.0%
Donald Billings (Libertarian) 1.8%
Illinois Charles H. Percy Republican 1966
1972
1978
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Paul Simon (Democratic) 50.1%
Charles H. Percy (Republican) 48.2%
Steven Givot (Libertarian) 1.2%
Marjorie Pries (Citizens) 0.2%
Nelson Gonzalez (Socialist Workers) 0.1%
Ishmael Flory (Communist) 0.1%
Iowa Roger Jepsen Republican 1978 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Tom Harkin (Democratic) 55.5%
Roger Jepsen (Republican) 43.7%
Garry De Young (Independent) 0.8%
Kansas Nancy Landon Kassebaum Republican 1978
1978 (Appointed)
Incumbent re-elected. Nancy Landon Kassebaum (Republican) 76.0%
James R. Maher (Democratic) 21.2%
Lucille Bieger (Conservative) 0.9%
Marian Jackson (American) 0.7%
Douglas Merritt (Libertarian) 0.7%
Freda Steele (Prohibition) 0.5%
Kentucky Walter Huddleston Democratic 1972
1978
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Mitch McConnell (Republican) 49.9%
Walter Huddleston (Democratic) 49.5%
Dave Welters (Socialist Workers) 0.6%
Louisiana J. Bennett Johnston Democratic 1972 (Appointed)
1972
1978
Incumbent re-elected. Bennett Johnston Jr. (Democratic) 85.7%
Robert Max Ross (Republican) 8.9%
Maine William Cohen Republican 1972
1978
Incumbent re-elected. William Cohen (Republican) 73.3%
Libby Mitchell (Democratic) 25.9%
Ann Stoddard (Constitutionalist) 0.8%
Massachusetts Paul Tsongas Democratic 1978 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
John Kerry (Democratic) 55.1%
Ray Shamie (Republican) 44.9%
Michigan Carl Levin Democratic 1978 Incumbent re-elected. Carl Levin (Democratic) 51.8%
Jack R. Lousma (Republican) 47.2%
Minnesota Rudy Boschwitz Republican 1978
1978 (Appointed)
Incumbent re-elected. Rudy Boschwitz (Republican) 58.1%
Joan Growe (Democratic) 41.3%
Mississippi Thad Cochran Republican 1978
1978 (Appointed)
Incumbent re-elected. Thad Cochran (Republican) 60.9%
William Winter (Democratic) 39.1%
Montana Max Baucus Democratic 1978
1978 (Appointed)
Incumbent re-elected. Max Baucus (Democratic) 56.9%
Chuck Cozzens (Republican) 40.7%
Neil Halprin (Libertarian) 2.4%
Nebraska J. James Exon Democratic 1978 Incumbent re-elected. J. James Exon (Democratic) 51.9%
Nancy Hoch (Republican) 48.0%
New Hampshire Gordon J. Humphrey Republican 1978 Incumbent re-elected. Gordon J. Humphrey (Republican) 58.7%
Norman D'Amours (Democratic) 41.0%
Saunder Primack (Libertarian) 0.3%
New Jersey Bill Bradley Democratic 1978 Incumbent re-elected. Bill Bradley (Democratic) 64.2%
Mary V. Mochary (Republican) 35.2%
New Mexico Pete Domenici Republican 1972
1978
Incumbent re-elected. Pete Domenici (Republican) 71.9%
Judith A. Pratt (Democratic) 28.1%
North Carolina Jesse Helms Republican 1972
1978
Incumbent re-elected. Jesse Helms (Republican) 51.7%
Jim Hunt (Democratic) 47.8%
Oklahoma David L. Boren Democratic 1978 Incumbent re-elected. David L. Boren (Democratic) 75.6%
Will E. Crozier (Republican) 23.4%
Robert Murphy (Libertarian) 0.9%
Oregon Mark Hatfield Republican 1966
1972
1978
Incumbent re-elected. Mark Hatfield (Republican) 66.5%
Margie Hendriksen (Democratic) 33.4%
Rhode Island Claiborne Pell Democratic 1960
1966
1972
1978
Incumbent re-elected. Claiborne Pell (Democratic) 72.6%
Barbara Leonard (Republican) 27.4%
South Carolina Strom Thurmond Republican 1954
1954 (Appointed)
1956 (Resigned)
1956 (Special)
1960
1966
1972
1978
Incumbent re-elected. Strom Thurmond (Republican) 66.8%
Melvin Purvis, Jr. (Democratic) 31.8%
South Dakota Larry Pressler Republican 1978 Incumbent re-elected. Larry Pressler (Republican) 74.5%
George V. Cunningham (Democratic) 25.5%
Tennessee Howard Baker Republican 1966
1972
1978
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Al Gore (Democratic) 60.7%
Victor Ashe (Republican) 33.8%
Ed McAteer (Independent) 5.3%
Texas John Tower Republican 1961 (Special)
1966
1972
1978
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Phil Gramm (Republican) 58.5%
Lloyd Doggett (Democratic) 41.4%
Virginia John Warner Republican 1978
1979 (Appointed)
Incumbent re-elected. John Warner (Republican) 70.0%
Edythe C. Harrison (Democratic) 29.9%
West Virginia Jennings Randolph Democratic 1958 (Special)
1960
1966
1972
1978
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Winner delayed term until January 15, 1985 to finish term as Governor of West Virginia.
Jay Rockefeller (Democratic) 51.8%
John Raese (Republican) 47.7%
Mary Radin (Socialist Workers) 0.5%
Wyoming Alan K. Simpson Republican 1978
1979 (Appointed)
Incumbent re-elected. Alan K. Simpson (Republican) 78.3%
Victor A. Ryan (Democratic) 21.7%


