United States Senate elections, 1910 and 1911

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United States Senate elections, 1910 and 1911
United States
← 1908 / 1909 January 18, 1910 –
March 2, 1911
1912 / 1913 →

30 of the 92 seats in the United States Senate
(as well as special elections)

47 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Picture of Shelby M. Cullom.jpg Thomas Staples Martin.jpg
Leader Shelby Moore Cullom
(Conference Chairman)
Thomas S. Martin
(Conference Chairman)
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Illinois Virginia
Seats before 59 33
Seats won 15 13
Seats after 50 40
Seat change Decrease 9 Increase 7
Seats up 24 6

Majority conference chairman before election

Eugene Hale
Republican

Elected Majority conference chairman

Shelby Moore Cullom
Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1910 and 1911, some states elected their Senators directly even before passage of the 17th Amendment in 1913. Oregon pioneered direct election and experimented with different measures over several years until it succeeded in 1907. Soon after, Nebraska followed suit and laid the foundation for other states to adopt measures reflecting the people's will. By 1912, as many as 29 states elected senators either as nominees of their party's primary or in conjunction with a general election.

Results

Senate Party Division, 62nd Congress (1911–1913):

  • Majority Party: Republican (50 seats)
  • Minority Party: Democratic (40 seats)
  • Other Parties: 0
  • Vacant: 2
  • Total Seats: 92

Four seats were added in early 1912 for new states: Arizona (which elected 2 Democrats) and New Mexico (which elected 2 Republicans).

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

At the beginning of 1910.

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7
D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26
R57
Retired
R58
Retired
R59
Retired
D33
Retired
D32
Ran
D31
Ran
D30
Ran
D29
Ran
D28
Ran
D27
R56
Retired
R55
Retired
R54
Retired
R53
Retired
R52
Ran
R51
Ran
R50
Ran
R49
Ran
R48
Ran
R47
Ran
Majority →
R37
Ran
R38
Ran
R39
Ran
R40
Ran
R41
Ran
R42
Ran
R43
Ran
R44
Ran
R45
Ran
R46
Ran
R36
Ran
R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29 R28 R27
R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26
R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6

Result of the general elections

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7
D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26
D36
Gain
D35
Gain
D34
Gain
D33
Gain
D32
Hold
D31
Hold
D30
Re-elected
D29
Re-elected
D28
Re-elected
D27
D37
Gain
D38
Gain
D39
Gain
D40
Gain
V1
D Loss
V2
R Loss
R50
Hold
R49
Hold
R48
Hold
R47
Hold
Majority → R46
Hold
R37
Re-elected
R38
Re-elected
R39
Re-elected
R40
Re-elected
R41
Re-elected
R42
Re-elected
R43
Re-elected
R44
Re-elected
R45
Re-elected
R36
Re-elected
R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29 R28 R27
R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26
R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6

Result of the special elections

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7
D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26
D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29 D28 D27
D37 D38
Elected
D39
Hold
D40
Gain
V1 V2 R50
Gain
R49 R48 R47
Majority → R46
R37 R38 R39 R40 R41 R42 R43 R44 R45
R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29 R28 R27
R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26
R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6

Beginning of the next Congress

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7
D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26
D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29 D28 D27
D37 D38 D39 D40
Appointed
V1
D Loss
V2 R50 R49 R48 R47
Majority → R46
R37 R38 R39 R40 R41 R42 R43 R44 R45
R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29 R28 R27
R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26
R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6
Key:
D# Democratic
R# Republican
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Special elections during the 61st Congress

In these elections, the winners were seated during 1910 or in 1911 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Mississippi
(Class 2)
James Gordon Democratic 1909 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected February 23, 1910.[1]
Democratic hold.
LeRoy Percy (Democratic)
Unopposed[1]
Louisiana
(Class 3)
John Thornton Democratic 1910 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected December 6, 1910.[2] John Thornton (Democratic) 106 votes
Robert F. Broussard (Democratic) 28 votes
L.E. Thomas (Democratic) 11 votes
John D. Wilkinson (Democratic) 6 votes
Jared Sanders (Democratic) 1 vote[3]
North Dakota
(Class 3)
William E. Purcell Democratic 1910 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected January 17, 1911.
Republican gain.
Winner took office February 11, 1911 upon resigning from the U.S. House.
Asle Gronna (Republican) 130 votes
William E. Purcell (Democratic) 19 votes[4]
West Virginia
(Class 2)
Davis Elkins Republican 1910 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected February 1, 1911.
Democratic gain.
Clarence Wayland Watson (Democratic) 70 votes
W.P. Hubbard (Republican) 11 votes
John W. Davis (Democratic) 7 votes
Isaac T. Mann (Republican) 9 votes
Davis Elkins (Republican) 8 votes
W.M.O. Dawson (Republican) 2 votes
Howard Sutherland (Republican) 2 votes
Joseph H. Gaines (Republican) 1 vote
A.B. White (Republican) 1 vote[5]

