United States Senate elections, 1936 and 1937

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United States Senate elections, 1936 and 1937
United States
← 1934 November 3, 1936[1] 1938 →

32 of the 96 seats in the United States Senate
49 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Joseph t robinson.jpg Charles mcnary.jpg
Leader Joseph Robinson Charles McNary
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Arkansas Oregon
Seats before 69 22
Seats after 74 17
Seat change Increase 5 Decrease 5
Seats up 19 11
Races won 24 6

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Farmer–Labor Progressive
Seats before 2 1
Seats after 2 1
Seat change Steady Steady
Seats up 1 0
Races won 1 0

  Fifth party
 
Party Independent
Seats before 0
Seats after 1
Seat change Increase 1
Seats up 0
Races won 1

US 1936 senate election map.svg
Results including special elections
     Democratic gain      Democratic hold
     Republican gain      Republican hold
     Farmer–Labor hold
     Independent gain

Majority Leader before election

Joseph Robinson
Democratic

Elected Majority Leader

Joseph Robinson
Democratic

The United States Senate elections of 1936[1] coincided with the reelection of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The Great Depression continued and voters backed progressive candidates favoring Roosevelt's New Deal in races across the country. The Democrats gained 5 net seats during the election, and in combination with Democratic and Farmer–Labor interim appointments and the defection of George W. Norris from the Republican Party to become independent, the Republicans were reduced to 16 seats, the most lopsided Senate since Reconstruction.

Gains and Losses

The Republicans took one open seat in Massachusetts, while the Democrats took open seats in Michigan and New Hampshire and defeated incumbents Daniel O. Hastings (R-DE), Lester J. Dickinson (R-IA), W. Warren Barbour (R-NJ), Jesse H. Metcalf (R-RI), and Robert D. Carey (R-WY).

  • Democrats gained one Republican open seat:
  • Farmer–Laborers held an open seat:
  • One Republican was re-elected, but changed party to become an Independent:

Milestones

This was the last of four consecutive elections where Republicans suffered losses due to the ongoing effects of the Great Depression. This was also the last Senate election in the 20th century in which a Democratic candidate who won two terms also made net gains in the Senate on both occasions (although Franklin Roosevelt won a third and fourth term, he lost Senate seats on both occasions).

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

Going into the November 1936 elections.

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D45 D46 D47
Majority → D49
D58
Ran
D57
Ran
D56
Ran
D55
Ran
D54
Ran
D53
Ran
D52
Ran
D51
Ran
D50
D59
Ran
D60
Ran
D61
Ran
D62
Ran
D63
Ran
D64
Ran
D65
Ran
D66
Ran
D67
Retired
D68
Retired
R19
Ran
R20
Ran
R21
Ran
R22
Retired
FL1 FL2
Retired
P1 V1 V2
R died
D69
Retired
R18
Ran
R17
Ran
R16
Ran
R15
Ran
R14
Ran
R13
Ran
R12
Ran
R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Result of the general elections

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D45 D46 D47
Majority → D49
D58
Re-elected
D57
Re-elected
D56
Re-elected
D55
Re-elected
D54
Re-elected
D53
Re-elected
D52
Re-elected
D51
Re-elected
D50
D59
Re-elected
D60
Re-elected
D61
Re-elected
D62
Re-elected
D63
Re-elected
D64
Re-elected
D65
Re-elected
D66
Hold
D67
Hold
D68
Hold
FL1 FL2
Hold
P1 V1 D74
Gain
D73
Gain
D72
Gain
D71
Gain
D70
Gain
D69
Gain
I1
Re-elected
new party
R17
Gain
R16
Hold
R15
Re-elected
R14
Re-elected
R13
Re-elected
R12
Re-elected
R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Result of the special elections

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 D47 D48
Majority → D49
Appointee elected
D58 D57 D56 D55 D54 D53 D52 D51
Hold
D50
Hold
D59 D60 D61 D62 D63 D64 D65 D66 D67 D68
FL1 FL2 P1 D75
Gain
D74 D73 D72 D71 D70 D69
I1 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Beginning of the next Congress

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 D47 D48
Majority → D49
D58 D57 D56 D55 D54 D53 D52 D51 D50
D59 D60 D61 D62 D63 D64 D65 D66 D67 D68
FL2 P1 D76
Appointed
D75 D74 D73 D72 D71 D70 D69
FL1 I1 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8
Key:
D# Democratic
FL# Farmer–Labor
P# Progressive
R# Republican
I# Independent
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Elections during the 74th Congress