Alabama

Alaska

Alaska election

← 1978
1990 →
  Ted Stevens 1977.jpg John Havelock.jpg
Nominee Ted Stevens John Havelock
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 146,919 58,804
Percentage 71.17% 28.49%

U.S. Senator before election

Ted Stevens
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Ted Stevens
Republican

Incumbent Republican Ted Stevens sought re-election to a third term. Owing to his popularity and the conservative bent of Alaska, Stevens did not face major opposition, and easily defeated former Alaska Attorney General John Havelock in the general election.

Open primary results[1]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Ted Stevens (incumbent) 65,522 69.22%
Democratic John Havelock 19,074 20.15%
Democratic Dave Carlson 4,620 4.88%
Republican Michael Beasley 2,443 2.58%
Democratic Joe Tracanna 1,661 1.75%
Democratic Phil Stoddard 1,331 1.41%
Total votes 94,651 100.00%
Alaska general election[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Ted Stevens (Incumbent) 146,919 71.17% −4.42%
Democratic John E. Havelock 58,804 28.49% +4.39%
Write-ins 715 0.35%
Majority 88,115 42.68% −8.81%
Turnout 206,438
Republican hold Swing

Arkansas

Arkansas election

← 1978
1990 →
  AR Pryor David (cropped).jpg Ed Bethune.jpg
Nominee David Pryor Ed Bethune
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 502,341 373,615
Percentage 57.35% 42.65%

U.S. Senator before election

David Pryor
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

David Pryor
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat David Pryor won re-election to a second term over Republican U.S. Representative Ed Bethune.

General election results[3]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic David Pryor (Incumbent) 502,341 57.35%
Republican Ed Bethune 373,615 42.65%
Majority 128,726 14.70%
Turnout 875,956
Democratic hold

Colorado

Delaware

Delaware election

← 1978
1990 →
  Joebiden2.png No image.svg
Nominee Joe Biden John M. Burris
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 147,831 98,101
Percentage 60.11% 39.89%

Delaware Election Results by county, all Democrat.png
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Joe Biden
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Joe Biden
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Joe Biden won re-election to a third term, defeating Republican challenger John M. Burris, former Majority Leader of the Delaware House of Representatives.

General election results[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Joe Biden (Incumbent) 147,831 60.11% +2.15%
Republican John M. Burris 98,101 39.89% -1.13%
Majority 49,730 20.22% +3.28%
Turnout 245,932
Democratic hold Swing

Georgia

Georgia election

← 1978
1990 →
  Sam Nunn.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Sam Nunn Mike Hicks
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,344,104 337,196
Percentage 79.9% 20.1%

Georgia D Sweep.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Sam Nunn
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Sam Nunn
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Sam Nunn won re-election to a third term over Republican educator, Mike Hicks[4][5]

General election results[5]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Sam Nunn 1,344,104 79.94% -3.19%
Republican Mike Hicks 337,196 20.06% +3.19%
Majority 1,006,908 59.88% -6.39%
Turnout 1,681,300

Idaho

Illinois

Illinois election

← 1978
1990 →
  Paul Simon (US Senator from Illinois).jpg Charles Percy.jpg
Nominee Paul Simon Charles Percy
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 2,397,165 2,308,039
Percentage 50.07% 48.21%

98ILSenateCounties.PNG

U.S. Senator before election

Charles H. Percy
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Paul Simon
Democratic

Incumbent Republican Charles H. Percy ran for re-election to a fourth term in the United States Senate. Senator Percy was opposed by Democratic nominee Paul Simon, who was a United States Congressman from Illinois's 22nd congressional district. The campaign between Percy and Simon was brutal and toughly-fought, and ended up with Simon ousting Percy by fewer than 90,000 votes, which was, at the time, considered an upset.