In this election, the winner were seated in the 63rd Congress, starting March 4, 1913.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama John H. Bankhead Democratic 1907 (Appointed)
1907 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected early January 17, 1911, for the term beginning March 4, 1913. John H. Bankhead (Democratic) Unopposed[6]

Races leading to the 62nd Congress

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1911; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
California Frank P. Flint Republican 1905 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 10, 1911.[7]
Republican hold.
John D. Works (Republican) 92 votes
Albert Spalding (Republican) 21 votes[7]
John E. Raker (Democratic) 3 votes
William Kent (Democratic) 1 vote
Edwin A. Meserve (Republican) 1 vote[6]
Connecticut Morgan Bulkeley Republican 1905 Incumbent lost renomination and re-election.
New senator elected January 17, 1911.[7]
Republican hold.
George P. McLean (Republican) 177 votes
Homer Stille Cummings (Democratic) 110 votes
Morgan Bulkeley (Republican) 1 vote[7][6]
Delaware Henry A. du Pont Republican 1906 Incumbent re-elected January 25, 1911.[8] Henry A. du Pont (Republican) 31 votes
Willard Saulsbury, Jr. (Democratic) 21 votes[6]
Florida James Taliaferro Democratic 1899 (Special)
1905 (Appointed)
1905 (Special)
Incumbent lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic loss.
New senator was appointed to begin the term.
Nathan P. Bryan (Democratic)[9]
Indiana Albert J. Beveridge Republican 1899
1905
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 17, 1911.[7]
Democratic gain.
John W. Kern (Democratic) 90 votes
Albert J. Beveridge (Republican) 60 votes[10]
Maine Eugene Hale Republican 1881
1887
1893
1899
1905
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 17, 1911.[7]
Democratic gain.
Charles Fletcher Johnson (Democratic) 107 votes
Frederick A. Powers (Republican) 67 votes[10]
Maryland Isidor Rayner Democratic 1904 Incumbent re-elected January 18, 1910.[7] Isidor Rayner (Democratic) 19 votes
William P. Jackson (Republican)[3][11]
Massachusetts Henry Cabot Lodge Republican 1893
1899
1905
Incumbent re-elected January 18, 1911.[7][12] Henry Cabot Lodge (Republican) 146
Sherman L. Whipple (Democratic) 121 votes
Butler Ames (Republican) 7 votes
A. Lawrence Lowell (Republican) 2
Scattering 3 votes[7]
Michigan Julius C. Burrows Republican 1895 (Special)
1899
1905
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected January 17, 1911.[7]
Republican hold.
Charles E. Townsend (Republican) 112 votes
John Winship (Democratic) 14 votes[10]
Minnesota Moses E. Clapp Republican 1901 (Special)
1905
Incumbent re-elected January 17, 1911.[7] Moses E. Clapp (Republican) 161 votes
R.T. O'Connor (Democratic) 13 votes
W.S. Hammond (Democratic) 3 votes
Thomas Van Lear (Socialist) 1 vote[13]
Mississippi Hernando Money Democratic 1897 (Appointed)
1899
1904
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected early January 21, 1908.[14]
Democratic hold.
John Sharp Williams (Democratic)
Unopposed[14]
Missouri William Warner Republican 1905 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 17, 1911.[7]
Democratic gain.
James A. Reed (Democratic) 104 votes
John C. McKinley (Republican) 70 votes[4]
Montana Thomas H. Carter Republican 1895
(1901 lost re-election)
1905
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected March 2, 1911.
Democratic gain.
Henry L. Myers (Democratic) 53 votes
Thomas H. Carter (Republican) 45 votes
Other 3[4]
Nebraska Elmer Burkett Republican 1905 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 17, 1911, ratifying the popular selection made in 1910 state elections.[7][4]
Democratic gain.
Gilbert Hitchcock (Democratic) 117 votes
Elmer Burkett (Republican) 10 votes
Daniel W. Cook (Republican) 1 vote[4]
Absent and not voting, 5[15]
Nevada George S. Nixon Republican 1905 Incumbent re-elected January 24, 1911, ratifying the popular selection made in 1910 state elections.[7] George S. Nixon (Republican)
Unopposed[4]
In state election:
George S. Nixon (Republican) 48.03%
Key Pittman (Democratic) 42.35%
Jud Harris (Socialist) 9.62%[16]
New Jersey John Kean Republican 1899
1905
