United States Senate elections, 1952

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United States Senate elections, 1952
United States
← 1950 November 4, 1952[1] 1954 →

36 of the 96 seats in the United States Senate
49 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Robert a taft.jpg Senator Lyndon Johnson.jpg
Leader Robert Taft Lyndon Johnson
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Ohio Texas
Seats before 46 50
Seats after 48 48
Seat change Increase 2 Decrease 2
Popular vote 23,241,687 20,028,738
Percentage 51.9% 44.7%
Swing Increase 2.0% Decrease 2.5%
Seats up 19 13
Races won 21 11

Us 1952 senate election map.svg
Results including special elections
     Democratic gains      Republican gains
     Democratic holds      Republican holds

Majority Leader before election

Ernest McFarland
Democratic

Elected Majority Leader

Robert Taft
Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1952 was an election for the United States Senate which coincided with the election of Dwight D. Eisenhower to the presidency by a large margin. The Republicans managed to make a net gain of two seats, which was reduced to one when Wayne Morse (R-OR) became an independent. The Republicans held a 49 to 47 seat majority after Morse's switch. This election was the second time in history (after 1932) that the party in power lost their majority and the Senate Majority Leader lost his own re-election bid. (In addition, this was the second consecutive election in which a sitting Senate leader lost his seat.)

Retirements

Democrat who was replaced by a Republican

  1. Maryland: Herbert O'Conor was replaced by James Glenn Beall.

Democratic hold

  1. Texas: Tom Connally was replaced by Price Daniel.

Republican holds

Both Republican holds were in special elections.

  1. Connecticut: Appointee William A. Purtell retired to run for the Class 1 seat and was replaced by Prescott Bush.
  2. Nebraska: Appointee Fred Andrew Seaton retired and was replaced by Dwight Griswold.

Incumbent losses

Renomination

Democratic hold

  1. Tennessee: Kenneth D. McKellar lost to Albert Gore, Sr., who later won the general election.

Republican hold

  1. Maine: Ralph O. Brewster lost to Frederick G. Payne, who later won the general election.

Re-election

Democrats who lost to Republicans

  1. Arizona: Ernest W. McFarland, the Majority Leader, lost to Barry Goldwater.
  2. Connecticut: William Benton lost to William A. Purtell.
  3. Kentucky: Appointee Thomas R. Underwood lost to John S. Cooper in a special election.
  4. Michigan: Blair Moody lost to Charles E. Potter in a special election.
  5. Wyoming: Joseph C. O'Mahoney lost to Frank A. Barrett.

Republicans who lost to Democrats

  1. Massachusetts: Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. lost to John F. Kennedy.
  2. Missouri: James P. Kem lost to Stuart Symington.
  3. Montana: Zales N. Ecton lost to Mike Mansfield.
  4. Washington: Harry P. Cain lost to Henry M. Jackson.

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

Going into the November elections.

  D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38
Ran
D37
Ran
D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39
Ran
D40
Ran
D41
Ran
D42
Ran
D43
Ran
D44
Ran
D45
Ran
D46
Ran
D47
Ran
D48
Retired
Majority → D49
Retired
R39
Ran
R40
Ran
R41
Ran
R42
Ran
R43
Ran
R44
Ran
R45
Ran
R46
Ran
R47
Ran
R38
Ran
R37
Ran
R36
Ran
R35
Ran
R34
Ran
R33
Ran
R32
Ran
R31
Ran
R30
Ran
R29
Ran
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Results of the general elections

  D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38
Re-elected
D38
Re-elected
D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39
Re-elected
D40
Re-elected
D41
Re-elected
D42
Re-elected
D47
Hold
D48
Hold
D45
Gain
D46
Gain
D47
Gain
D48
Gain
Majority, with VP's vote ↓
R39
Re-elected
R40
Re-elected
R41
Re-elected
R42
Re-elected
R43
Hold
R44
Gain
R45
Gain
R46
Gain
R47
Gain
R48
Gain
R38
Re-elected
R37
Re-elected
R36
Re-elected
R35
Re-elected
R34
Re-elected
R33
Re-elected
R32
Re-elected
R31
Re-elected
R30
Re-elected
R29
Re-elected
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
Re-elected
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Results of the special elections

  D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 D47 R49
Gain
Majority →
R39 R40 R41 R42 R43 R44 R45 R46
Hold
R47
Hold
R48
Gain, same as general
R38 R37 R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Beginning of the next Congress

  D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 D47 I1
Changed
Majority using VP's vote ↓
R39 R40 R41 R42 R43 R44 R45 R46 R47 R48
R38 R37 R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8
Key:
D# Democratic
I# Independent
R# Republican