The election was very close. Simon prevailed by only 89,126 votes, or 1.86%. Incumbent Percy did well all throughout the state, including the Chicago collar counties. However, Simon received huge numbers out of the heavily populated and Democratic Cook County, which encompasses most of the Chicago Metropolitan Area. Percy led early on and well into the night, but as Cook County began to count all of its votes, Simon pulled ahead. Simon won despite then-president Reagan winning the state easily. Percy called Simon at around 5 A.M. the next day and conceded. Percy also congratulated Simon on his hard-earned victory. Simon was sworn in on January 3, 1985, and served in the senate until January 3, 1997, when he retired. Simon was later succeeded by Dick Durbin, a close friend and fellow Democrat.

Illinois general election[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Paul Simon 2,397,165 50.07% +4.60%
Republican Charles H. Percy (Incumbent) 2,308,039 48.21% -5.13%
Libertarian Steve I. Givot 59,777 1.25% +0.74%
Independent Marjorie H. Pries 12,366 0.26%
Socialist Workers Nelson Gonzalez 4,913 0.10% -0.40%
Communist Ishmael Flory 4,802 0.10%
Write-ins 273 0.01%
Majority 89,126 1.86% -6.00%
Turnout 4,787,335
Democratic gain from Republican Swing

Iowa

Iowa election

← 1978
1990 →
  Tom Harkin 1979 congressional photo.jpg Roger Jepsen.JPG
Nominee Tom Harkin Roger Jepsen
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 716,883 564,381
Percentage 55.46% 43.66%

U.S. Senator before election

Roger Jepsen
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Tom Harkin
Democratic

Incumbent Republican Roger Jepsen ran for re-election to a second term in the United States Senate. Jepsen was opposed by United States Congressman Tom Harkin, from Iowa's 5th congressional district, who won the Democratic primary uncontested. The general election was full of mudslinging and personal attacks, including the embellishment by both candidates of their military records; Harkin attacked Jepsen for failing to keep his promise to not sell AWACS aircraft to Saudi Arabia.[6] Ultimately, Harkin defeated Jepsen by a wide margin, winning the first of five terms in the Senate.

Democratic primary results[7]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Tom Harkin 106,005 99.93%
Democratic Write-ins 70 0.07%
Total votes 106,075 100.00%
Republican primary results[7]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Roger Jepsen (Incumbent) 113,996 99.87%
Republican Write-ins 147 0.13%
Total votes 114,143 100.00%
Iowa general election[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Tom Harkin 716,883 55.46% +7.54%
Republican Roger Jepsen (Incumbent) 564,381 43.66% -7.47%
Independent Garry De Young 11,014 0.85%
Write-ins 422 0.03%
Majority 152,502 11.80% +8.58%
Turnout 1,292,700
Democratic gain from Republican Swing

Kansas

Kentucky

Kentucky election

← 1978
1990 →
  Mitch-McConnell-99th.jpg WHuddleston.jpg
Nominee Mitch McConnell Walter Huddleston
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 644,990 639,721
Percentage 49.9% 49.5%

KY-USA 1984 Senate Results by County 2-color.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Walter Huddleston
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Mitch McConnell
Republican

Incumbent Democrat Walter Huddleston ran for re-election to a third term, but lost by less than 0.5% to Jefferson County Executive Mitch McConnell.

Huddleston was unopposed in the Democratic Party's primary.

Republican primary results[8]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Mitch McConnell 39,465 79.22%
Republican C. Roger Harker 3,798 7.62%
Republican Tommy Klein 3,352 6.73%
Republican Thurman Jerome Hamlin 3,202 6.43%
Total votes 49,817 100.00%
General election results[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Mitch McConnell 644,990 49.90% +13.03%
Democratic Walter Huddleston (Incumbent) 639,721 49.50% -11.48%
Socialist Workers Dave Welters 7,696 0.60%
Majority 5,269 0.41% -23.70%
Turnout 1,292,407
Republican gain from Democratic Swing

Louisiana

Maine

Maine election

← 1978
1990 →
  Senator William Cohen (R-ME).jpg LibbyMitchell (cropped).jpg
Nominee William Cohen Libby Mitchell
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 404,414 142,626
Percentage 73.3% 25.9%

U.S. Senator before election

William Cohen
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

William Cohen
Republican

Incumbent Republican William Cohen won re-election to a second term over Democrat Libby Mitchell, State Representative.