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1936 or before January 3, 1937; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Louisiana
(Class 2)
Rose McConnell Long Democratic 1936 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected April 21, 1936.
Winner was later not elected to the next term, see below.
Rose McConnell Long (Democratic)
Unopposed[2]
Florida
(Class 1)
Scott M. Loftin Democratic 1936 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected November 3, 1936.
Democratic hold.
Charles O. Andrews (Democratic) 80.9%
Howard C. Babcock (Republican) 19.1%
Florida
(Class 3)
William Luther Hill Democratic 1936 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected November 3, 1936.
Democratic hold.
Claude Pepper (Democratic)
Unopposed
Iowa
(Class 3)
Vacant Richard L. Murphy (D) had died July 16, 1936.
New senator elected November 3, 1936.
Democratic gain.
Guy M. Gillette (Democratic) 51.9%
Berry F. Halden (Republican) 46.6%
Minnesota
(Class 2)
Elmer Austin Benson Farmer–Labor 1935 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected November 3, 1936.
Republican gain.
Winner was not a candidate for the next term, see below.
Guy V. Howard (Republican) 42.89%
Nathaniel J. Holmberg (Republican) 28.42%
Andrews O. Devold (Republican) 19.98%
John G. Alexander (Republican) 8.71%
New Mexico
(Class 1)
Dennis Chavez Democratic 1935 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected November 3, 1936. Dennis Chavez (Democratic) 55.7%
M. A. Otero, Jr. (Republican) 44.2%

Elections leading to the 75th Congress

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning January 3, 1937; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama John H. Bankhead II Democratic 1930 Incumbent re-elected. John H. Bankhead II (Democratic) 87.0%
H. E. Berkstresser (Republican) 12.2%
Arkansas Joseph Robinson Democratic 1913
1918
1924
1930
Incumbent re-elected. Joseph Robinson (Democratic) 81.8%
G. C. Ledbetter (Republican) 16.4%
Colorado Edward P. Costigan Democratic 1930 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Edwin C. Johnson (Democratic) 63.5%
Raymond L. Sauter (Republican) 35.3%
Delaware Daniel O. Hastings Republican 1928 (Appointed)
1930
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
James H. Hughes (Democratic) 53.0%
Daniel O. Hastings (Republican) 41.4%
Robert G. Houston (Independent) 5.4%
Georgia Richard Russell, Jr. Democratic 1933 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Richard Russell, Jr. (Democratic)
Unopposed
Idaho William E. Borah Republican 1907
1913
1918
1924
1930
Incumbent re-elected. William E. Borah (Republican) 63.4%
C. Ben Ross (Democratic) 36.6%
Illinois J. Hamilton Lewis Democratic 1913
1918 (Lost)
1930
Incumbent re-elected. J. Hamilton Lewis (Democratic) 56.5%
Otis F. Glenn (Republican) 40.7%
Iowa Lester J. Dickinson Republican 1930 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Clyde L. Herring (Democratic) 50.5%
Lester J. Dickinson (Republican) 47.1%
Kansas Arthur Capper Republican 1918
1924
1930
Incumbent re-elected. Arthur Capper (Republican) 51.0%
Omar B. Ketchum (Democratic) 48.4%
Kentucky Marvel M. Logan Democratic 1930 Incumbent re-elected. Marvel M. Logan (Democratic) 58.8%
Robert M. Lucas (Republican) 39.8%
Louisiana Rose McConnell Long Democratic 1936 (Appointed)
1936 (Special)
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Allen J. Ellender (Democratic)
Unopposed
Maine Wallace H. White, Jr. Republican 1930 Incumbent re-elected. Wallace H. White, Jr. (Republican) 50.8%
Louis J. Brann (Democratic) 49.3%
Massachusetts Marcus A. Coolidge Democratic 1930 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (Republican) 48.5%
James Michael Curley (Democratic) 41.0%
Thomas C. O'Brien (Independent) 7.4%
Michigan Vacant Predecessor died having already lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Winner was later appointed to finish term.
Prentiss M. Brown (Democratic) 53.3%
Wilber M. Brucker (Republican) 41.8%
Minnesota Elmer Austin Benson Farmer–Labor 1935 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected.
Farmer–Labor hold.
Winner was not a candidate to finish the current term.
Ernest Lundeen (Farmer–Labor) 62.2%
Theodore Christianson (Republican) 37.8%
Mississippi Pat Harrison Democratic 1918
1924
1930
Incumbent re-elected. Pat Harrison (Democratic)
Unopposed
Montana James E. Murray Democratic 1934 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. James E. Murray (Democratic) 55.0%
Thomas O. Larson (Republican) 27.1%
Joseph P. Monaghan (Independent) 17.9%
Nebraska George W. Norris Republican 1913
1918
1924
1930
Incumbent re-elected as an Independent.
Independent gain.
George W. Norris (Independent) 43.8%
Robert G. Simmons (Republican) 37.8%
Terry Carpenter (Democratic) 18.4%
New Hampshire Henry W. Keyes Republican 1918
1924
1930
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Styles Bridges (Republican) 51.9%
William N. Rogers (Democratic) 47.7%
New Jersey W. Warren Barbour Republican 1931 (Appointed)
1932 (Special)
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
William H. Smathers (Democratic) 54.9%
W. Warren Barbour (Republican) 44.3%
New Mexico Carl A. Hatch Democratic 1933 (Appointed)
1934 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected. Carl A. Hatch (Democratic) 61.7%
Ernest W. Everly (Republican) 38.3%
North Carolina Josiah Bailey Democratic 1930 Incumbent re-elected. Josiah Bailey (Democratic) 70.8%
Frank R. Patton (Republican) 29.2%
Oklahoma Thomas P. Gore Democratic 1907 (New state)
1909
1914
1920 (Lost)
1930
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Josh Lee (Democratic) 68.0%
Herbert K. Hyde (Republican) 31.6%
Oregon Charles L. McNary Republican 1917 (Appointed)
1918 (Not elected)
1918 (Appointed)
1918
1924
1930
Incumbent re-elected. Charles L. McNary (Republican) 51.0%
Willis Mahoney (Democratic) 48.4%
Rhode Island Jesse H. Metcalf Republican 1924 (Special)
1924
1930
Incumbent lost re-election.[3]
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Theodore F. Green (Democratic) 48.6%
Jesse H. Metcalf (Republican) 44.4%
Ludger LaPointe (Independent) 7.0%
South Carolina James F. Byrnes Democratic 1930 Incumbent re-elected. James F. Byrnes (Democratic)
Unopposed
South Dakota William J. Bulow Democratic 1930 Incumbent re-elected. William J. Bulow (Democratic) 48.8%
Chandler Gurney (Republican) 46.8%
Tennessee Nathan L. Bachman Democratic 1933 (Appointed)
1934 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected. Nathan L. Bachman (Democratic) 76.4%
Dwayne D. Maddox (Republican) 18.8%
Texas Morris Sheppard Democratic 1913 (Special)
1913
1918
1924
1930
Incumbent re-elected. Morris Sheppard (Democratic) 92.6%
Carlos G. Watson (Republican) 7.1%
Virginia Carter Glass Democratic 1920 (Appointed)
1920 (Special)
1924
1930
Incumbent re-elected. Carter Glass (Democratic) 91.7%
West Virginia Matthew M. Neely Democratic 1930 Incumbent re-elected. Matthew M. Neely (Democratic) 59.1%
Hugh I. Shott (Republican) 40.9%
Wyoming Robert D. Carey Republican 1930 (Special)
1930
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Harry H. Schwartz (Democratic) 53.8%
Robert D. Carey (Republican) 45.4%