Race summaries

Special elections during the 82nd Congress

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1952 or before January 3, 1953; ordered by election date, then state.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut
(Class 3)
William A. Purtell Republican 1952 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired to run for the Class 1 seat.
New senator elected November 4, 1952.
Republican hold.
Prescott Bush (Republican) 51.2%
Abraham A. Ribicoff (Democratic) 48.5%
Kentucky
(Class 2)
Thomas R. Underwood Democratic 1951 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected November 4, 1952.
Republican gain.
John S. Cooper (Republican) 51.5%
Thomas R. Underwood (Democratic) 48.5%
Michigan
(Class 1)
Blair Moody Democratic 1951 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected November 4, 1952.
Republican gain.
Winner was also elected to the next term, see below.
Charles E. Potter (Republican) 51.2%
Blair Moody (Democratic) 48.7%[2]
Nebraska
(Class 2)
Fred Andrew Seaton Republican 1951 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected November 4, 1952.
Republican hold.
Dwight Griswold (Republican) 63.6%
William Ritchie (Democratic) 36.4%

Races leading to the 83rd Congress

In these general elections, the winner was seated on January 3, 1953; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Arizona Ernest McFarland Democratic 1940
1946
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Barry Goldwater (Republican) 51.3%
Ernest McFarland (Democratic) 48.7%
California William F. Knowland Republican 1945 (Appointed)
1946 (Special)
1946
Incumbent re-elected. William F. Knowland (Republican) 87.7%
Reuben W. Borough (Independent Progressive) 11.9%
Connecticut William Benton Democratic 1949 (Appointed)
1950 (Special)
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
William A. Purtell (Republican) 52.5%
William Benton (Democratic) 44.4%
Delaware John J. Williams Republican 1946 Incumbent re-elected. John J. Williams (Republican) 54.5%
Alexis I. du Pont Bayard (Democratic) 45.5%
Florida Spessard Holland Democratic 1946 (Appointed)
1946
Incumbent re-elected. Spessard Holland (Democratic) 99.8%
Indiana William E. Jenner Republican 1944 (Special)
1944 (Retired)
1946
Incumbent re-elected. William E. Jenner (Republican) 52.4%
Henry F. Schricker (Democratic) 46.8%
Maine Owen Brewster Republican 1940
1946
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Incumbent resigned December 31, 1952.
Frederick G. Payne (Republican) 58.7%
Roger P. Dube (Democratic) 34.9%
Earl S. Grant (Independent) 6.4%
Maryland Herbert O'Conor Democratic 1946 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
James Glenn Beall (Republican) 52.5%
George P. Mahoney (Democratic) 47.5%
Massachusetts Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. Republican 1936
1942
1944 (Resigned)
1946
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
John F. Kennedy (Democratic) 51.4%
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (Republican) 48.4%[3]
Michigan Blair Moody Democratic 1951 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain
Winner was also elected to finish the term, see above.
Charles E. Potter (Republican) 50.6%
Blair Moody (Democratic) 49.0%[2]
Minnesota Edward John Thye Republican 1946 Incumbent re-elected. Edward John Thye (Republican) 56.6%
William E. Carlson (Democratic) 42.5%
Mississippi John C. Stennis Democratic 1947 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. John C. Stennis (Democratic)
Unopposed
Missouri James P. Kem Republican 1946 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Stuart Symington (Democratic) 54.0%
James P. Kem (Republican) 45.9%
Montana Zales N. Ecton Republican 1946 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Mike Mansfield (Democratic) 50.8%
Zales N. Ecton (Republican) 48.6%
Nebraska Hugh Butler Republican 1940
1946
Incumbent re-elected. Hugh Butler (Republican) 69.1%
Stanley D. Long (Democratic) 27.8%
Nevada George W. Malone Republican 1946 Incumbent re-elected. George W. Malone (Republican) 51.7%
Thomas B. Mechling (Democratic) 48.3%
New Jersey H. Alexander Smith Republican 1944 (Special)
1946
Incumbent re-elected. H. Alexander Smith (Republican) 55.5%
Archibald S. Alexander (Democratic) 43.6%
New Mexico Dennis Chavez Democratic 1935 (Appointed)
1936 (Special)
1940
1946
Incumbent re-elected. Dennis Chavez (Democratic) 51.1%
Patrick J. Hurley (Republican) 48.9%
New York Irving M. Ives Republican 1946 Incumbent re-elected. Irving M. Ives (Republican) 55.2%
John Cashmore (Democratic) 36.1%
George Counts (Liberal) 7.0%
North Dakota William Langer Republican 1940
1946
Incumbent re-elected. William Langer (Republican) 66.4%
Harold A. Morrison (Democratic) 23.3%
Fred G. Aandahl (Independent) 10.4%
Ohio John W. Bricker Republican 1946 Incumbent re-elected. John W. Bricker(Republican) 54.6%
Michael V. DiSalle (Democratic) 45.4%
Pennsylvania Edward Martin Republican 1946 Incumbent re-elected. Edward Martin (Republican) 51.6%
Guy K. Bard (Democratic) 48.0%
Rhode Island John O. Pastore Democratic 1950 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. John O. Pastore (Democratic) 54.8%
Bayard Ewing (Republican) 45.2%
Tennessee Kenneth D. McKellar Democratic 1916
1922
1928
1934
1940
1946
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator re-elected.
Democratic hold.
Albert Gore, Sr. (Democratic) 74.2%
Hobart F. Atkins (Republican) 20.9%
Texas Tom Connally Democratic 1928
1934
1940
1946
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Price Daniel (Democratic)
Unopposed
Utah Arthur V. Watkins Republican 1946 Incumbent re-elected. Arthur V. Watkins (Republican) 54.3%
Walter K. Granger (Democratic) 45.7%
Vermont Ralph E. Flanders Republican 1946 (Appointed)
1946 (Special)
1952
Incumbent re-elected. Ralph E. Flanders (Republican) 72.3%
Allan R. Johnston (Democratic) 27.7%
Virginia Harry F. Byrd Democratic 1933 (Appointed)
1933 (Special)
1934
1940
1946
Incumbent re-elected. Harry F. Byrd (Democratic) 73.4%
H. M. Vise, Sr. (Independent) 12.7%
Clarke T. Robb (Independent) 12.4%
Washington Harry P. Cain Republican 1946
1946 (Appointed)
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Henry M. Jackson (Democratic) 56.2%
Harry P. Cain (Republican) 43.5%
West Virginia Harley M. Kilgore Democratic 1940
1946
Incumbent re-elected. Harley M. Kilgore (Democratic) 53.6%
Chapman Revercomb (Republican) 46.4%
Wisconsin Joseph R. McCarthy Republican 1946 Incumbent re-elected. Joseph R. McCarthy (Republican) 54.2%
Thomas E. Fairchild (Democratic) 45.6%
Wyoming Joseph C. O'Mahoney Democratic 1933 (Appointed)
1934
1940
1946
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Frank A. Barrett (Republican) 51.6%
Joseph C. O'Mahoney (Democratic) 48.4%