General election results
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican William Cohen (Incumbent) 404,414 73.34%
Democratic Libby Mitchell 142,626 25.87%
Constitutionalist P. Ann Stoddard 4,338 0.79%

Massachusetts

Massachusetts election

← 1978
1990 →
  John Kerry (9504751924).jpg No image.svg
Nominee John Kerry Ray Shamie
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,393,150 1,136,913
Percentage 55.06% 44.94%

1984 MA Senate.png
Results by town. Red indicates towns carried by Ray Shamie, blue indicates towns carried by John Kerry.

U.S. Senator before election

Paul Tsongas
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

John Kerry
Democratic

The election was won by Democrat John Kerry, the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts who remained Senator until 2013 when he resigned to become U.S. Secretary of State. One-term incumbent Paul Tsongas declined to seek re-election and retired from the Senate following a battle with cancer.

Democratic Primary [9]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John Kerry 322,470 40.83%
Democratic James Shannon 297,941 37.72%
Democratic David M. Bartley 85,910 10.88%
Democratic Michael Connolly 82,999 10.51%
All others 502 0.06%
Republican Primary [10]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Ray Shamie 173,851 62.38%
Republican Elliot Richardson 104,761 37.59%
All others 70 0.03%
General election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John Kerry 1,393,150 55.06%
Republican Ray Shamie 1,136,913 44.94%
All others 408 0.02%
Turnout 2,530,063

Michigan

Michigan election

← 1978
1990 →
  CarlLevin--100thCongress--.png Jack lousma.jpg
Nominee Carl Levin Jack Lousma
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,915,831 1,745,302
Percentage 51.8% 47.2%

U.S. Senator before election

Carl Levin
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Carl Levin
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Carl Levin won re-election to a second term.

General election results[11]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Carl Levin (Incumbent) 1,915,831 51.8%
Republican Jack Lousma 1,745,302 47.2%
Tisch Citizens Arthur Richard Tisch 22,882 0.6%
Libertarian Lynn Johnston 7,786 0.2%
Socialist Helen Meyers 2,686 0.1%
Workers World William Roundtree 2,279 0.1%
Independent Max Dean 2,135 0.1%
Communist Samuel L. Webb 1,196 0.0%
Workers League Fred Mazelis 818 0.0%

Minnesota

Minnesota election

← 1978
1990 →
  RudyBoschwitz.jpg Joan Growe (cropped).jpg
Nominee Rudy Boschwitz Joan Growe
Party Republican DFL
Popular vote 1,199,926 852,844
Percentage 58.08% 41.28%

U.S. Senator before election

Rudy Boschwitz
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Rudy Boschwitz
Republican

Incumbent Republican Rudy Boschwitz defeated Democratic challenger Joan Growe, Secretary of State of Minnesota.

General election results[12]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Rudy Boschwitz 1,199,926 58.08%
Democratic Joan Growe 852,844 41.28%
Socialist Workers Eleanor Garcia 5,351 0.26%
New Union Party Jeffrey M. Miller 4,653 0.23%
Libertarian Richard Putman 3,129 0.15%

Mississippi

Mississippi election

← 1978
1990 →
  Thad Cochran 1977 Congressional photo.jpg William F. Winter.jpg
Nominee Thad Cochran William Winter
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 580,314 371,926
Percentage 60.9% 39.1%

U.S. Senator before election

Thad Cochran
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Thad Cochran
Republican

Incumbent Republican Thad Cochran won re-election to a second term over former Democratic Governor William Winter.

Mississippi U.S. Senate Election, 1984[13]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Thad Cochran 580,314 60.9%
Democratic William Winter 371,926 39.1%

Montana

Montana election

← 1978
1990 →
  Max Baucus 1977 Congressional photo.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Max Baucus Chuck Cozzens
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 215,704 154,308
Percentage 56.89% 40.70%

U.S. Senator before election

Max Baucus
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Max Baucus
Democratic

Incumbent Max Baucus ran for re-election. He easily won renomination in the Democratic primary, and advanced to the general election, where he faced Chuck Cozzens, a former State Representative and the Republican nominee. Despite President Ronald Reagan's strong performance in the state that year, Baucus was able to easily win a second term over Cozzens.