Election during the 75th Congress

In this special election, the winner was elected in 1937 after January 3.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Arkansas
(Class 2)
Joseph Robinson Democratic 1913
1918
1924
1930
1936
Incumbent died July 14, 1937, having just been re-elected, see above.
New senator elected October 18, 1937.
Democratic hold.
John E. Miller (Democratic) 60.8%
Carl E. Bailey (Democratic) 39.3%

Massachusetts

General election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. 875,160 48.53 +3.86
Democratic James Michael Curley 739,751 41.02 -12.99
Union Party Thomas C. O'Brien 134,245 7.44 +7.44
Economy Alonzo B. Cook 11,519 0.64 +0.64
Social Justice Guy M. Gray 9,906 0.55 +0.55
Socialist Albert Sprague Coolidge 9,763 0.54 -0.06
Townsend Moses H. Gulesian 7,408 0.41 +0.41
Socialist Labor Ernest L. Dodge 7,408 0.39 +0.01
Communist Charles Flaherty 4,821 0.27 -0.06
Prohibition Wilbur D. Moon 3,677 0.20 +0.20
Write-in 16 0.00

Montana

United States Senate election in Montana, 1936[4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic James E. Murray (inc.) 121,769 54.98% -4.68%
Republican Thomas O. Larson 60,038 27.11% -12.32%
Independent Joseph P. Monaghan 39,655 17.91%
Majority 61,731 27.87% +7.65%
Turnout 221,462
Democratic hold Swing

South Carolina

South Carolina U.S. Senate Election, 1936
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic James F. Byrnes (incumbent) 113,696 98.6 -1.4
Republican Joseph Augustis Tolbert 961 0.8 N/A
Republican Marion W. Seabrook 702 0.6 N/A
No party Write-Ins 1 0.0 0.0
Majority 112,735 97.8 -2.2
Turnout 115,360
Democratic hold
  65+% won by Byrnes

Virginia

United States Senate election in Virginia, 1936[4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Carter Glass (inc.) 244,518 91.66% +14.99%
Republican George Rohken 12,573 4.71% +4.71%
Communist Donald Burke 8,907 3.34% +3.34%
Independent Democratic Elbert Lee Trinkle 469 0.18% -17.68%
Independent A. J. Dunning 125 0.05%
Write-ins 174 0.07% +0.04%
Majority 231,945 86.95% +28.14%
Turnout 266,766
Democratic hold

See also

References

  1. ^ a b There was a general election September 14, 1936 in Maine, as well as special elections in April and November 1936 and October 1937.
  2. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/ContainerHistory.html?ContainerID=132
  3. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/ContainerHistory.html?ContainerID=271
  4. ^ a b "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 3, 1936" (PDF). Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved July 2, 2014. 
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