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 25, 1911.[7]
Democratic gain.
James Edgar Martine (Democratic) 47 votes
E.C. Stokes (Republican) 21 votes
John W. Griggs (Republican) 5 votes
James Smith Jr. (Republican) 3 votes
John Kean (Republican) 1 vote
J. Franklin Fort (Republican) 1 vote
Mahlon Pitney (Republican) 1 vote[4]
New York Chauncey Depew Republican 1899
1905
Incumbent ran for re-election, but legislature failed to elect.
Republican loss.
A new senator was elected late, see below.
Chauncey Depew (Republican)
William F. Sheehan (Democratic, Tammany faction)
Others, see below
North Dakota Porter J. McCumber Republican 1899
1905
Incumbent re-elected January 17, 1911.[7] Porter J. McCumber (Republican) 129 votes
John Bruegger (Democratic) 20 votes[4]
Ohio Charles W. F. Dick Republican 1904 (Special)
1904
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 10, 1911.
Democratic gain.
Atlee Pomerene (Democratic) 83 votes
Harry M. Daugherty (Republican) 17 votes
Charles W. F. Dick (Republican) 9 votes
Charles P. Taft (Republican) 7 votes
Frank Zumstein (Republican) 3 votes
Joseph G. Butler, Jr. (Republican) 2 votes
Joseph B. Foraker (Republican) 2 votes
Warren G. Harding (Republican) 2 votes
James R. Garfield (Republican) 2 votes
Renick W. Dunlap (Republican) 1 vote
Charles H. Grosvenor (Republican) 1 vote
R.R. Kinkade (Republican) 1 vote
Charles W. Stewart (Republican) 1 vote
Brand Whitlock (Independent) 1 vote[7][4]
Pennsylvania George T. Oliver Republican 1909 (Special) Incumbent re-elected January 11, 1911.[7] George T. Oliver (Republican) 181 votes
J. Henry Cochran (Democratic) 35 votes
Julian Kennedy (Democratic) 25 votes
James B. Riley (Democratic) 3 votes
William Flinn (Republican) 2 votes
Three others, 1 vote each, see below[17]
Rhode Island Nelson W. Aldrich Republican 1881 (Special)
1886
1892
1898
1905
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 18, 1911.
Republican hold.
Henry F. Lippitt (Republican) 72 votes
Arthur L. Brown (Democratic) 44 votes
LeBaron B. Colt (Republican) 23 votes[5]
Tennessee James B. Frazier Democratic 1905 (special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 23, 1911.
Democratic hold.
Luke Lea (Independent Democratic) 68 votes
Benton McMillin (Democratic) 48 votes
L.D. Tyson (Democratic) 11 votes
Gilbert D. Raine (Democratic) 2 votes
J.R. Woolridge (Republican) 2 votes[5]
Texas Charles Allen Culberson Democratic 1899
1905
Incumbent re-elected January 24, 1911. Charles Allen Culberson (Democratic)
Unopposed[5]
Utah George Sutherland Republican 1905 Incumbent re-elected January 17, 1911. George Sutherland (Republican) 54 votes
O.W. Powers (Democratic) 9 votes[5]
Vermont Carroll S. Page Republican 1908 (Special) Incumbent re-elected October 18, 1910. Carroll S. Page (Republican) 221 votes
Charles A. Prouty (Republican) 1 vote
David J. Foster (Republican) 1 vote[18]
Virginia John W. Daniel Democratic 1887
1893
1899
1904
Incumbent re-elected January 25, 1910.
Incumbent died June 29, 1910.
A new senator was appointed to finish the term, and reappointed to begin the new term.
The new senator was subsequently elected to finish the new term.[19]
John W. Daniel (Democratic) 99 votes
C. Bascom Slemp (Republican) 16 votes[18]
Washington Samuel H. Piles Republican 1905 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 17, 1911.[7][5]
Republican hold.
Miles Poindexter (Republican) 166 votes
George F. Cotterill (Democratic) 12 votes[5]
West Virginia Nathan B. Scott Republican 1899
1905
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected February 1, 1911.[7][5]
Democratic gain.
William E. Chilton (Democratic)72 votes
Nathan B. Scott (Republican) 28 votes
C.C. Beury (Republican) 5 votes
John W. Davis (Democratic) 3 votes
Lewis Bennett (Democratic) 3 votes
Nathan Goff (Republican) 1 vote
Joseph H. Gaines (Republican) 1 vote[5][20]
Wisconsin Robert M. La Follette Sr. Republican 1905 Incumbent re-elected January 24, 1911.[7][5] Robert M. La Follette Sr. (Republican) 83 votes
Charles H. Weisse (Democratic) 31 votes
Henry Kleist (Socialist Democratic) 14 votes[5]
Wyoming Clarence D. Clark Republican 1905 Incumbent re-elected January 24, 1911.[7][5] Clarence D. Clark (Republican) 46 votes
J.B. Kendrick (Democratic) 34 votes[5]