Democratic Party primary results[14]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Max Baucus (Incumbent) 80,726 79.37%
Democratic Bob Ripley 20,979 20.63%
Total votes 101,705 100.00%
Republican Primary results[14]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Chuck Cozzens 33,661 50.78%
Republican Ralph Bouma 17,900 27.00%
Republican Aubyn Curtiss 14,729 22.22%
Total votes 66,290 100.00%
Montana general election[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Max Baucus (Incumbent) 215,704 56.89% +1.20%
Republican Chuck Cozzens 154,308 40.70% -3.61%
Libertarian Neil Haprin 9,143 2.41%
Majority 61,396 16.19% +4.81%
Turnout 379,155
Democratic hold Swing

Nebraska

Nebraska election

← 1978
1990 →
  1979 p80 J James Exon.jpg No image.svg
Nominee J. James Exon Nancy Hoch
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 332,117 307,147
Percentage 51.9% 48.0%

U.S. Senator before election

J. James Exon
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

J. James Exon
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat J. James Exon won re-election to a second term over Republican businesswoman Nancy Hoch.

General election results[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic J. James Exon (Incumbent) 332,217 51.94% -15.72%
Republican Nancy Hoch 307,147 48.02% +15.67%
Write-ins 304 0.05%
Majority 25,070 3.92% -31.40%
Turnout 639,668
Democratic hold Swing

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New Mexico election

← 1978
1990 →
  Pete Domenici official portrait 2.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Pete Domenici Judith Pratt
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 361,371 141,253
Percentage 71.9% 28.1%

New Mexico R Sweep.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Pete Domenici
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Pete Domenici
Republican

Incumbent Republican Pete Domenici successfully ran for re-election to a third term, defeating Democrat Judith Pratt.

Democratic primary results[15]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Judith Pratt 67,722 45.50%
Democratic Nick Franklin 56,434 37.91%
Democratic Anselmo A. Chavez 24,694 16.59%
Majority 11,288 7.58%
Total votes 148,850 100.00%
General election results[16][2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Pete Domenici (Incumbent) 361,371 71.90%
Democratic Judith Pratt 141,253 28.10%
N/A Others 10 0.00%
Majority 220,118 43.79%
Total votes 502,634 100.00%
Republican hold

North Carolina

North Carolina election

← 1978
1990 →
  JesseHelms.jpg North Carolina Governor Jim Hunt in 1992.jpg
Nominee Jesse Helms Jim Hunt
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 1,156,768 1,070,488
Percentage 51.7% 47.8%

U.S. Senator before election

Jesse Helms
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Jesse Helms
Republican

The election was fought between the Republican incumbent Jesse Helms and Democratic Governor Jim Hunt. Helms won the election, the most expensive non-presidential election in United States history up to that point, by a margin significantly reduced from that that Helms achieved in 1978.

1984 North Carolina U.S. Senate Republican primary election[17]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Jesse Helms 134,675 90.65%
Republican George Wimbish 13,799 9.35%
Turnout 148,574
1984 North Carolina U.S. Senate Democratic primary election[17]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Jim Hunt 655,429 77.48%
Democratic Thomas Allred 126,841 14.99%
Democratic Harrill Jones 63,676 7.53%
Turnout 845,946

Hunt had a commanding lead in opinion polls for much of the campaign, with one poll in 1983 putting him nineteen points clear of Helms.[18] However, that was changed by the most bitterly contested election in the country that year.[18] Hunt ran a campaign ad connecting Helms to death squads in El Salvador through his association with the Nationalist Republican Alliance, for whom Roberto d'Aubuisson had recently run for the President of El Salvador.[18] In the short time before election day, however, the highly popular incumbent US President Ronald Reagan gave Helms a significant boost[19] by campaigning for him and running a local TV ad praising Helms and asking registered voters in North Carolina to re-elect him.[20]

The election cost a total of $26,379,483 in total reported spending (over twelve times as much as the 1980 race), of which, 64% ($16.9m) was spent by Helms.[21]

1984 North Carolina U.S. Senate election[17]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Jesse Helms 1,156,768 51.7%
Democratic Jim Hunt 1,070,488 47.8%
Libertarian Bobby Emory 9,302 0.4%
Socialist Workers Kate Daher 2,493 0.1%
Turnout 2,239,051

Voters Education Project (VEP) in Atlanta study showed that Helms received 63 percent of the white vote and was particularly successful in small towns and rural areas, while receiving less than 1 percent of the black vote in 35 almost-all-black precincts.[22] "Hunt got 37 percent of the white and 98.8 percent of the black vote, according to VEP. But only 61 percent of registered blacks voted, down from 63 percent in 1980."[22] While, It had among the lowest industrial wages in the United States and was third in terms of mobile homes.[22]

Oklahoma

Incumbent Democrat, David Boren won re-election to a second term.