Special elections during the 83rd Congress

There were no elections in 1953 to the 83rd Congress.

Complete list of races

Arizona

California

Connecticut

Connecticut (Special)

Delaware

Florida

Indiana

Kentucky (Special)

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

General election[3]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic John F. Kennedy 1,211,984 51.34
Republican Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (Incumbent) 1,141,247 48.35
Socialist Labor Thelma Ingersoll 4,683 0.20
Prohibition Mark R. Shaw 2,508 0.11
Majority 70,737 3.0
Turnout 2,360,422
Democratic gain from Republican

Michigan

Michigan (Special)

Minnesota

Mississippi

Missouri

Montana

Massachusetts

New York

In New York, the Liberal State Committee met on August 28, and nominated Dr. George S. Counts, Professor of Education at Teachers College, Columbia University, for the U.S. Senate.[4] The Republican State Committee re-nominated the incumbent U.S. Senator Irving M. Ives. The Democratic State Committee met on August 28, and nominated Brooklyn Borough President John Cashmore for the U.S. Senate.[5]

The Republican incumbent Ives was re-elected with the then largest plurality[6] in state history.

Republican Irving M. Ives 3,853,934
Democratic John Cashmore 2,521,736
Liberal George S. Counts 489,775
American Labor Corliss Lamont 104,702
Socialist Workers Michael Bartell[7] 4,263
Socialist Joseph G. Glass[8] 3,382
Industrial Government Nathan Karp[9] 2,451

North Dakota

Ohio

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

Tennessee

Texas

Rhode Island

Vermont

Virginia

Washington

Washington

Wisconsin

Wyoming

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Maine election was held September 8, 1952 and therewere also special elections in November 1952.
  2. ^ a b http://www.ourcampaigns.com/ContainerHistory.html?ContainerID=240
  3. ^ a b http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=83027 OurCampaigns.com
  4. ^ "DR. COUNTS TO STAY AS LIBERAL CHOICE". The New York Times. September 6, 1952. (Subscription required (help)). 
  5. ^ "LIBERALS ADAMANT AGAINST CASHMORE". The New York Times. September 3, 1952. (Subscription required (help)). 
  6. ^ In the New York election, "largest plurality" in this case means: difference between first and second placed candidate, considering the absolute number of votes
  7. ^ Michael Bartell, ran also for governor in 1950
  8. ^ Joseph G. Glass, ran also for attorney general in 1942
  9. ^ Nathan Karp (b. ca. 1915), clothing cutter, of Queens, ran also for lieutenant governor in 1950; for Mayor of New York in 1953; and for governor in 1954

References

  • "FINAL STATE COUNT GIVES RECORD VOTE; Eisenhower Carried New York by 848,214 Margin as Total of 7,216,054 Cast Ballots". The New York Times. December 9, 1952. (Subscription required (help)). 
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