Elections during the 62nd Congress

In these elections, the winners were elected in 1911 after March 4; ordered by date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
New York
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect, see above.
New senator elected March 31, 1911.
Democratic gain.
James A. O'Gorman (Democratic) 112 votes
Chauncey M. Depew (Republican) 80 votes[4]
Iowa
(Class 2)
Lafayette Young Republican 1911 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election to finish the term.
New senator elected April 12, 1911.
Republican hold.
William S. Kenyon (Republican) 85 votes
Claude R. Porter (Democratic) 51 votes
Horace E. Deemer (Republican) 19 votes
Florida
(Class 1)
Nathan P. Bryan Democratic 1911 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected April 18, 1911. Nathan P. Bryan (Democratic)
Unopposed[10]
Georgia
(Class 3)
Joseph M. Terrell Democratic 1910 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected July 12, 1911.
Democratic hold.
M. Hoke Smith (Democratic) 155 votes
Joseph M. Terrell (Democratic) 51 votes
W.A. Covington (Democratic) 6 votes
Thomas E. Watson 7 votes
John M. Holder (Democratic) 1 vote[10]

California

Republican incumbent Frank P. Flint, who had been elected in 1905, retired. Republican John D. Works received a plurality of votes cast at a Republican state primary. Republican Albert Spalding, however, carried a majority of the legislative districts represented by Republicans.[6] In the legislature, Works was elected January 10, 1911 with 92 votes over Spalding's 21 votes, and a scattering of votes for various Democrats.[7][6]

Connecticut

Republican incumbent Morgan Bulkeley, who had been elected in 1905, lost renomination in a Republican legislative caucus 113–64 to George P. McLean. McLean was then elected January 17, 1911, with 177 votes to Democrat Homer Stille Cummings's 110 votes.[7][6]

Florida (special)

In June 1910, incumbent James Taliaferro lost a non-binding primary to former Governor Napoleon B. Broward for the term which started on March 4, 1911.[21] Broward died in October.[22] In early February 1911, Nathan P. Bryan won a non-binding primary for the seat, defeating William A. Blount 19,991 to 19,381.[23] The governor then appointed Bryan to fill the vacancy.[24] In April 1911, the Florida Legislature unanimously elected Bryan to the remainder of the term.[25]

New York

Republican incumbent Chauncey M. Depew had been re-elected to this seat in 1905, and his term would expire on March 3, 1911. At the State election in November 1910, John Alden Dix was elected Governor, the first Democrat to hold the position since 1894. Democrats also unexpectedly carried the state legislative elections, and controlled both the Senate and the Assembly. The 134th New York State Legislature met from January 4 to October 6, 1911, in Albany, New York. Democratic Ex-Lieutenant Governor William F. Sheehan announced his candidacy on December 30, 1910. Before the State election, when a Democratic victory seemed to be improbable, Sheehan had made an agreement with Tammany Hall leader Charles Francis Murphy that the Tammany men would support Sheehan for the U.S. Senate. The Democratic caucus met on January 16 and nominated Sheehan over Edward M. Shepard and D. Cady Herrick. The Republican caucus met on January 16 and re-nominated Chauncey M. Depew unanimously.