Oklahoma election

← 1978
1990 →
  DavidBorenByPhilKonstantin.jpg No image.svg
Nominee David Boren Will E. Bill Crozier
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 906,131 280,638
Percentage 75.6% 23.4%

U.S. Senator before election

David Boren
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

David Boren
Democratic

Oklahoma general election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic David Boren (Incumbent) 906,131 75.6%
Republican Will E. Bill Crozier 280,638 23.4%
Libertarian Robert T. Murphy 11,168 0.9%
Majority 625,493 52.2%
Total votes 1,197,937[23] 100.00%
Democratic hold

Oregon

Rhode Island

Rhode Island election

← 1978
1990 →
  Claiborne Pell.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Claiborne Pell Barbara Leonard
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 285,811 107,545
Percentage 72.7% 27.3%

Rhode Island Election Results by County, all Democratic.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Claiborne Pell
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Claiborne Pell
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Claiborne Pell successfully sought re-election, defeating Republican Barbara M. Leonard.

General election results[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Claiborne Pell (Incumbent) 285,811 72.66%
Republican Barbara Leonard 107,545 27.34%
Majority 178,266 45.32%
Total votes 393,356 100.00%
Democratic hold

South Carolina

South Carolina election

← 1978
1990 →
  Strom Thurmond.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Strom Thurmond Melvin Purvis
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 644,814 306,982
Percentage 66.8% 31.8%

U.S. Senator before election

Strom Thurmond
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Strom Thurmond
Republican

Popular incumbent Republican Strom Thurmond cruised to re-election against Democratic challenger Melvin Purvis. Melvin Purvis, a white minister and the son of famous FBI agent Melvin Purvis, won a close race against black photographer Cecil J. Williams. The closeness of the race and the fact that the black candidate did not win propelled Jesse Jackson to request a Justice Department investigation into the primary and he also considered an independent bid for the seat. Governor Richard Riley and 3rd district Representative Butler Derrick flirted with running, but backed down when Thurmond received endorsements from prominent Democrats in South Carolina.

Democratic Primary
Candidate Votes %
Melvin Purvis 149,730 50.2%
Cecil J. Williams 148,586 49.8%

Senator Strom Thurmond easily defeated Robert Cunningham to advance to the general election.

Republican Primary
Candidate Votes %
Strom Thurmond 44,662 94.3%
Robert H. Cunningham 2,693 5.7%

Thurmond received endorsements from former Democratic governor Robert Evander McNair, Charleston mayor Joseph P. Riley, Jr., and an assortment of black mayors in the state. He did not face a serious challenge and spent almost $1.5 million on the race whereas Purvis spent less than $10,000. An ironic footnote to the election is the fact that Purvis used Thurmond's age as an issue in the campaign. He claimed Thurmond was too old, yet Purvis died less than two years after the election of a heart attack at age 46.

South Carolina U.S. Senate Election, 1984
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Strom Thurmond 644,814 66.8% +11.2%
Democratic Melvin Purvis 306,982 31.8% -12.6%
Libertarian Stephen Davis 13,323 1.4% +1.4%
No party Write-Ins 335 0.0% 0.0%
Majority 337,832 35.0% +23.8%
Turnout 965,454 68.7% +11.0%
Republican hold

South Dakota

Tennessee

Tennessee election

← 1978
1990 →
  Sengore.jpg Victor Ashe.jpg
Nominee Al Gore Victor Ashe
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,000,607 557,016
Percentage 60.72% 33.80%

TNDemSweep.png
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Howard Baker
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Al Gore
Democratic

Three-term popular incumbent Howard Baker, who had served as United States Senate Majority Leader since 1981 (Minority Leader from 1977 to 1981) decided not to seek re-election in order to concentrate on a planned bid for 1988 Republican presidential nomination (which did not happen, as he later accepted a White House Chief of Staff position under President Ronald Reagan). This made a seat open.

Democrats nominated Representative and future Vice President of the United States Al Gore, whose father Albert Gore, Sr. once held the other Tennessee Senate seat.

Democratic primary results
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Al Gore 476,582 100.00%
Total votes 476,582 100.00%

In the Republican primary, held on August 2, Ashe easily emerged as a winner:[24]

  • Ashe - 145,744 (86.47%)
  • McNeil - 17,970 (10.66%)
  • Patty - 4,777 (2.83%)
  • Write-in - 49 (0.03%)

Although the Senate election coincided with the landslide re-election of President Reagan, who carried Tennessee by a wide margin, this time his victory did not have any coattails, as it did in 1980, and Democrats picked up three Republican seats. One of the Democratic gains was in Tennessee, where conservative democrat Gore won in a landslide:[25]

General election results
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Al Gore 1,000,607 60.72%
Republican Victor Ashe 557,016 33.80%
Independent Ed McAteer 87,234 5.29%
Independent Khalil-Ullah Al-Muhaymin 3,179 0.19%

Texas

Texas election

← 1978
1990 →
  PhilGramm (1).jpg Lloyd doggett photo.jpg
Nominee Phil Gramm Lloyd Doggett
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 3,111,348 2,202,557
Percentage 58.6% 41.4%

U.S. Senator before election

John G. Tower
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Phil Gramm
Republican

Incumbent Republican John G. Tower decided to retire, instead of seeking a fifth term. Republican Phil Gramm won the open seat over Democratic State Senator Lloyd Doggett.

The Democratic primary was 45% Hispanic, but included many moderate to conservative voters. Hance positioned himself as the most moderate to conservative candidate, who co-sponsored President Ronald Reagan's tax package.[26] Doggett was the more liberal candidate, attacking Reaganomics and getting endorsements from the Texas teachers' union and Agriculture Commissioner Jim Hightower.[27] Krueger was seen as the front runner and was a moderate who supported the state's oil and gas industry, but had close ties with the Hispanic community because he was Spanish-speaking.[28] Hance attacked both Kroeger and Doggett for supporting amnesty for illegal aliens and supporting gay rights.[29] The initial primary was extremely close between the top three candidates. Each candidate got 31% of the electorate. Hance ranked first, only 273 votes ahead of Doggett and 1,560 votes ahead of Krueger.

Since no candidate passed the 50% threshold, Hance and Doggett qualified for the run-off election. Hance fired his pollster despite ranking first.[30] Krueger endorsed fellow U.S. Congressman Hance, saying "Ultimately, the quality of one's public service depends upon the character that one displays in filling an office."[31][32] In the June election, Doggett very narrowly defeated Hance by just 1,345 votes.

Initial election in May 5, 1984
May Democratic primary[33]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Kent Hance 456,446 31.2%
Democratic Lloyd Doggett 456,173 31.2%
Democratic Robert Charles Krueger 454,886 31.1%
Democratic David Young 47,062 3.2%
Democratic Robert S. Sullivan 34,733 2.4%
Democratic Harley Schlanger 14,149 1.0%
Run-off election on June 2, 1984
June Democratic primary[34]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Lloyd Doggett 491,251 50.1%
Democratic Kent Hance 489,906 49.9%

The Republican primary was a highly competitive, multimillion-dollar contest.[35] Gramm recently switched parties in 1983, but he was a conservative who supported Reaganomics. Gramm spent $4 million.[36]

May Republican primary[37]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Phil Gramm 247,280 73.3%
Republican Ron Paul 55,771 16.5%
Republican Robert A. Mosbacher Jr. 26,250 7.8%
Republican Hank Grover 8,055 2.5%
General election results[38]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Phil Gramm 3,111,348 58.6%
Democratic Lloyd Doggett 2,202,557 41.4%

Virginia

Virginia election

← 1978
1990 →
Turnout 52.4% (voting eligible)[39]
  Warner(R-VA).jpg No image.svg
Nominee John Warner Edythe Harrison
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 1,406,194 601,142
Percentage 70.0% 29.9%

1984 virginia senate election map.png
U.S. Senate election results map. Red denotes counties/districts won by Warner. Blue denotes those won by Harrison.

U.S. Senator before election

John Warner
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

John Warner
Republican

Incumbent Republican John W. Warner won re-election to a second term. He handily defeated Edythe C. Harrison, member of the Virginia House of Delegates[40] the "first woman in Virginia nominated by the Democratic Party for statewide office."[41]

Virginia general election[42]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican John Warner (Incumbent) 1,406,194 70.05% +19.88%
Democratic Edythe C. Harrison 601,142 29.95% -19.84%
Write-ins 151 0.01% -0.03%
Majority 805,052 40.10% +39.71%
Turnout 2,007,487
Republican hold