From January 17 through March 3, the legislature was deadlocked through 39 ballots, with anti-Tammany Democrats refusing to support Sheehan. On March 3, 1911 Depew's term ended. The deadlock continued over another 19 ballots despite the vacant seat. Democrats then held a new caucus and nominated James A. O'Gorman, a justice of the New York Supreme Court. O'Gorman was elected over Depew on March 31, 1911.

Candidate Party 64th joint ballot
Mar 31
Chauncey M. Depew Republican 80
James A. O'Gorman Democratic √ 112

Pennsylvania

The Pennsylvania election was held January 17, 1911. Incumbent George T. Oliver was re-elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly to the United States Senate.[26] The Pennsylvania General Assembly, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate, convened on January 17, 1911 and the results of the vote of both houses combined are as follows:[26]

State Legislature Results
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican George T. Oliver (Incumbent) 181 70.43
Democratic J. Henry Cochran 35 13.62
Democratic Julian Kennedy 25 9.73
Democratic James B. Riley 3 1.17
Republican William Flinn 2 0.78
Democratic William H. Berry 1 0.39
Democratic George W. Guthrie 1 0.39
Socialist Joseph E. Cohen 1 0.39
N/A Not voting 8 3.11
Totals 257 100.00%

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b "VARDAMAN'S DEFEAT RELIEF TO SENATORS". The New York Times. February 24, 1910. p. 4. 
  2. ^ "THORNTON CHOSEN SENATOR". The New York Times. December 7, 1910. p. 1. 
  3. ^ a b United States Senators Chosen, 1910, p. 439.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j United States Senators Chosen, 1911, p. 457.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m United States Senators Chosen, 1911, p. 458.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g United States Senators Chosen, 1911, p. 455.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "The World Almanac and Encyclopedia 1912". New York: The Press Publishing Co. (The New York World). 1911. p. 200. 
  8. ^ http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=D000559
  9. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=36527
  10. ^ a b c d e United States Senators Chosen, 1911, p. 456.
  11. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=111381
  12. ^ Garraty, John A. (1953). Henry Cabot Lodge: A Biography. pp. 280–283. 
  13. ^ United States Senators Chosen, 1911, pp. 456–457.
  14. ^ a b "United States Senators Chosen — 1908". The Tribune Almanac and Political Register 1909. New York: The Tribune Association. 1909. p. 315 – via Hathi Trust Digital Library. 
  15. ^ "Pledges Devotion to Public Service: Senator Hitchcock Accepts New Honors in Speech to Legislature in Joint Convention". Lincoln, Nebraska: Lincoln Daily News. January 18, 1911. p. 1. (Subscription required (help)). 
  16. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=36482
  17. ^ United States Senators Chosen, 1911, pp. 457–458.
  18. ^ a b United States Senators Chosen, 1910, p. 440.
  19. ^ Byrd, p. 178.
  20. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=390165
  21. ^ "Taliaferro is Beaten: Napoleon Bonaparte Broward Wins Senatorship in Florida". The Watchman and Southron. Sumter, SC. June 15, 1910. p. 6. (Subscription required (help)). 
  22. ^ "Ex-Gov. Broward Dead: One of America's Most Forceful and Picturesque Figures Passes; On Eve of being U.S. Senator". Baltimore Sun. Baltimore, MD. October 2, 1910. p. 2. (Subscription required (help)). 
  23. ^ "New Senator From Florida". San Juan Islander. Friday Harbor, WA. February 17, 1911. p. 2. (Subscription required (help)). 
  24. ^ "New U.S. Senator". Nashville Tennesseean. Nashville, TN. February 16, 1911. p. 6. (Subscription required (help)). 
  25. ^ "The Hon. Nathan P. Bryan was formally elected Florida's United States Senator by both branches of the Florida legislature Tuesday afternoon. No other name was presented, and the vote for Mr. Bryan was unanimous -- thanks to the primary". St. Lucie County Tribune. Fort Pierce, FL. April 21, 1911. p. 4. (Subscription required (help)). 
  26. ^ a b Cox, Harold (January 31, 2007). "Pennsylvania Election Statistics: 1682-2006". The Wilkes University Election Statistics Project. Wilkes University. 

References

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