West Virginia

Wyoming

See also

References

  • Barone, Michael; Ujifusa, Grant (1985). The Almanac of American Politics 1986: The Senators, the Representatives and the Governors: Their Records and Election Results, Their States and Districts.
  • Snider, William D. (1985). Helms and Hunt: The North Carolina Senate Race, 1984. University of North Carolina Press.
  • State Election Commission (1985). Report of the South Carolina State Election Commission 1984-1985. Columbia, SC: State Election Commission. p. 62.
  • Bass, Jack; Marilyn W. Thompson (1998). Ol' Strom: An Unauthorized Biography of Strom Thurmond. Longstreet. p. 302.
  1. ^ http://www.elections.alaska.gov/results/84PRIM/84prim.pdf
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Clerk of the United States House of Representatives (1985). "Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 6, 1984" (PDF). U.S. Government Printing Office.
  3. ^ "General Election Results" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-02-11. Retrieved 2017-09-26.
  4. ^ [1][dead link]
  5. ^ a b http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/state.php?year=1984&off=3&elect=0&fips=13&f=0
  6. ^ "Down and Dirty - News - The Harvard Crimson". www.thecrimson.com. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  7. ^ a b http://sos.iowa.gov/elections/pdf/results/80s/1984primcanv.pdf
  8. ^ "Kentucky State Board of Elections Welcome to the State Board of Elections". Elect.ky.gov. Archived from the original on 2010-11-13. Retrieved April 4, 2015.
  9. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA US Senate - D Primary Race - Sep 18, 1984". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  10. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA US Senate - R Primary Race - Sep 18, 1984". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  11. ^ Parker, Randy; Reporting for Duty (April 9, 2005). "Our Campaigns: MI U.S. Senate". Our Campaigns.
  12. ^ "Our Campaigns - MN US Senate Race - Nov 06, 1984". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  13. ^ "Our Campaigns - MS US Senate Race - Nov 05, 1996". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  14. ^ a b "Report of the Official Canvass of the Vote Cast at the Primary Election Held in the State of Montana, June 5, 1984" (PDF). Montana Secretary of State. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 15, 2013. Retrieved July 2, 2014.
  15. ^ "NM US Senate - D Primary". OurCampaigns. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
  16. ^ "NM US Senate". OurCampaigns. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
  17. ^ a b c "North Carolina DataNet #46" (PDF). University of North Carolina. April 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 25, 2008. Retrieved June 12, 2009.
  18. ^ a b c Joseph N., Boyce; Lamar, Jacob V. (September 24, 1984). "The Old South vs. the New". Time. Retrieved June 10, 2009.
  19. ^ http://www.unctv.org/U.S[permanent dead link]. Senatorno/peopleevents/events1.html
  20. ^ Kenneth Salt (1 February 2009). "Ronald Reagan ad for Jesse Helms during 1984 election". Retrieved 20 December 2017 – via YouTube.
  21. ^ "North Carolina DataNet #25" (PDF). University of North Carolina. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 25, 2008. Retrieved June 12, 2009.
  22. ^ a b c Bill Peterson (November 18, 1984), "Jesse Helms' Lesson for Washington", The Washington Post, retrieved January 16, 2017
  23. ^ "1984 Oklahoma Election Results" (PDF). Oklahoma State Election Board. 1984. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
  24. ^ "Our Campaigns - TN US Senate- R Primary Race - Aug 02, 1984". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  25. ^ "Our Campaigns - TN US Senate Race - Nov 06, 1984". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  26. ^ "Conservative Holds Lead in Texas Senate Primary". 3 June 1984. Retrieved 20 December 2017 – via NYTimes.com.
  27. ^ "The Victoria Advocate - Google News Archive Search". google.com.
  28. ^ "Kentucky New Era - Google News Archive Search". google.com.
  29. ^ "Mid Cities Daily News - Google News Archive Search". google.com.
  30. ^ "The Bonham Daily Favorite - Google News Archive Search". google.com.
  31. ^ AP (1 June 1984). "CAMPAIGN ; Krueger Backs Hance In Democratic Runoff". Retrieved 20 December 2017 – via NYTimes.com.
  32. ^ "The Victoria Advocate - Google News Archive Search". google.com.
  33. ^ "Our Campaigns - TX US Senate - D Primary Race - May 05, 1984". ourcampaigns.com.
  34. ^ "Our Campaigns - TX US Senate - D Runoff Race - Jun 02, 1984". ourcampaigns.com.
  35. ^ "Daily Times - Google News Archive Search". google.com.
  36. ^ "The Victoria Advocate - Google News Archive Search". google.com.
  37. ^ "Gramm Voices Surprise". The Victoria Advocate. May 6, 1984.
  38. ^ "Our Campaigns - TX US Senate Race - Nov 06, 1990". ourcampaigns.com.
  39. ^ Dr. Michael McDonald (March 25, 2013). "Turnout 1980-2012". George Mason University. Archived from the original on October 30, 2012. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
  40. ^ Virginia Women in History,
  41. ^ "Edythe C. Harrison Papers, 1961-1993 - Special Collections and University Archives". www.lib.odu.edu. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  42. ^ http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/state.php?fips=51&year=1984&f=0&elect=0&off=3
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